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Edgar F. Codd

Edgar Frank "Ted" Codd was an English computer scientist who, while working for IBM, invented the relational model for database management, the theoretical basis for relational databases and relational database management systems. He made other valuable contributions to computer science, but the relational model, a influential general theory of data management, remains his most mentioned and celebrated achievement. Edgar Frank Codd was born on the Isle of Portland in Dorset, England. After attending Poole Grammar School, he studied mathematics and chemistry at Exeter College, before serving as a pilot in the RAF Coastal Command during the Second World War, flying Sunderlands. In 1948, he moved to New York to work for IBM as a mathematical programmer. In 1953, angered by Senator Joseph McCarthy, Codd moved to Ottawa, Canada. In 1957 he returned to the US working for IBM and from 1961–1965 pursuing his doctorate in computer science at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. Two years he moved to San Jose, California, to work at IBM's San Jose Research Laboratory, where he continued to work until the 1980s.

He was appointed IBM Fellow in 1976. During the 1990s, his health deteriorated and he ceased work. Codd received the Turing Award in 1981, in 1994 he was inducted as a Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery. Codd died of heart failure at his home in Williams Island, Florida, at the age of 79 on 18 April 2003. Codd received a PhD in 1965 from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor advised by John Henry Holland, his thesis was about self-replication in cellular automata, extending on work of von Neumann and showing that a set of eight states was sufficient for universal computation and construction. His design for a self-replicating computer was only implemented in 2010. In the 1960s and 1970s he worked out his theories of data arrangement, issuing his paper "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks" in 1970, after an internal IBM paper one year earlier. To his disappointment, IBM proved slow to exploit his suggestions until commercial rivals started implementing them. IBM refused to implement the relational model to preserve revenue from IMS/DB.

Codd showed IBM customers the potential of the implementation of its model, they in turn pressured IBM. IBM included in its Future Systems project a System R subproject – but put in charge of it developers who were not familiar with Codd's ideas, isolated the team from Codd; as a result, they did not use Codd's own Alpha language but created a non-relational one, SEQUEL. So, SEQUEL was so superior to pre-relational systems that it was copied, in 1979, based on pre-launch papers presented at conferences, by Larry Ellison, of Relational Software Inc, in his Oracle Database, which reached market before SQL/DS – because of the then-already proprietary status of the original name, SEQUEL had been renamed SQL. Codd continued to develop and extend his relational model, sometimes in collaboration with Christopher J. Date. One of the normalised forms, the Boyce–Codd normal form, is named after him. Codd's theorem, a result proven in his seminal work on the relational model, equates the expressive power of relational algebra and relational calculus.

As the relational model started to become fashionable in the early 1980s, Codd fought a sometimes bitter campaign to prevent the term being misused by database vendors who had added a relational veneer to older technology. As part of this campaign, he published his 12 rules to define what constituted a relational database; this made his position in IBM difficult, so he left to form his own consulting company with Chris Date and others. Codd coined the term Online analytical processing and wrote the "twelve laws of online analytical processing". Controversy erupted, after it was discovered that this paper had been sponsored by Arbor Software, a conflict of interest that had not been disclosed, Computerworld withdrew the paper. In 2004, SIGMOD renamed its highest prize to the SIGMOD Edgar F. Codd Innovations Award, in his honour. Codd, E. F.. Cellular Automata. Academic Press, Inc. LCCN 68-23486. Codd, E. F.. "Relational Completeness of Data Base Sublanguages". Database Systems: 65–98. CiteSeerX

Codd, E. F.. "1981 Turing Award Lecture – Relational Database: A Practical Foundation for Productivity". Codd, E. F.. The Relational Model for Database Management. Addison Wesley Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-201-14192-4. Codd, E. F.. T.. "Providing OLAP to User-Analysts: An IT Mandate". Hugh Darwen Database normalization List of pioneers in computer science Relational Model/Tasmania Date, C. J.. The Database Relational Model: A Retrospective Review and Analysis: A Historical Account and Assessment of E. F. Codd's Contribution to the Field of Database Technology. Addison Wesley Longman. ISBN 978-0-201-61294-3. National Academy of Sciences. "Chapter 6: The Rise of Relational Databases". Funding a Revolution: Government Support for Computing Research. Washington DC, USA: National Academy Press. Quotations related to E. F. Codd at Wikiquote

Hannah Tracy Cutler

Hannah Maria Conant Tracy Cutler was an American abolitionist as well as a leader of the temperance and women's suffrage movements in the United States. Cutler served as president of the Ohio Woman Suffrage Association and the American Woman Suffrage Association. Cutler helped to shape the merger of two feminist factions into the combined National American Woman Suffrage Association. Cutler wrote for journals, she lectured on physiology and attained a medical degree at the age of 53. Cutler presented petitions to state and federal legislatures, helped to form temperance, abolition and women's aid societies in Ohio, Iowa and Vermont. Hannah Maria Conant was born in Becket, Massachusetts, on Christmas, 1815. Hannah Maria Conant began at age 14 to study rhetoric and philosophy on her own, she studied Latin with the family doctor. In 1831, the Conant family moved to Ohio. In 1833, nearby Oberlin College began accepting women students, Conant asked her father for tuition, he refused. In response, she married John Martin Tracy, an Oberlin theology student, in 1834.

The new Mrs. Hannah Conant Tracy studied her husband's textbooks and the newlyweds discussed what he had learned in class. John Tracy turned to study law, his wife continued to study his legal homework with him, discovering in the process the common law limitations placed on women married women. John Tracy became an anti-slavery lecturer and activist; the couple had two daughters, Melanie in 1836 and Mary in 1841, a son was on the way when in August 1844, John Tracy died of pneumonia taken as a result of exposure and abuse suffered when he was pursued by a mob while helping escaped slaves. The young widow Hannah Conant Tracy moved with her children to Rochester, Ohio where her father still lived, bore her third child: John Martin Tracy, named after his martyred father. To support her family, Tracy wrote for Ohio newspapers including for Cassius Marcellus Clay's True American and for Josiah A. Harris at the Cleveland Herald. Through her writing she gained a respectable status as a minor literary figure in the West as well as a reputation for her views on woman's rights.

Tracy taught school, helped to form a temperance society and a Women's Anti-Slavery Society, which attracted only three members at first. In the fall of 1846, Tracy received a letter from Lucy Stone at Oberlin College, with whom she had developed a warm friendship. Stone had decided to become a women's rights reformer after graduating the following summer, Tracy was one of several known advocates of women's rights from whom Stone sought advice on how to begin. Tracy cautioned that to make woman "both physically and intellectually man's equal" would require a societal revolution that would take at least a generation to accomplish, but saying that much could be done by one woman alone "if she possesses courage enough to act up to her convictions," Tracy advised "a quiet but thorough agitation" among the women at hand. And she asked, "Please write me again and let me know your plan, what I can do."In early 1847, Hannah Tracy went to Oberlin, opened a boarding house, enrolled in the ladies' course.

She was one of a handful of women who, with Stone, formed an off-campus women's debating club to gain practical rhetorical exercise denied them in their classes. In June, Tracy spearheaded a brief effort to establish a women's newspaper at the college; the Young Ladies Association voted themselves into an Association of the Oberlin Ladies Banner, the name chosen for their paper, appointed Tracy editor. But the project failed to win the approval of college officials needed to go forward. After a year of study, Tracy accepted the position of matron of the Deaf and Dumb Asylum at Columbus, Ohio. In Columbus, Tracy met another abolitionist and feminist. Tracy helped in the effort to elect abolitionist Salmon P. Chase to the United States Senate; because the Deaf and Dumb Asylum allowed only one of her children to remain in residence with her, in 1849 Tracy accepted a position as principal of the "female department" at Columbus' new public high school. Tracy attended a Presbyterian church in Columbus.

To augment her income as principal, Tracy continued to write for newspapers the Ohio Cultivator, a farmer's newspaper for which she contributed two long-running columns, popular with the readership. One column was "Letters to Housekeepers" directed at farmer's wives, the other was an advice column for farm girls, where Tracy answered letters under the pen name "Aunt Patience". Tracy and Gage led the drive to organize a women's rights convention in Akron, in May 1851. Gage was elected president and Cutler secretary of the women's convention, where they met Sojourner Truth and witnessed her famous speech: Ain't I a Woman?. Following the Akron conference, Tracy attended a Peace conference in Columbus, was chosen as delegate to the upcoming Peace Congress to be held in London in August; the owner of the Ohio Statesman, Colonel Samuel Medary, asked Tracy to become his special correspondent at The Great Exhibition in London. After the Akron convention, the newspaper paid for Tracy's trip to London so that she could report on the World's Fair.

Tracy carried credentials as the United States delegate to the Peace Congress, but arrived one day late, was able to hear only the closing speeches. While in London, Tracy gave a series of women's rights

Nicholas Fraser

Nicholas Campbell Fraser, known as Nicholas C. Fraser, is a British palaeontologist and museum curator, he specialises in the Triassic vertebrate palaeontology. Since 2007, he has been Keeper of Natural Sciences at the National Museums Scotland, he has been Adjunct Professor of Geology at Virginia Tech since 1993 and at North Carolina State University since 2007. Fraser was born on 14 January 1956 in Nottingham, England, to Hugh and Patricia Fraser, he studied zoology at the University of Aberdeen, graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in 1978. He remained at Aberdeen to undertake postgraduate research in geology, completed his Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1984. Fraser began his career as an academic, was a research fellow of Girton College, Cambridge between 1985 and 1990, he maintains his link to academia through a number of visiting positions: since 1993, he has been Adjunct Professor of Geology at Virginia Tech. In 1990, Fraser moved to the United States, he worked there for the next 18 years.

He was Curator of Vertebrate Palaeontology from 1990 to 2007, Director of Research and Collections from 2004 to 2007. He remains affiliated with VMNH as a research associate. In 2007, he returned to the United Kingdom; that year, he joined the National Museums Scotland as Keeper of Natural Sciences, Head of its Department of Natural Sciences. In addition, he is involved in the TW:eed Project, in investigating the Jurassic vertebrates of the Isle of Skye. Throughout his career, Fraser has been involved in a number of excavations worldwide including sites in China and North America, he has completed 10 seasons of excavation at the Morrison Formation in Wyoming, USA. He helped a tanystropheid protorosaur from the Middle Triassic in Germany. In 1982, Fraser married Christine Mary. Together, they have two daughters. In 1985, Fraser was awarded an honorary Master of Arts degree by the University of Cambridge. Fraser, Nicholas C.. In the shadow of the dinosaurs: early Mesozoic tetrapods. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

ISBN 978-0521452427. Fraser, Nicholas. Dawn of the dinosaurs: life in the Triassic. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0253346520. Sues, Hans-Dieter. Triassic life on land: the great transition. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0231135221. Stephen L. Brusatte. Young. Fraser. "Ichthyosaurs from the Jurassic of Skye, Scotland". Scottish Journal of Geology. 51: 43–55. Doi:10.1144/sjg2014-018

Ganga Ki Kasam (1999 film)

Ganga Ki Kasam is a 1999 Hindi-language Indian feature film directed by T L V Prasad, starring Mithun Chakraborty, Jackie Shroff, Dipti Bhatnagar, Mink Singh, Johnny Lever, Shakti Kapoor, Dalip Tahil, Mukesh Rishi and Raza Murad. An authoritative robber in the criminal world, comes to a village where bandits led by Jay Singh are creating a real mess. Without hesitation, Shankar enters the fight on the side of the villagers and swears by the waters of the sacred river that lawlessness will no longer happen. Mithun Chakraborty as Shankar Jackie Shroff as Jay Singh Dipti Bhatnagar as Geeta Mink Singh as Rani Dalip Tahil as Sahadev Sharma Johnny Lever as Qawali Singer Mukesh Rishi as Joga Raza Murad as Police commissioner Shakti Kapoor as Mastan baba Rami Reddy as Police inspector Jack Gaud as Bhim singh Shahbaz Khan as gang Kasam Ali as gang Shiva as Champa Ali Khan Kasim Khan Anjana Mumtaz as Lakshmi Razzak Khan as Niamanzur Anirudh Tiwari "Bawala Mai Hua Bawla" - Jaspinder Narula, Sukhwinder Singh, Ram Shankar "Banna Re Bagho Me Jhula Ghalo" - Sukhwinder Singh, Jaspinder Narula "Jab Moore Saiya" - Poornima "Hame Pata Hai" - Altaf Raja, Sadhana Sargam "Hai Rabba Hai Rabba" - Sadhana Sargam "More Kurta Me Khatmal" - Poornima, Amit Kumar The film had a Moderate Outing at the Box-Office considering the safe record of Mithun-T L V Prasad.

The addition of Jackie Shroff added the market Value. Ganga Ki Kasam on IMDb

Sat in Your Lap

"Sat in Your Lap" is a song by the English musician Kate Bush. It was the first single to be released from her fourth album The Dreaming, though it was issued 15 months prior to the album, nowhere near completion at that time; the single peaked at no. 11 in the UK Singles Chart. Musically, the single was more percussive than Bush's previous releases, it features Preston Heyman on drums recorded in the stone room at The Townhouse Studio 2, Paddy Bush and Preston on whip-like percussion. Critic Simon Reynolds called it "an avant-pop stampede of pounding percussion and deranged shrieks, a sister-song to Public Image Ltd's "Flowers of Romance." The lyrics of the song deal with the quest for knowledge. In his biography on Kate Bush, Graeme Thomson states that the title of the song suggests the possibility of experiencing enlightenment through sex. Kate Bush stated in an early interview that the single version was remixed for inclusion on The Dreaming; the vocals were raised higher and the backing track altered to fit in better with the overall feel of the album.

The demo version of "Sat in Your Lap" contains an extra verse at the start, cut out of the song. As with subsequent singles from the album, a 12" single was planned but was withdrawn; the B-side to the single was a cover version of "Lord of the Reedy River" by Donovan. Kate Bush – lead and backing vocals, Fairlight CMI Paddy Bush – bamboo sticks, backing vocals Preston Heyman – drums, bamboo sticks Jimmy Bainbass guitar Geoff Downes – CMI trumpet section Stewart Arnold – backing vocals Ian Bairnson – backing vocals Gary Hurst – backing vocals Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Elbert Pee Wee Claybrook

Elbert "Pee Wee" Claybrook was a prominent tenor saxophonist from St. Louis, Missouri, he lived a life of over 50 years playing jazz swing music. He began his musical career in the late 1930s playing with the Fate Marable Mississippi riverboat band. In the 1930s, he was playing with many famous jazz artists such as Jimmy Blanton, Jimmy Forrest, Sid Catlett, Art Blakey, Sweets Edison and Clark Terry. In 1942, Pee Wee and his buddy Clark Terry were inducted into the U. S. Navy, sent to the Great Lakes Naval Training Station band near Chicago, Illinois. In 1944, he was reassigned to the Navy's Pre-Flight School located at St. Mary's College in Moraga, California. Claybrook hailed from St. Louis Missouri helping to kindle the big band music scene along with Clark Terry, bands like George Hudson's Orchestra, Eddie Randall's Blue Devils, Dewey Jackson, Jeter-Pillars Orchestra, St. Louis Crackerjacks. In 1944 Pee Wee Claybrook was transferred out West to California; the big band era was waning after World War II.

After being in the Navy Pee Wee stayed in California, played with Earl Hines known as in San Francisco. Pee Wee continued his musical relationship with Vernon Alley, a member of the U. S. Navy 45-piece regimental band at the Navy's Pre-Flight School located at St. Mary's College, in Moraga, California, he was a family man and'he kept his day job'. He bought a home in the new community, Parchester Village, California, developed after WWII. In 1995, Peewee reunited with his longtime navy and musical friend Clark Terry for a historic reunion concert at Berkeley's The Freight and Salvage Club; the reunion was recorded and Pee Wee was in excellent form on his tenor saxophone at the age of 84. The session was released 1995 as the album Reunion: Pee Wee Claybrook. Claybrook was an immense contributor to the Bay Area Jazz scene for over 50 years, he played with the Swing Fever Band performing at many of the Northern California jazz clubs, concert tours, Monterey Jazz Festival, Cotati Jazz Festival, the Los Angeles Classic Jazz Festival.

Because of his immense influence in the music scene in Jazz music in Northern California, the Napa Valley Jazz Festival established the "Peewee Claybrook Award". Thanks to Peewee's collaborations with Clark Terry his sounds are heard and known to international jazz audiences. Reunion: Clark Terry and Pee Wee Claybrook, released November 21, 1995 Grand Masters of Jazz, released October 15, 2013 on the Openart label, with the Swing Fever Big Band