A warehouse is a commercial building for storage of goods. Warehouses are used by manufacturers, exporters, transport businesses and they are usually large plain buildings in industrial areas of cities and villages. They usually have loading docks to load and unload goods from trucks, sometimes warehouses are designed for the loading and unloading of goods directly from railways, airports, or seaports. They often have cranes and forklifts for moving goods, which are placed on ISO standard pallets loaded into pallet racks. Stored goods can include any raw materials, packing materials, spare parts, components, or finished goods associated with agriculture, manufacturing, in Indian English a warehouse may be referred to as a godown. The origins of the warehouse are difficult to pinpoint, early civilizations relied on storage pits rather than large structures to protect seeds and surplus food. Sociologists like Alain Testart have argued that these early techniques were essential to the evolution of societies.
Some of the earliest examples of warehouses that resemble the buildings of today are Roman horrea and these were rectangular buildings, built of stone, with a raised ground floor and overhanging roof to keep the walls cool and dry. Roman horrea were typically used to store grain, but other such as olive oil, clothing. Though horrea were built throughout the Roman empire, some of the most studied examples are found in or around Rome, particularly at Ostia, a harbor city that served ancient Rome. The Horrea Galbae, a complex in the southern part of ancient Rome, demonstrates that these buildings could be substantial. The horrea complex contained 140 rooms on the floor alone. As a point of reference, less than half of U. S. warehouses today are larger than 100,000 square feet, dedicated warehouses could be found around ports and other commercial hubs to facilitate overseas trade. Examples of these include the Venetian fondaci, which combined a palace, market. During the industrial revolution the function of warehouses evolved and became more specialised, some warehouses from the period are even considered architecturally significant, such as Manchesters cotton warehouses.
Always a building of function, in the past few decades they have adapted to mechanisation, technological innovation, warehouses were a dominant part of the urban landscape from the start of the Industrial Revolution through the 19th century and into the twentieth century. The buildings remained when their original usage had changed, there are four identifiable types of warehouses. The cotton industry rose with the development of the warehouse, Warehouses of that period in Manchester were often lavishly decorated, but modern warehouses are more functional
West Midlands Fire Service
The service was created in 1974 when the West Midlands county came into being. Prior to its creation, each of the county boroughs in the West Midlands area had their own fire brigade, the largest of these brigades was the City of Birmingham Fire Brigade. WMFS was created by a merger of these, plus parts of Warwickshire Fire Brigade, the service was originally headquartered in the former City of Birmingham Fire Brigade headquarters at Lancaster Circus which were opened on 2 December 1935 by HRH Duke of Kent. It is now a Listed building, the service moved to purpose built, modern headquarters on Vauxhall Road, Nechells, in 2008. Firefighters are part of a Watch system that consists of core crews, staff that are part of the core crews will be on duty for two days from 8am until 6pm, two nights from 6pm until 8am. Late crews are on duty from 10am until 10pm for four days in a row. Firefighters that are part of the crews will belong to either a Red, White or Blue Watch. As with many other services, West Midlands Fire Service uses a rank structure that has evolved over time – the original titles are still used some brigades.
A further four watches are based at Wednesbury, with shifts running along the same colour watches as the core fire crews, watch based personnel work a 96-hour duty period with 48 hours on full duty and the remainder on retained cover. Retained personnel can respond to base within 30 minutes of being required for multiple incident deployment, the unit makes use of a wide range of vehicles and equipment to carry out their role. Technical Response Pump - based on a modified Volvo FL Pump Rescue Relay and this will respond to life-threatening incidents in the local station ground alongside the regular TRU callouts. 5 Urban Search and Rescue Modules - see http, //www. romar. org. uk/page132. html for more information, there are 18 team members in West Midland Fire Services UK-ISAR, split into a Red Team and a Blue Team. The role of the team is to respond to support the UK Government when deploying personnel, the team should arrive in the affected country within 24 hours of the disaster occurring and be self-sufficient for periods of up to 10 days.
Extensive specialist training over and above that required for firefighters is given to all team members. 12 members of the West Midlands team were deployed as part of the UKISAR mission to Haiti in the wake of the earthquake there on 12 January 2010. The team were joined by 2 further members who had been in Sweden as part of an exercise at the time of the earthquake. The team were involved in the rescue of people, including two-year-old Mia. The West Midlands Fire Research and Investigation Section was the first one formed in the United Kingdom in 1983, FRIS works closely with the Police, other Services and organisations such as insurance companies, when investigating fires
Districts of England
The districts of England are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government. As the structure of government in England is not uniform. Some districts are styled as boroughs, cities, or royal boroughs, these are purely honorific titles, prior to the establishment of districts in the 1890s, the basic unit of local government in England was the parish overseen by the parish church vestry committee. Vestries dealt with the administraction of both parochial and secular governmental matters, parishes were the successors of the manorial system and historically had been grouped into hundreds. Hundreds once exercised some supervising administrative function, these powers ebbed away as more and more civic and judicial powers were centred on county towns. From 1834 these parishes were grouped into Poor Law Unions, creating areas for administration of the Poor Law and these areas were used for census registration and as the basis for sanitary provision. In 1894, based on these earlier subdivisions, the Local Government Act 1894 created urban districts and rural districts as sub-divisions of administrative counties, another reform in 1900 created 28 metropolitan boroughs as sub-divisions of the County of London.
Meanwhile, from this date parish-level local government administration was transferred to civil parishes, the setting-down of the current structure of districts in England began in 1965, when Greater London and its 32 London boroughs were created. They are the oldest type of still in use. In 1974, metropolitan counties and non-metropolitan counties were created across the rest of England and were split into metropolitan districts, in London power is now shared again, albeit on a different basis, with the Greater London Authority. During the 1990s a further kind of district was created, the unitary authority, metropolitan boroughs are a subdivision of a metropolitan county. These are similar to unitary authorities, as the county councils were abolished in 1986. Most of the powers of the county councils were devolved to the districts but some services are run by joint boards, the districts typically have populations of 174,000 to 1.1 million. Non-metropolitan districts are second-tier authorities, which share power with county councils and they are subdivisions of shire counties and the most common type of district.
These districts typically have populations of 25,000 to 200,000, the number of non-metropolitan districts has varied over time. Initially there were 296, after the creation of unitary authorities in the 1990s and late 2000s and these are single-tier districts which are responsible for running all local services in their areas, combining both county and district functions. They were created in the out of non-metropolitan districts, and often cover large towns. In addition, some of the smaller such as Rutland, Herefordshire
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Moseley is a suburb of south Birmingham, England,3 miles south of the city centre. The area is a cosmopolitan residential location and leisure destination, with a number of bars. The area has a number of boutiques and other independent retailers and it is located within the Moseley and Kings Heath Ward of the city, in the constituency of Hall Green. Moseley was listed in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Museleie, St. Marys Church, Moseley was licensed by the Bishop of Worcester in February 1405, and the 600th anniversary was celebrated in 2005 with a series of special events. In 2012 the church bells which had named as the worst sounding in the country were replaced. Moseley itself developed around a Victorian shopping area known as Moseley Village, Moseley Hall was rebuilt in parkland in the late 1700s and rebuilt by 1795 after being set on fire during rioting in 1791. It was donated in 1891 to the City of Birmingham by Richard Cadbury, spring Hill College, a Gothic revival construction built in 1857, is located in the south of the district.
Former pupils include comedian Jasper Carrott and musician Bev Bevan of the Electric Light Orchestra, St. Annes Church, Moseley was opened in 1874. Moseley was served by Moseley railway station from 1867 to 1941 and it was opened by the Midland Railway on the Camp Hill line. A previously named Moseley Station on the line changed its name to Kings Heath Station upon the opening of the station. Moseley and the areas were much developed after 1910, being built upon the once extensive farm land that was predominant in this area. The new properties being mostly of houses, designed to cater for the Edwardian middle-class families that settled in the suburbs surrounding Birminghams industrial centre. These large houses relied upon at least one servant or tweeny as they were often termed, with the advent of the First World War, staff were hard to find to maintain houses of this size. In some respects Moseley and the area suffered a serious decline in the last part of the 20th century. Much property fell into neglect, and problems with crime, today Moseley is one of the more affluent suburbs in Birmingham, although parts of north Moseley continue to suffer deprivation.
The area has a mixture of properties, with some streets being among the most expensive in the city and others consisting largely of social housing. Local band Ocean Colour Scene flourished in the mid-1990s British Britpop–indie scene with such as The Riverboat Song. Their most successful album was Moseley Shoals, Moseley is the birthplace of Nick Rhodes of Duran Duran
British Asians are persons of Asian descent who reside in the United Kingdom. In British English usage, the term Asians usually includes British originating only from South Asia, prior to the formation of the United Kingdom, immigration of South Asian ethnic groups to England began with the arrival of the East India Company to the Indian subcontinent. This continued during the British Raj and increased in volume after the independence of India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka from the British rule, chiefly for education and economic pursuits. A major influx of Asian immigrants, mostly Hindus and Muslims, in Britain, the word Asian usually refers specifically to people of South Asian ancestry. This usage contrasts to that in the United States, where it is used to refer to people of East Asian origin, the United Kingdom Census 1991 was the first to include a question on ethnicity. The question had tick-boxes for Indian and Bangladeshi, there was a Chinese tick box, as well as a general Any other ethnic group option for those not wishing to identify with any of the pre-set tick boxes.
South Asian ethnic groups mostly originate from a few places in South Asia. British Indians tend to originate mainly from the two Indian States and Gujarat, evidence from Bradford and Birmingham have shown, Pakistanis originate largely from the Mirpur District in Azad Kashmir. In the London Borough of Waltham Forest there are numbers of Pakistani people originating from Jhelum. Studies have shown 95 per cent of Bangladeshis originate from the Sylhet region in the north east of Bangladesh, in Tower Hamlets, people have origins in different zones in the Sylhet region, mainly from Jagannathpur and Bishwanath. The language spoken by Indians are, Gujarati, Hindustani, Tamil, people from Pakistan speak Urdu, Mirpuri, Sindhi, Kashmiri and Seraiki. Gujaratis who emigrated from India and East Africa speak Gujarati, Bangladeshis from Sylhet speak Sylheti and Bengali. People from Sri Lanka speak Tamil and Sinhala and those who speak dialects mainly refer their language to the main language, for example Sylheti speakers say they speak Bengali or Mirpuri speakers say they speak Punjabi.
The reason for this is because they do not expect outsiders to be informed about dialects. The unemployment rate among Indian men was slightly higher than that for White British or White Irish men,7 per cent compared with 5 per cent for the other two groups. On the other hand, Pakistanis have higher unemployment rates of 13-14%, with the exception of Bangladeshi women, every other group of South Asians, have higher attendance at university than the national average. GCSE pass rates have been rising for all South Asians, according to the United Kingdom Census 2001, South Asian men from all South Asian ethnic groups intermarried with another ethnic group more than South Asian women. Among South Asians, British Indians intermarried with a different ethnic group the most both absolutely and proportionately, followed by British Pakistanis and British Bangladeshis, there have been three waves of migration of Hindus in the United Kingdom. The first wave was before Indias independence in 1947
University of Birmingham
The University of Birmingham is a public research university located in Edgbaston, United Kingdom. It is a member of both the Russell Group of British research universities and the international network of research universities, Universitas 21. The university was ranked 15th in the UK and 82nd in the world in the QS World University Rankings for 2016-17, in 2013, Birmingham was named University of the Year 2014 in the Times Higher Education awards. The 2016 Global Employability University Ranking places Birmingham at 90th world-wide, Birmingham is ranked 9th in the UK for Graduate Prospects in The Times and The Sunday Times Good University Guide 2017. The student population includes 21,495 undergraduate and 12,335 postgraduate students, the annual income of the institution for 2015–16 was £625.6 million of which £135.5 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £562.1 million. Academics and alumni of the university include former British Prime Ministers Neville Chamberlain, and Stanley Baldwin and these classes were the first ever held outside London or south of the Scottish border in the winter of 1767–68.
The first clinical teaching was undertaken by medical and surgical apprentices at the General Hospital, the medical school which grew out of the Birmingham Workhouse Infirmary was founded in 1828 but Cox began teaching in December 1825. Queen Victoria granted her patronage to the Clinical Hospital in Birmingham and it was the first provincial teaching hospital in England. In 1843, the college became known as Queens College. The college was founded in 1875 and it was this institution that would eventually form the nucleus of the University of Birmingham. In 1882, the Departments of Chemistry and Physiology were transferred to Mason Science College, soon followed by the Departments of Physics and Comparative Anatomy. The transfer of the Medical School to Mason Science College gave considerable impetus to the importance of that college. As the result of the Mason University College Act 1897 it became incorporated as Mason University College on 1 January 1898 and it was largely due to Chamberlains enthusiasm that the university was granted a royal charter by Queen Victoria on 24 March 1900.
The Calthorpe family offered twenty-five acres of land on the Bournbrook side of their estate in July, the Court of Governors received the Birmingham University Act 1900, which put the royal charter into effect on 31 May. Birmingham was therefore arguably the first so-called red brick university, although several other universities claim this title, the transfer of Mason University College to the new University of Birmingham, with Chamberlain as its first chancellor and Sir Oliver Lodge as the first principal, was complete. All that remained of Josiah Masons legacy was his Mermaid in the chief of the university shield and of his college. It became the first civic and campus university in England, the faculty, the first of its kind in Britain, was founded by Sir William Ashley in 1901, who from 1902 until 1923 served as first Professor of Commerce and Dean of the Faculty. From 1905 to 1908, Edward Elgar held the position of Peyton Professor of Music at the university and he was succeeded by his friend Granville Bantock
The hectare is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to 100 ares and primarily used in the measurement of land as a metric replacement for the imperial acre. An acre is about 0.405 hectare and one hectare contains about 2.47 acres, in 1795, when the metric system was introduced, the are was defined as 100 square metres and the hectare was thus 100 ares or 1⁄100 km2. When the metric system was further rationalised in 1960, resulting in the International System of Units, the are was not included as a recognised unit. The hectare, remains as a non-SI unit accepted for use with the SI units, the metric system of measurement was first given a legal basis in 1795 by the French Revolutionary government. At the first meeting of the CGPM in 1889 when a new standard metre, manufactured by Johnson Matthey & Co of London was adopted, in 1960, when the metric system was updated as the International System of Units, the are did not receive international recognition. The units that were catalogued replicated the recommendations of the CGPM, many farmers, especially older ones, still use the acre for everyday calculations, and convert to hectares only for official paperwork.
Farm fields can have long histories which are resistant to change, with names such as the six acre field stretching back hundreds of years. The names centiare, deciare and hectare are derived by adding the standard metric prefixes to the base unit of area. The centiare is a synonym for one square metre, the deciare is ten square metres. The are is a unit of area, equal to 100 square metres and it was defined by older forms of the metric system, but is now outside of the modern International System of Units. It is commonly used to measure real estate, in particular in Indonesia, and in French-, Portuguese-, Slovakian-, Serbian-, Czech-, Polish-, Dutch-, in Russia and other former Soviet Union states, the are is called sotka. It is used to describe the size of suburban dacha or allotment garden plots or small city parks where the hectare would be too large, the decare is derived from deka, the prefix for 10 and are, and is equal to 10 ares or 1000 square metres. It is used in Norway and in the former Ottoman areas of the Middle East, the hectare, although not strictly a unit of SI, is the only named unit of area that is accepted for use within the SI.
The United Kingdom, United States, and to some extent Canada instead use the acre, such as South Africa, published conversion factors which were to be used particularly when preparing consolidation diagrams by compilation. In many countries, metrication redefined or clarified existing measures in terms of metric units, non-SI units accepted for use with the International System of Units
Old English or Anglo-Saxon is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers probably in the mid 5th century, Old English developed from a set of Anglo-Frisian or North Sea Germanic dialects originally spoken by Germanic tribes traditionally known as the Angles and Jutes. As the Anglo-Saxons became dominant in England, their language replaced the languages of Roman Britain, Common Brittonic, a Celtic language, Old English had four main dialects, associated with particular Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, Northumbrian and West Saxon. It was West Saxon that formed the basis for the standard of the Old English period, although the dominant forms of Middle. The speech of eastern and northern parts of England was subject to strong Old Norse influence due to Scandinavian rule, Old English is one of the West Germanic languages, and its closest relatives are Old Frisian and Old Saxon.
Like other old Germanic languages, it is different from Modern English. Old English grammar is similar to that of modern German, adjectives and verbs have many inflectional endings and forms. The oldest Old English inscriptions were using a runic system. Old English was not static, and its usage covered a period of 700 years, from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in the 5th century to the late 11th century, some time after the Norman invasion. While indicating that the establishment of dates is a process, Albert Baugh dates Old English from 450 to 1150, a period of full inflections. Perhaps around 85 per cent of Old English words are no longer in use, Old English is a West Germanic language, developing out of Ingvaeonic dialects from the 5th century. It came to be spoken over most of the territory of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which became the Kingdom of England and this included most of present-day England, as well as part of what is now southeastern Scotland, which for several centuries belonged to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria.
Other parts of the island – Wales and most of Scotland – continued to use Celtic languages, Norse was widely spoken in the parts of England which fell under Danish law. Anglo-Saxon literacy developed after Christianisation in the late 7th century, the oldest surviving text of Old English literature is Cædmons Hymn, composed between 658 and 680. There is a corpus of runic inscriptions from the 5th to 7th centuries. The Old English Latin alphabet was introduced around the 9th century, with the unification of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms by Alfred the Great in the 9th century, the language of government and literature became standardised around the West Saxon dialect. In Old English, typical of the development of literature, poetry arose before prose, a literary standard, dating from the 10th century, arose under the influence of Bishop Æthelwold of Winchester, and was followed by such writers as the prolific Ælfric of Eynsham. This form of the language is known as the Winchester standard and it is considered to represent the classical form of Old English
Ordnance Survey National Grid
The Ordnance Survey National Grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references used in Great Britain, different from using Latitude and Longitude. It is often called British National Grid, the Ordnance Survey devised the national grid reference system, and it is heavily used in their survey data, and in maps based on those surveys. Grid references are commonly quoted in other publications and data sources. The Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system is used to provide references for worldwide locations. European-wide agencies use UTM when mapping locations, or may use the Military Grid Reference System system, the grid is based on the OSGB36 datum, and was introduced after the retriangulation of 1936–1962. It replaced the previously used Cassini Grid which, up to the end of World War Two, had issued only to the military. The Airy ellipsoid is a regional best fit for Britain, more modern mapping tends to use the GRS80 ellipsoid used by the GPS, the British maps adopt a Transverse Mercator projection with an origin at 49° N, 2° W.
Over the Airy ellipsoid a straight grid, the National Grid, is placed with a new false origin. This false origin is located south-west of the Isles of Scilly, the distortion created between the OS grid and the projection is countered by a scale factor in the longitude to create two lines of longitude with zero distortion rather than one. Grid north and true north are aligned on the 400 km easting of the grid which is 2° W. 2° 0′ 5″ W. OSGB36 was used by Admiralty nautical charts until 2000 after which WGS84 has been used, a geodetic transformation between OSGB36 and other terrestrial reference systems can become quite tedious if attempted manually. The most common transformation is called the Helmert datum transformation, which results in a typical 7 m error from true, the definitive transformation from ETRS89 that is published by the OSGB is called the National Grid Transformation OSTN02. This models the detailed distortions in the 1936–1962 retriangulation, and achieves backwards compatibility in grid coordinates to sub-metre accuracy, the difference between the coordinates on different datums varies from place to place.
The longitude and latitude positions on OSGB36 are the same as for WGS84 at a point in the Atlantic Ocean well to the west of Great Britain. In Cornwall, the WGS84 longitude lines are about 70 metres east of their OSGB36 equivalents, the smallest datum shift is on the west coast of Scotland and the greatest in Kent. But Great Britain has not shrunk by 100+ metres, a point near Lands End now computes to be 27.6 metres closer to a point near Duncansby Head than it did under OSGB36. For the first letter, the grid is divided into squares of size 500 km by 500 km, there are four of these which contain significant land area within Great Britain, S, T, N and H. The O square contains an area of North Yorkshire, almost all of which lies below mean high tide
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is only one and incomparable God and that Muhammad is the last messenger of God. It is the worlds second-largest religion and the major religion in the world, with over 1.7 billion followers or 23% of the global population. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, and unique, and He has guided mankind through revealed scriptures, natural signs, and a line of prophets sealed by Muhammad. The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the word of God. Muslims believe that Islam is the original and universal version of a faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham, Moses. As for the Quran, Muslims consider it to be the unaltered, certain religious rites and customs are observed by the Muslims in their family and social life, while social responsibilities to parents and neighbors have been defined. Besides, the Quran and the sunnah of Muhammad prescribe a comprehensive body of moral guidelines for Muslims to be followed in their personal, political, Islam began in the early 7th century.
Originating in Mecca, it spread in the Arabian Peninsula. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates and empires, most Muslims are of one of two denominations, Sunni or Shia. Islam is the dominant religion in the Middle East, North Africa, sizable Muslim communities are found in Horn of Africa, China, Mainland Southeast Asia, Northern Borneo and the Americas. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world, Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root s-l-m which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace. In a religious context it means voluntary submission to God, Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, and means submission or surrender. Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the verb form. The word sometimes has connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as a state, Whomsoever God desires to guide.
Other verses connect Islām and dīn, Today, I have perfected your religion for you, I have completed My blessing upon you, still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, Islam was historically called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies. This term has fallen out of use and is said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims religion