Burnt Oak tube station
Burnt Oak is a London Underground station in Burnt Oak, north London, on Watling Avenue, off the A5. The station is on the Edgware branch of the Northern line, between Edgware and Colindale stations, in Travelcard Zone 4. Burnt Oak is on Watling Avenue, separated by the rail tracks; the station serves a moderate residential area. Rows of shops are along Watling Avenue. Barnfield Primary School, Burnt Oak Brook, Goldbeaters Primary School, Barnet Burnt Oak Leisure Center and Edgware Community Hospital are nearby; the station was designed by architect Stanley Heaps and opened as Burnt Oak on 27 October 1924, two months after the extension of the Hampstead & Highgate Line from Hendon Central to Edgware had opened. For a while, the station was going to be named "Sheves Hill", this name appears on a version of the Underground map from 1924. On a version "Sheves Hill" is crossed out with "Burnt Oak" printed on the side; the station was provided with a temporary structure before the final ticket office building was constructed in 1925.
The suffix was dropped from the name about 1950. In 2018, it was announced that the station would gain step free access by 2022, as part of a £200m investment to increase the number of accessible stations on the Tube; the station is on the London Underground Northern line, between Edgware and Colindale stations, in Zone 4. The typical off-peak service, in trains per hour is: 10 tph northbound to Edgware 10 tph southbound to Morden via Bank or Kennington via Charing CrossLondon Buses routes 32, 114, 142, 204, 251, 292, 302 and 305, night routes N5 and N16 serve the station. School routes 614 and 644 serve bus stops near the station. London Transport Museum Photographic Archive Construction of Watling Avenue from Burnt Oak station to Edgware Road, 14 May 1924 Junction of Watling Avenue and Edgware Road, 1926 Temporary station building constructed for opening of station, 1925 Permanent station building, 1925
Edgware is a district of northern Greater London, in the London Borough of Barnet. Edgware has its own commercial centre. Edgware has a suburban character, typical of the rural-urban fringe, it was an ancient parish in the county of Middlesex. The community benefits from some elevated woodland on a high ridge marking the Hertfordshire border of gravel and sand. Edgware is identified in the London Plan as one of the capital's 35 major centres. Edgware is principally a shopping and residential area and one of the northern termini of the Northern line, it has a bus garage, a shopping centre called the Broadwalk, a library, a hospital—Edgware Community Hospital, two streams—Edgware Brook and Deans Brook, both tributaries of a small brook known as Silk Stream, which in turn merges with the River Brent at Brent Reservoir. In 2011, the area is made up of five wards. Edgware succeeds to the identity of the ancient parish in the county of Middlesex. Edgware is a Saxon name meaning Ecgi's weir. Ecgi was a Saxon and the weir relates to a pond where Ecgi's people caught fish.
Edgware parish formed part of Hendon Rural District from 1894. It was abolished in 1931 and formed part of the Municipal Borough of Hendon until 1965; the Romans made pottery at Brockley Hill, thought by some to be the site of Sulloniacis. Canons Park, to the north-west, was developed as an estate by James Brydges, 1st Duke of Chandos and was the site of his great palace Cannons. Edgware was identified in 2008 as a major centre for preferred development in the London Plan. Edgware is a post town within the HA postcode area, it is partly within the NW postcode area. Until the 20th century there were no major rises in the population of Edgware. In the manor of Edgware in 1277 there were 52 customary tenants. In 1425–26 the manor of Edgware had three free and 29 customary tenants in the parish, in 1525–26 the numbers were two or three free and 26 customary tenants. In 1547 there were 120 communicants in the parish. In 1597 there were between 60 and 70 houses in the parish, 44 more in the village of Edgware but on the west side of Watling Street and therefore in the parish of Little Stanmore.
In 1599 there were six free and 25 customary tenants of the manor within Edgware. In 1642 in the Civil War the protestation oath of 1641 was taken by 103 adult males. In 1664 there were 73 houses in the parish, but the hearth tax of 1672 gives only 66. During the 18th century the average numbers both of baptisms and burials declined but steadily. There were said to be 69 houses in the village in 1766 and 76 houses in 1792. At the first census in 1801 the population was 412. Throughout the 19th century numbers rose except for the years between 1851 and 1871. Ten years the losses had been more than made good, in 1901 the figure of 868 had been reached. By 1921 the population had grown to 1,516, but the great infilling of the southern part of Edgware after 1924 caused the most spectacular increase. In 1931 the population was 5,352; as well as Christian and subsequent settling of other religious groups, Edgware's development coincided with that of its Jewish community forming the largest single religious group.
In the 2001 Census, 36% of Edgware residents give their religion as Jewish, 28% Christian, 9% Hindu and 5% Muslim. The Jewish community in Edgware has constructed its own Eruv. According to the 2011 census: Edgware ward of Barnet was 60% white. 13 % was 7 % Black African. 33 % of the population was Jewish, 11 % Muslim. Hale ward of Barnet was 10 % Indian. 39% was Christian and 19% Jewish. This data does not represent the other wards of Canons and Edgware in Harrow and the Burnt Oak ward in Barnet. Argonaut Games once had its head office in Edgware. London Academy Beit Shvidler Primary School Holland House School Broadfields Primary School Deansbrook Primary School North London Collegiate School Rosh Pinah Primary School Edgware Junior School Canons High School Stations in the area are: Edgware Burnt Oak Colindale Queensbury 15 day London Buses serve Edgware, along with three night services, three school services, two non-TfL routes operated by Uno. Edgware Cricket Club, based at Canons Park, play Sunday League cricket during the summer months.
Lee Kern - writer and comedian best known for his work on Sacha Baron Cohen series Who Is America? as well as making The Edgware Walker - a documentary about a locally famous eccentric who wandered the streets of Edgware Richard Russell Owner of UK Record Label, XL Recordings Anita Asante footballer Eleanor Bron — actress Max Bygraves — singer and actor Antony Costa — singer from boy band Blue Tony Currie — footballer Charlotte McDonagh — actress/television presenter/model and singer Shirley Eaton — actress Fenella Fielding — actress Vanessa Feltz — TV/radio presenter Dayan Michoel Fisher — Principal Rabbi of the Federation of Synagogues George Frideric Handel — composer Ernest George Trobridge — Architect.
Edgware bus station
Edgware Bus Station serves the Edgware suburb of the London Borough of Barnet, Greater London, England. The station is maintained by Transport for London; the bus station is off Station Road, situated a short distance away from Edgware Station and the Broadwalk Shopping Centre. There are five stands within the bus station; the main operators at the bus station are Metroline, Arriva Shires & Essex, Arriva London and London Sovereign Buses go from Edgware bus station as far afield Watford, Hatfield, Arnos Grove, Turnpike Lane Station, Central London and Harrow. In August 2009, writer Tanya Gold attempted to be the writer in residence at the bus station emulating Alain de Botton who had a similar position at Heathrow Airport List of bus and coach stations in London Bus routes from Edgware - Transport for London
Moorgate tube crash
The Moorgate tube crash occurred on 28 February 1975 at 8:46 am on the London Underground's Northern City Line. It is considered the worst peacetime accident on the London Underground. No fault was found with the train, the inquiry by the Department of the Environment concluded that the accident was caused by the actions of Leslie Newson, the 56-year-old driver; the crash forced the first carriage into the roof of the tunnel at the front and back, but the middle remained on the trackbed. The second carriage was concertinaed at the front as it collided with the first, the third rode over the rear of the second; the brakes were not applied and the dead man's handle was still depressed when the train crashed. The London Fire Brigade, Ambulance Service and City of London Police attended the scene, it took 13 hours to remove the injured from the wreckage. With no services running into the adjoining platform to create the piston effect pushing air into the station, ventilation was poor and temperatures in the tunnel rose to over 49 °C.
It took a further four days to extract that of Newson. The post-mortem on Newson showed no medical reason to explain the crash. A cause has never been established, theories include suicide, that he may have been distracted, or that he was affected by conditions such as transient global amnesia or akinesis with mutism. Tests showed that Newson had a blood alcohol level of 80 mg/100 ml—the level at which one can be prosecuted for drink-driving, though the alcohol may have been produced by the natural decomposition process over four days at a high temperature. In the aftermath of the crash, London Underground introduced a safety system that automatically stops a train when travelling too fast; this became known informally as Moorgate protection. Northern City Line services into Moorgate ended in October 1975 and British Rail services started in August 1976. After a long campaign by relatives of the dead, two memorials were unveiled in the vicinity of the station, one in July 2013 and one in February 2014.
London Underground—also known as the Underground or the Tube—is a public rapid transit system serving London and some parts of the adjacent counties of Buckinghamshire and Hertfordshire. The network opened in 1863 and contained 250 miles of route track by 1975; the Tube was one of the safest methods of transport in Britain in 1975. Apart from suicides, there were only 14 deaths on the Underground between 1938 and 1975, 12 of which occurred in the 1953 Stratford crash. Moorgate station, in the City of London, was the terminus at the southern end of the Northern City Line, five stops and 2.6 miles from the northern end at Drayton Park. Moorgate is an interchange between suburban overground services; the station contains ten platforms. At the end of platform 9 in 1975 was a red warning light atop a post, situated in front of a 61-centimetre-high sand drag placed to stop over-running trains; the drag was 11 metres long, of which 5.8 metres was on the tracks in front of the platform, 5.2 metres was inside an overrun tunnel, 20.3 metres long, 4 metres high and 4.9 metres wide.
The tunnel had been designed to accommodate larger main line rolling stock and so was wider than the standard tube tunnel width of 3.7 metres. A buffer, which had once been hydraulic, but had not been functioning as such for some time prior to the crash, was at the end of the tunnel, in front of a solid wall; the approach to Moorgate from Old Street station, the stop prior to the terminus, was on a falling gradient of 1 in 150 for 196 metres before levelling out for 71 metres to platform 9. There was a speed limit of 40 miles per hour on the line, a limit of 15 miles per hour on entry into Moorgate station. From November 1966 the Northern City Line ran 1938 rolling stock. Weekly checks were made on the stock's brakes and compressors. On 28 February 1975 the first shift of the Northern City Line service was driven by Leslie Newson, 56, who had worked on London Transport since 1969, been driving on the Northern City Line for the previous three months. Newson was known by his colleagues as a conscientious motorman.
On 28 February he carried a bottle of milk, his rule book, a notebook in his work satchel. According to staff on duty his behaviour appeared normal. Before his shift began he shared his sugar with a colleague; the first return trips of the day between Drayton Park and Moorgate, which started at 6:40 am, passed without incident. Robert Harris, the 18-year-old guard who had started working for London Underground in August 1974, was late and joined the train when it returned to Moorgate at 6:53 am. Newson and Harris made three further return trips before the train undertook its final journey from Dr
Finchley Central tube station
Finchley Central is a London Underground station in the Church End area of Finchley, north London. The station is on the High Barnet branch of the Northern line, between West Finchley and East Finchley stations, is the junction for the short branch to Mill Hill East; the station is around 7 miles north-northwest of Charing Cross and is in Travelcard Zone 4. The station was opened on 22 August 1867 as part of the Great Northern Railway's line between Finsbury Park and Edgware stations; as part of London Underground's Northern Heights plan, Northern line trains started serving the station in 1940 and main line passenger services ended in 1941. Finchley Central station was built by the Edgware and London Railway on its line from Finsbury Park to Edgware; as construction of the line was nearing completion and before it opened it was purchased in July 1867 by the larger Great Northern Railway, whose main line from King's Cross ran through Finsbury Park on its way to Potters Bar and the north. The station named Finchley and Hendon, opened along with the railway to Edgware on 22 August 1867 in what was rural Middlesex.
It was 7.05 miles north-northwest of Charing Cross as the crow flies, 7 miles 29 chains from the GNR terminus at King's Cross. A branch line from Finchley Central to High Barnet was constructed by the GNR and opened on 1 April 1872. After the 1921 Railways Act created the Big Four railway companies, the GNR became part of the London & North Eastern Railway in 1923; the station was renamed by the GNR twice: to Finchley on 1 February 1872 and Finchley on 1 February 1894. It was given its current name on 1 April 1940. At the start of the 1930s the station had around 54 trains daily from High Barnet running to Finsbury Park and either King's Cross, Moorgate or Broad Street. Trains between Finchley Central and Edgware operated as a shuttle, although some trains ran through to the terminals. In 1935, the London Passenger Transport Board announced a proposal, which became known as the Northern Heights plan, to take over the LNER lines from Finsbury Park to Edgware, High Barnet and Alexandra Palace, link them to the Northern line with new tunnels from the Northern line's terminus at Archway to East Finchley and to the Northern City line with a new surface connection between Drayton Park and Finsbury Park.
The line from Finchley Central to Edgware closed for electrification and reconstruction on 11 September 1939. The station was first served by electric Northern line trains on 14 April 1940 when the service was extended from East Finchley to High Barnet. After a period where the station was serviced by both operators, LNER steam services were ended on 2 March 1941. Following the outbreak of the Second World War in September 1939, completion of the electrification works on the line to Edgware was slowed and was completed only as far as Mill Hill East. Northern line services to Mill Hill East began on 18 May 1941 to serve the nearby Inglis Barracks. After the war, the plans to complete the Northern Heights works were reviewed but were not restarted. Maintenance works and reconstruction of war damage on the existing network had the greatest demand for LPTB funds. Funds for new works were limited and priority was given to the completion of the western and eastern extensions of the Central line to West Ruislip and Hainault.
A government-commissioned review of rail transport in the London area produced a report in 1946 that proposed many new lines. It anticipated that completion of the Northern Heights works would put pressure on the Northern line's capacity and it proposed that a relief line should be considered for one or other of the two branches. One of these, designated Route 12B, was proposed to run as a tube line in tunnel from Finchley Central to Clapham Junction via Golders Green, St John's Wood, Baker Street and Sloane Square. Despite being shown as under construction on underground maps as late as 1950, work never restarted on the unimplemented parts of the Northern Heights plan; the proposal for Route 12B was not developed by the LPTB or its successor organisations. Before the war, Charles Holden and Reginald Uren designed replacement station buildings to be built on both sides of the road bridge at the north end of the station; the curtailment of the Northern Heights Plan means that the rebuilding work was not implemented and the station still retains much of its original Victorian architectural character today.
As one of two EH&LR stations retaining its original buildings, it is one of the oldest parts of the Underground system, pre-dating the first tunnelled section of the Northern line by more than twenty years. British Rail continued to operate goods trains from Finsbury Park to the station's goods yard until 1 October 1962, when it was closed; the station has two entrances. The main one, in the original station building, is on the north side of the tracks in Chaville Way, an access road from the junction of Ballards Lane, Regents Park Road and Nether Street; the second entrance is to the south of the tracks in Station Road. The station is in a cutting and the two entrances are joined by a footbridge over the tracks from which stairs and lifts connect to the platforms; the station is accessible for disabled passengers travelling in both directions. The station has three platforms. Platforms 1 and 2, which share an island platform, are for northbound trains: platform 1 is used by trains terminating at Finchley Central or going to Mill Hill East.
Platform 3, a side platform, is for southbound trains. All platforms ha
New Works Programme
The New Works Programme of 1935–1940 was the major investment programme delivered by the London Passenger Transport Board known as London Transport, created in 1933 to coordinate underground train, tram and bus services in the capital and the surrounding areas. The programme was to develop many aspects of the public transport services run by the LPTB and the suburban rail services of the Great Western Railway and London and North Eastern Railway; the investment was backed by government assistance as well as by the issuing of financial bonds and was estimated to cost £42,286,000 in 1936. The Programme saw major reconstructions of many central area Underground stations, with escalators being installed to replace lifts; these included: Metropolitan line provision of additional parallel tracks between Harrow-on-the-Hill and Rickmansworth electrification of the tracks from Rickmansworth to Aylesbury and Chesham installation of colourlight signals on the line between Rickmansworth and Aylesbury and platform extensions for stations on this stretch of the line Bakerloo line new tunnels to form a branch from Baker Street to Finchley Road, where they connected with and took over the realigned slow tracks of the Metropolitan line to Wembley Park and the Stanmore branch new Bakerloo line stations at St. John's Wood and Swiss Cottage between Finchley Road and Baker Street, to replace three closing stations on the Metropolitan line Northern line transfer of the Metropolitan line's Great Northern & City branch to Northern line operation connection of the GN&C branch at Finsbury Park to the LNER's line to Edgware, High Barnet and Alexandra Palace construction of new tunnels from Archway to Highgate and East Finchley to connect to the Edgware and High Barnet branches extension from Edgware to Bushey Heath Central line relining of the tunnels and lengthening of station platforms between Shepherd's Bush and Liverpool Street to increase speeds and allow longer trains replacement of the line's non-standard track power supply with the Underground's normal fourth rail system western extension from North Acton to connect to and take over the GWR's suburban line to Denham eastern extension from Liverpool Street via Stratford to connect to and take over the LNER's lines to Epping and Hainault Rolling stock design and construction of a new fleet of trains, the 1938 stock, to operate on the Central line and Northern line extensions further conversion of existing locomotive-hauled "Dreadnaught" coaches to Electric Working for the newly electrified Metropolitan Mainline to Aylesbury.
Extra "T" stock driving motor coaches had been constructed to allow for this. This scheme was abandoned and new stock was designed; when rolled out, this was to be the A60 stock Design and construction of a new fleet of trains for the Hammersmith and City Line, the "O" stock Provision of similar new trains for the Metropolitan line to Uxbridge, the "P" stock Conversion of existing hand-worked-door stock to air-door operation and the construction of some new stock for the District line, the "Q" stock programme Infrastructure improvements to the power supply system from Lots Road Power Station improvements to and rebuilding of many busy central area stations including the installation of escalators to replace lifts On the city's roads, the Programme was to see the large-scale abandonment of trams and their replacement by trolleybuses, creating the world's largest trolleybus system at that date. Substantial and rapid progress was made on the network across the capital before the advent of World War II delayed prevented its completion.
The Central line tunnel relining works were completed in 1938 and the replacement of the line's power supply was completed in 1940. The Bakerloo line service to Stanmore started on 20 November 1939; the 1938 tube stock came into operation as intended although the extensions they were built for were not completed at once. Progress on the Northern line works enabled the extension from Archway to come into service as far as East Finchley on 3 July 1939, where interchanges were made with the LNER services. Underground services to High Barnet commenced on 14 April 1940. Highgate station came into use on 19 January 1941 and services started operating on the branch to Mill Hill East on 18 May 1941; this latter section was finished, exceptionally. The outstanding electrification works on the remainder of the LNER's branch from Finsbury Park to Highgate, from Highgate to Alexandra Palace and from Mill Hill East to Edgware were halted. Works on the extension beyond Edgware were stopped, although the construction of the new tube depot at Aldenham was completed and the buildings were used to construct Halifax bomber aircraft for the RAF.
Other parts of the land purchased for the Bushey Heath extension were farmed during the war to provide food for London Transport canteens. On the Central line, works on the eastern extension had progressed furthest with tunnels constructed to Leyton and from Leytonstone to Newbury Park; these were put into service as underground factories operated by Plessey. After the war, a prioritisation of the limited resources available to London Transport saw the Central line extensions progressed, with the first new section in the east opening to Stratford in 1946 and the services to West Ruislip and Epping starting in 1948 and 1949. Plans were put
Moorgate known as London Moorgate, is a central London railway terminus and connected London Underground station on Moorgate in the City of London. Main line railway services for Hertford, Welwyn Garden City and Letchworth are operated by Great Northern, while the Underground station is served by the Circle, Hammersmith & City and Northern lines; the station was opened as Moorgate Street in 1865 by the Metropolitan Railway. In 1900, the City & South London Railway added the station to its network, the Great Northern & City Railway began serving the station in 1904. In 1975, the Northern City Line platforms were the site of the Moorgate tube crash – at the time, the worst peacetime accident in the history of the London Underground – in which 43 people were killed. Thameslink branch services were withdrawn in the early 21st century, Crossrail improvements will see Moorgate connected to Liverpool Street; the station has Moorfields, which runs parallel. The public entrances from the street give access to all the train services at the station, there are three distinct levels.
The Circle, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan underground lines use platforms 1 and 2, which are through platforms. For terminating trains at busy times, there are platforms 4 which are west-facing bays. Adjacent to these are platforms 5 and 6 of the former Thameslink trains service from Bedford via St Pancras; these are disused following the closure of the Moorgate branch from Farringdon junction as part of the Thameslink Programme and are now used for storage. The Northern line of the Underground uses platforms 7 and 8, which are in a deep-level tube section of the station. National Rail services on the Northern City Line use platforms 9 and 10, which are terminal platforms. Train services run via the East Coast Main Line to Welwyn Garden City, to Hertford North, Hitchin or Letchworth; because of this, Moorgate is part of the London station group and accepts tickets marked "London Terminals". London Buses routes 21, 43, 76, 100, 141, 153, 214 and 271 serve the station; the station was opened as Moorgate Street by the Metropolitan Railway as the first eastwards extension from the original terminus at Farringdon.
Parliamentary power had been obtained to build a station at Moorgate in 1861, two years before the initial section, it was completed on 23 December 1865. Increased traffic from other companies, including goods traffic from the Great Northern Railway, led to the line between King's Cross and Moorgate being widened to four tracks; the Widened Lines were open from Moorgate to Farringdon on 1 July 1866, to King's Cross on 17 February 1868. Suburban services from the Midland Railway ran via Kentish Town and the Great Northern Railway ran via King's Cross. In 1874, director of the Metropolitan, Edward Watkin, described Moorgate Street as "your great terminus" and recommended a 100-bedroom hotel should be built on top of the station; the now Northern line platforms were part of an extension of the City & South London Railway beyond Borough towards Angel, forming the northern terminus of its services from Stockwell south of the River Thames. An act for the extension had been authorised in 1893 and included an eastern diversion of the original line underneath the Thames.
The new station opened on 25 February 1900. The line was extended to Angel on 17 November the following year; the Northern City Line to Moorgate was opened by the Great Northern & City Railway on 14 February 1904 offering a service to Finsbury Park. It had an escalator connection to the other Moorgate platforms; the route was constructed in tube tunnels, but they were constructed at a diameter capable of accommodating main-line trains. The line was the first to use automatic signalling throughout its length without any moving parts. Though a popular route, it went into decline after the Metropolitan Railway purchased the route on 1 July 1913; the planned through services to the Great Northern Railway's main line were never implemented. The CS&LR line closed services between Moorgate and Euston on 9 August 1922 in order to widen tunnels to 11 feet 8¼ inches; the section from Moorgate to Clapham Common was worked on during the night while daytime services remained running, but closed on 28 November 1923 following a roof collapse at Newington Causeway the day before.
Services to Euston opened on 20 April 1924, along with a connection to Camden Town and stations further north. Services to Clapham Common resumed on 1 December; the station was renamed from Moorgate Street to Moorgate on 24 October that year. British Rail services to Moorgate were steam-operated. A commemorative service ran on 6 June 1971 from Moorgate to the depot at Neasden, powered by a 0-6-0 tank locomotive. Steam was replaced by Cravens-built diesel multiple units and British Rail Class 31 locomotives class hauling non-corridor stock which remained in operation until 1976, when it was replaced with British Rail Class 313 electrics; the Northern City Line connection for Moorgate to Finsbury Park tube was closed beyond Drayton Park on 5 October 1964 to allow work on the Victoria line. The line never re-opened but instead the line was connected to the Finsbury Park British Rail station, in order to provide a connection for suburban services into Moorgate; the new service opened on 1 September 1968.
Moorgate station was modernised at platform level and street level in the 1960s, the Widened Lines part of the station was extended to six platforms. The realig