Edict of Milan

The Edict of Milan was the February AD 313 agreement to treat Christians benevolently within the Roman Empire. Western Roman Emperor Constantine I and Emperor Licinius, who controlled the Balkans, met in Mediolanum and, among other things, agreed to change policies towards Christians following the Edict of Toleration issued by Emperor Galerius two years earlier in Serdica; the Edict of Milan gave Christianity a legal status, but did not make Christianity the state church of the Roman Empire. The document is found in Lactantius' De Mortibus Persecutorum and in Eusebius of Caesarea's History of the Church with marked divergences between the two. Whether or not there was a formal'Edict of Milan' is debated by some; the version found in Lactantius is not in the form of an edict. It is a letter from Licinius to the governors of the provinces in the Eastern Empire he had just conquered by defeating Maximinus in the same year and issued in Nicomedia. Since the fall of the Severan dynasty in AD 235, rivals for the imperial throne had bid for support by either favouring or persecuting Christians.

The previous Edict of Toleration by Galerius had been issued by the emperor Galerius from Serdica and was posted at Nicomedia on 30 April 311. By its provisions, the Christians, who had "followed such a caprice and had fallen into such a folly that they would not obey the institutes of antiquity", were granted an indulgence. Wherefore, for this our indulgence, they ought to pray to their God for our safety, for that of the republic, for their own, that the commonwealth may continue uninjured on every side, that they may be able to live securely in their homes, their confiscated property, was not restored until 313, when instructions were given for the Christians' meeting places and other properties to be returned and compensation paid by the state to the current owners: the same shall be restored to the Christians without payment or any claim of recompense and without any kind of fraud or deception. It directed the provincial magistrates to execute this order at once with all energy so that public order may be restored and the continuance of divine favour may "preserve and prosper our successes together with the good of the state."

The actual letters have never been retrieved. However, they are quoted at length in Lactantius' On the Deaths of the Persecutors, which gives the Latin text of both Galerius's Edict of Toleration as posted at Nicomedia on 30 April 311 and of Licinius's letter of toleration and restitution addressed to the governor of Bithynia and posted at Nicomedia on 13 June 313. Eusebius of Caesarea translated both documents into Greek in his History of the Church, his version of the letter of Licinius must derive from a copy posted in the province of Palaestina Prima in the late summer or early autumn of 313, but the origin of his copy of Galerius's Edict of 311 is unknown since that does not seem to have been promulgated in Caesarea. In his description of the events in Milan in his Life of Constantine, Eusebius eliminated the role of Licinius, whom he portrayed as the evil foil to his hero Constantine; the Edict was in effect directed against Maximinus Daia, the Caesar in the East, at that time styling himself as Augustus.

Having received the emperor Galerius' instruction to repeal the persecution in 311, Maximinus had instructed his subordinates to desist, but had not released Christians from prisons or virtual death-sentences in the mines, as Constantine and Licinius had both done in the West. Following Galerius' death, Maximin was no longer constrained. One of those petitions, addressed not only to Maximin but to Constantine and Licinius, is preserved in a stone inscription at Arycanda in Lycia, is a "request that the Christians, who have long been disloyal and still persist in the same mischievous intent, should at last be put down and not be suffered by any absurd novelty to offend against the honour due to the gods."The Edict is popularly thought to concern only Christianity, to make Christianity the official religion of the Empire. Indeed, the Edict expressly grants religious liberty not only to Christians, the object of special persecution, but goes further and grants liberty to all religions: When you see that this has been granted to by us, your Worship will know that we have conceded to other religions the right of open and free observance of their worship for the sake of the peace of our times, that each one may have the free opportunity to worship as he pleases.

Since Licinius composed the Edict with the intent of publishing it in the east upon his hoped-for victory over Maximinus, it expresses the religious policy accepted by Licinius, a pagan, rather than that of Constantine, a Christian. Constantine's own policy went beyond tolerating Christianity: he tolerated paganism and other religions, but he promoted Christianity. Although the Edict of Milan is presented as Constantine’s first great act as a Christian emperor, it is disputed whether the Edict of Milan was an act of genuine faith; the document could be seen as Constantine's first step in creating an alliance with the Christian God, who he considered the strongest deity. At that time, he was concerned about socia

Gameplay (magazine)

Gameplay was a Russian language magazine about video games, published in Ukraine by ITC Publishing since August 2005. Its circulation was 20 000, it ceased publication in June 2010. Notable writers for the magazine include Editor-in-Chief Serhiy Halyonkin, editors Anna Zinchenko and Alina Zhigunova, authors Oleg Ovsienko, Mikhail Zinchenko, Yaroslav Singayevsky and Igor Klimovsky. Gameplay is best known for its "Evolution of genres" series of articles, that describes history and evolution of computer and video games for past 30 years; each April issue carries a theme "Our games" and writes about most game developers studios, situated in Ukraine. Gameplay publishes previews, reviews and such - as most of gaming press do; some readers note that Gameplay gives a lot of attention to video games, sometimes giving a console games a higher score than to PC games. But editorial boards say that it is because of higher popularity of PC games in Ukraine, which sometimes is credited to higher level of piracy.

Http:// - official website for Gameplay magazine


Metolachlor is an organic compound, used as an herbicide. It is a member of the chloroacetanilide family of herbicides, it is effective toward grasses. Metolachlor was developed by Ciba-Geigy, its acts by inhibition of elongases and of the geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate cyclases, which are part of the gibberellin pathway. It is used for grass and broadleaf weed control in corn, peanuts and cotton, it is used in combination with other herbicides. Metolachlor is a popular herbicide in the United States; as formulated metolachlor was applied as a racemate, a 1:1 mixture of the - and -stereoisomers. The -enantiomer is less active, modern production methods afford a higher concentration of S-metolachlor, thus current application rates are far lower than original formulations. Metolachlor is produced from 2-ethyl-6-methylaniline via condensation with methoxyacetone; the resulting imine is hydrogenated to give the S-stereoisomeric amine. This secondary amine is acetylated with chloroacetylchloride; because of the steric effects of the 2,6-disubstituted aniline, rotation about the aryl-C to N bond is restricted.

Thus, both the - and the -enantiomers exist as atropisomers. Both atropisomers of -metolachlor exhibit the same biological activity. Metolachlor has been detected in ground and surface waters in concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 4.5 parts per billion throughout the U. S, it is classified as a Category C pesticide by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, which indicates limited evidence of carcinogenicity. Evidence of the bioaccumulation of metolachlor in edible species of fish as well as its adverse effect on the growth and development raise concerns on its effects on human health. Though there is no set maximum concentration for metolachlor, allowed in drinking water, the US EPA does have a health advisory level of 0.525 mg/L. Metolachlor induces genotoxic effects in human lymphocytes. Genotoxic effects have been observed in tadpoles exposed to metolachlor. Evidence reveals that metolachlor affects cell growth. Cell division in yeast was reduced, chicken embryos exposed to metolchlor showed a significant decrease in the average body mass compared to the control.

Acetochlor Alachlor Josiphos ligands Metolachlor in the Pesticide Properties DataBase