The bibliographical definition of an edition includes all copies of a book printed “from the same setting of type,” including all minor typographical variants. The numbering of book editions is a special case of the wider field of revision control; the traditional conventions for numbering book editions evolved spontaneously for several centuries before any greater applied science of revision control became important to humanity, which did not occur until the era of widespread computing had arrived. The old and new aspects of book edition numbering are discussed below. According to the definition of edition above, a book printed today, by the same publisher, from the same type as when it was first published, is still the first edition of that book to a bibliographer. However, book collectors use the term first edition to mean the first print run of the first edition. Since World War II, books include a number line that indicates the print run. A "first edition" per se is not a valuable collectible book.
A popular work may be published and reprinted over time by many publishers, in a variety of formats. There will be a first edition of each, which the publisher may cite on the copyright page, such as: "First mass market paperback edition"; the first edition of a facsimile reprint is the reprint publisher's first edition, but not the first edition of the work itself. The Independent Online Booksellers Association has a A First Edition Primer which discusses several aspects of identifying first editions including publishing and specific publishers way of designating first editions; the classic explanation of edition was given by Fredson Bowers in Principles of Bibliographical Description. Bowers wrote that an edition is “the whole number of copies printed at any time or times from the same setting of type-pages,” including “all issues and variant states existing within its basic type-setting, as well as all impressions.” Publishers use the same typesetting for the hardcover and trade paperback versions of a book.
These books have different covers, the title page and copyright page may differ, the page margin sizes may differ, but to a bibliographer they are the same edition. From time to time, readers may observe an error in the text, report these to the publisher; the publisher keeps these "reprint corrections" in a file pending demand for a new print run of the edition, before the new run is printed, they will be entered. The method of entry depends on the method of typesetting. For letterpress metal, it meant resetting a few characters or a line or two. For linotype, it meant casting a new line for any line with a change in it. With film, it involved inserting a new bit. In an electronic file, it means entering the changes digitally; such minor changes do not constitute a new edition, but introduce typographical variations within an edition, which are of interest to collectors. A common complaint of book collectors is that the bibliographer's definition is used in a book-collecting context. For example, J. D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye as of 2016 remains in print in hardcover.
The type is the same as the 1951 first printing, therefore all hardcover copies are, for the bibliographer, the first edition. Collectors would use the term for the first printing only. First edition most refers to the first commercial publication of a work between its own covers if it was first printed in a periodical: the complete text of Ernest Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea appeared in the September 1, 1952 issue of Life, yet the accepted “first” edition is the hardcover book Scribner’s published on September 8, 1952; the term "first trade edition," refers to the earliest edition of a book offered for sale to the general public in book stores. For example, Upton Sinclair's 1906 novel. A "Sustainers' Edition", published by the Jungle Publishing Company, was sent to subscribers who had advanced funds to Sinclair; the first trade edition was published by Page to be sold in bookstores. Many book collectors place maximum value on the earliest bound copies of a book—promotional advance copies, bound galleys, uncorrected proofs, advance reading copies sent by publishers to book reviewers and booksellers.
It is true. Publishers use "first edition" according to their own purposes, among them the designation is used inconsistently; the "first edition" of a trade book may be the first iteration of the work printed by the publisher in question or the first iteration of the work that includes a specific set of illustrations or editorial commentary. Publishers of non-fiction, academic works, textbooks distinguish between revisions of the text of the work, by citing the dates of the first and latest editions of the work in the copyright page. Exceptions to this rule of thumb include denominating as a "second edition" a new textbook that has a different format, and/or author because a previous textbook that shares only the same subject matter as the "second edition" is considered the first edition; the reason for this stretch of the definition is for the short-term marketing advantage of the
Star Trek Into Darkness is a 2013 American science fiction action film directed by J. J. Abrams and written by Roberto Orci, Alex Kurtzman, Damon Lindelof, it is the twelfth installment in the Star Trek film franchise and the sequel to the 2009 film Star Trek, as the second in a rebooted film series. The film features Chris Pine reprising his role as Captain James T. Kirk, with Zachary Quinto, Simon Pegg, Karl Urban, Zoe Saldana, John Cho, Anton Yelchin, Bruce Greenwood, Leonard Nimoy reprising their roles from the previous film. Benedict Cumberbatch, Alice Eve and Peter Weller are credited in the film's principal cast, it was the last time Nimoy would portray the character of Spock before his death in 2015. Set in the 23rd century and the crew of USS Enterprise are sent to the Klingon homeworld seeking former Starfleet member-turned terrorist John Harrison. After the release of Star Trek, Burk, Lindelof and Orci agreed to produce its sequel. Filming began in January 2012. Into Darkness's visual effects were created by Industrial Light & Magic.
The film was converted to 3D during its post-production stage. Star Trek Into Darkness premiered at Event Cinemas in Sydney, Australia, on April 23, 2013, was released on May 9 in Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and Peru, with other countries following; the film was released on May 17 in the United States and Canada, opening at IMAX cinemas a day earlier. Into Darkness received positive reviews from critics, its gross earnings of over $467 million worldwide have made it the highest-grossing entry in the Star Trek franchise. At the 86th Academy Awards, the film was nominated for Best Visual Effects, it was followed by Star Trek Beyond in 2016. In 2259, Captain James T. Kirk is removed from command of the starship USS Enterprise for violating the Prime Directive after exposing the ship to the primitive inhabitants of the planet Nibiru in order to save them, Spock, from a cataclysmic volcanic eruption. Admiral Christopher Pike is reinstated as commanding officer with Kirk demoted to first officer.
Spock is transferred to another ship. Shortly after, the Section 31 installation in London is bombed by renegade Starfleet operative John Harrison. Harrison attacks Starfleet Headquarters in a jumpship during an emergency meeting regarding the situation, killing Pike and other senior officers. Kirk disables the jumpship. Admiral Alexander Marcus reinstates Kirk and Spock to Enterprise with orders to kill Harrison using a new long range stealth photon torpedo. Chief Engineer Montgomery Scott objects to allowing untested torpedoes on board the ship without knowing their specifications. Kirk assigns Pavel Chekov to replace Scotty. En route to Kronos, Enterprise's warp capabilities become disabled. Kirk leads a team with Spock and Uhura onto the planet in a small landing craft, where they are ambushed by Klingon patrols who order them to land. Uhura leaves the landing craft to talk to the Klingons, they decide to kill Uhura. Harrison demands that Kirk tell him the number of torpedoes on board the Enterprise, surrendering when Spock tells him.
Dr. Leonard McCoy and Marcus's daughter, Dr. Carol Marcus, open a torpedo at Harrison's behest, revealing a man in cryogenic stasis; the other experimental torpedoes contain cryogenically frozen humans. Harrison is taken to the ship's brig, where he reveals his true identity as Khan, a genetically engineered superhuman awoken by Admiral Marcus from centuries of suspended animation to develop advanced weapons. Khan reveals that Marcus sabotaged Enterprise's warp drive, intending for the Klingons to destroy the ship after it fired on Kronos, creating an act of war by the Klingon Empire. Khan gives Kirk a set of coordinates. Kirk contacts asks him to investigate. Scotty discovers the coordinates lead to a covert Starfleet facility. Enterprise is intercepted by a much larger Starfleet warship, USS Vengeance, commanded by Admiral Marcus. Marcus demands that Kirk deliver Khan. After Vengeance disables Enterprise near the Moon, Carol reveals her presence aboard the ship. Marcus forcibly transports Carol to Vengeance before ordering Enterprise's destruction.
Kirk offers Khan and himself for the lives of his crew, but Marcus rejects Kirk's offer, revealing he never intended to spare them. Vengeance loses power after being sabotaged by Scotty, who infiltrated the ship. With transporters down and Khan, with the latter's knowledge of the warship's design, space-jump to Vengeance. Spock contacts his older self, who warns that Khan is ruthless and untrustworthy and that Khan's older self was only defeated at terrible cost. Khan overpowers Kirk and Carol, kills Marcus, takes control of Vengeance. Khan demands. Spock complies but surreptitiously removes Khan's frozen crew from the torpedoes and arms the warheads. Khan beams Kirk and Carol aboard Enterprise, but betrays their agreement by attacking Enterprise. With both starships caught in Earth's gravity, they plummet toward the surface. Kirk enters the radioactive reactor chamber to realign the warp core, sacrificing himself to save the ship. Khan crashes the Vengeance into downtown San Francisco in an attempt to destroy Starfleet headquarters.
Khan escapes the wreckage. McCoy discovers. Spock pursues Khan through the city and the two engage in hand-to-hand combat. Uhura beams down and stuns Khan, Spock
William P. Farrell was a Fianna Fáil politician from Grange, County Sligo in Ireland, he was a senator from 1982 to 1983, from 1987 to 2002. An auctioneer, he was first elected to Sligo County Council in 1967, remained a member until resigning his seat in 1997, he was elected in 1982 on the Industrial and Commercial Panel. He lost his seat at the 1983 Seanad election, but was re-elected in 1987 to the 18th Seanad and held the seat until he retired at the 2002 Seanad election. Farrell was criticised in the Seanad and beyond in May 1990; the house was debating the Larceny Bill 1989, an amendment by Joe Costello proposed to remove the clause in existing legislation which made "the abominable crime of buggery" a criminal offence. Farrell launched an attack on the opposition parties and on gay senator David Norris, in which he said "I am amazed at Senator Norris, an educated, intelligent man like him, is so obsessed with his favourite sexual activity that he put that before the welfare of the people who are being robbed and plundered", went on to say "We are going, with our amendment to allow perverts of all kinds".
Farrell's comments were criticised by senators from all parties, including Tras Honan, a former Cathaoirleach, Fine Gael called his remarks "vicious". The following day, Farrell made a statement to the Seanad in which he said that his remarks were "completely misconstrued" and that "the record of the House will show I was speaking about blackmail", he added "I am sorry about the use of the word'pervert'. I did not mean it in the context … I did not mean it to affect anybody in this House and I was not referring to anybody in this House"; the Cathoirleach, Seán Doherty, did not permit any debate on Farell's statement. He died on 8 April 2010 in Sligo General Hospital
Winter Sleepers is a 1997 German film directed by Tom Tykwer. It was premiered at the Locarno International Film Festival; the film is set in the snowy alpine winter resort of Berchtesgaden in Bavaria. Laura, a surgical nurse, Rebecca, a translator, live together in the house that Rebecca inherited from her great aunt. René is a projectionist in a cinema. Marco, Rebecca's boyfriend, is a skiing instructor. Theo is a middle-aged farmer who lives with his wife Edith, their daughter, two sons on a poor farm nearby; when Marco arrives, he is greeted passionately by Rebecca, tugged into the house. He leaves his car open outside, with the key still in the ignition, it is the early morning, René, walking drunkenly home, passes the house, taking pictures, among other things, of Rebecca and Marco having sex inside. He climbs into the car and drives away. Theo, meanwhile, is taking his horse to the veterinarian, but doesn't let his daughter come with him, he doesn't notice. Theo, distracted by his sons calling him on a walkie-talkie and driving on the wrong side of the road collides with René.
The Alfa Romeo crashes off the road and into a snowdrift and Rene is not hurt. Theo is dazed, but René, rather than helping, takes a photo of him, as he walks off, Theo is stricken by a strange snake-like scar on the back of René's head; when Theo is helped out of his truck by a passing driver, he shoots the injured horse on the spot and takes his daughter to the hospital where Laura works. There, Laura hears Theo becoming obsessed with finding the man who caused the accident, to prove his own innocence: no-one believes that there was another car, because it is buried under snow. All he remembers was the shape of René's face close to him; the young girl is in a coma, between life and death. Meanwhile, Marco reports the car theft to the police and becomes exasperated by their lack of progress, claiming they aren't taking the theft seriously. Rebecca is becoming discontent with her relationship with him. Outside of their passionate sex life, they argue constantly. Laura befriends René after a play.
The reason he takes them is his short-term memory problems which were caused by a head injury while serving in the Army. Theo and Edith have to shut the farm down because of debt and move to a smaller place near the resort. Theo draws a picture of the shape he remembers, copies it and sticks them up around town, appealing for anyone to come forward if they recognize the scar on the back of the head, but Edith takes down all his posters, believing he is only trying to escape his own guilt and explaining that she's ashamed. Marco has started an affair with a young student from the skiing class he teaches, he invites her to his boss's house one evening. He has to go to the hospital after burning himself on the coffee machine and is treated by Laura. While he is there, Theo's daughter dies. Theo, investigating the site of the car crash again, finds the buried car and comes across documents showing Marco to be the owner. Theo is told Marco is skiing in the mountains, with Nina, they become separated in fog, Nina injures herself by falling off a ledge and onto a tree.
After falling out of the tree, Nina is tended to by Edith. Trying to find Nina, Marco meets Theo on the mountainside where Theo sets his dog onto Marco; when Marco demands to know what's happening, Theo explains only "You killed her." Not knowing about Theo's daughter, Marco starts to panic about losing Nina. After injuring Theo's aggressive German shepherd, Marco manages to ski hurriedly away before going over the edge of a cliff, he falls forever, into a crevasse in the valley, to his death. In another coincidence and the injured Nina depart on the same train, but don't know each other; the film ends with Laura's child. The film is based on the novel Expense of Spirit by Anne-Françoise Pyszora; the story of the two couples is faithful to the novel. The soundtrack album was released on 3 November 1997 on Ariola Records/BMG, it contains the songs "Untitled # 1" by Fratres by Arvo Pärt. The CD is no longer in print. Official website Wintersleepers on IMDb Wintersleepers at AllMovie
The Monastery of Lešok is a monastery, near the village of Lešok in Tearce Municipality, North Macedonia. It is located close to the border with Kosovo. Lying at 638 metres above sea level it is located on the southeastern side of the mountain Šar Planina. In its complex are the churches of St. Athanasius of Alexandria and the Holy Mother of God Church; the Church of the Holy Virgin, built in 1326, is an excellent example of Byzantine style and architectural tradition. The church has three layers of frescoes; the 1st and bottom layer is from the first time of construction, the second and middle one was added sometime in the 17th century, the third and top layer was added in 1879. Several marble columns from the original church can still be seen in the Tetovo museum; the monastery dormitories were redecorated from around 1818 and the library was founded and Lešok became a literature and educational center. The church of St. Athanasius was built in 1924 next to the Church of the Holy Mother of God.
In the yard of the Monastery of Lešok is the tomb of the South Slavic educator Kiril Pejčinovik, born in 1770. In his honor, this monastery hosts an International Meeting of Literary Translators. Tetovo is a host to the Festival of the Macedonian Choirs. Today the monastery dormitories have been restored and are used to accommodate summer tourists
The 8th Panzer Division was a formation of the Wehrmacht Heer. The division was formed by reorganising the 3rd Light Division in January 1940, it was transferred to the west and fought in the Battle of France, in May 1940, the German invasion of the Balkans in April 1941. Soon after the division advanced towards Leningrad under Army Group North in Operation Barbarossa, would remain on the eastern front for the remainder of the war. Staying on defensive fronts, it saw action in the relief of Kholm in 1942, Orel and the withdrawals of Army Group Centre in 1943, until transferred to Army group South; the division fought in a series of retrograde movements, back through the Ukraine, into Hungary and into Silesia and surrender in May 1945. During its existence, the division was headquartered in Cottbus, in the German military district Wehrkreis III. In 1938, the 3rd Light Division was formed, consisting of the 67th Panzer Battalion, the 8th and 9th Mechanized Cavalry Regiments as well as the 8th Reconnaissance Regiment.
The 3rd Light Division was sent to participate in the 1939 Invasion of Poland, after which it was converted to the 8th Panzer Division in the winter of 1939. As part of the reorganization its reconnaissance regiment of two battalions was split, one going to the 10th Panzer Division and the other staying with the 8th Panzer Division; the two battalions comprising the 10th Panzer Regiment from East Prussian were added, as was the 8th Rifle Brigade, which now controlled the 8th Rifle Regiment of three battalions and the 8th Motorcycle Battalion. The panzer battalions were equipped with Czech tanks and Mk II light tanks, leaving the 8th Panzer Division with a total of 212 tanks in its organization for the attack into France; the division contained an anti-tank battalion of only two companies, equipped with the ubiquitous, but under powered 37mm PAK 35/36, a pioneer battalion and support units. The divisional artillery was supplied by two battalions of 105mm Howitzers. By February 1941 the division was organised as follows: 8th Rifle Brigade.
8th Rifle Regiment 28th Rifle Regiment 8th Motorcycle Battalions 10th Panzer Regiment 80th Artillery Regiment 43rd Panzerjäger Battalion 59th Reconnaissance Battalion 59th Pioneer Battalion 84th Signals Battalion 59th Division Support UnitsThe 67th Panzer Battalion had been incorporated into the 10th Panzer regiment as 3rd Battalion, the infantry was now organised under two Regiments of two battalions of motorised infantry each. The Artillery Regiment had gained another battalion of heavy Guns from the 645th Heavy Artillery Battalion, it was made a part of XLI Motorized Corps for the Battle of France. In the battles of the Meuse Crossings, French forces were able to repel German attacks. However, the French were forced to retreat in the face of an overwhelming assault by German tanks; the division was involved in the destruction of the 1st and the 7th Armies in May 1940, remained on the line in France until the country's conquest in June 1940. At the start of Operation Barbarossa, the 8th Panzer Division was assigned to Erich von Mansteins' LVI Panzer Corps, part of Panzer Group 4, tasked with the main drive through the Baltic states in the direction of Leningrad, Soviet Union's second largest city.
Attacking in the pre dawn hours of 22 June 1941, the division soon found a gap in the Soviet border defences and by nightfall had penetrated to a distance of 70 km. Driven by the division commander to maintain a rapid pace, switching focus between its battle groups to find the path of least resistance, the division reached the Dvina river, on the morning of the 4th day, its combat engineers, with the assistance of a company of Brandenburgers, mounted a rouse and managed to capture both the rail and road bridge intact. Soon the 8th Panzer Division had tanks and infantry across the River, but was forced to halt and wait for resupply and the other Panzer corps of Panzer Group 4 to catch up; the following days were spent expanding its bridgehead whilst fending off Soviet counterattacks from the Soviet 21 Mechanised Corps. Resumed a rapid advance to the east against a Soviet forces now in complete disarray. On 7 October it began to snow in the Army Group North area, by 15 October the snow was ankle deep.
General Leeb completed his regrouping for the continued attack across the Volkov river towards Tikhvin. The infantry formed bridgeheads from which 8th Panzer and the other mobile units of XXXIX attacked on 19 October; however progress was agonisingly slow, the muddy roads impassable to any but tracked vehicles, the Army was having difficulties bringing in supplies behind the troops. The Corps reached and captured Tikhvin on 11 November, leaving a 100 kilometre flank weakly covered by the 8th Panzer; the freezing weather meant that the roads improved which helped the transport of supplies, but not the troops who, still lacking winter clothing, suffered from the conditions. Nearly the entire division was united in the Kholm relief attempt, after its successful relief, defended a loose, but wide sector just to the south of Kholm, in the bogs and marches stretching down towards the Army group boundary. Here the division remained for most of 1942 until it was transferred to Army Group Centre, in the winter of 1942.
After the winter fighting of 1941, the incursions by the 3rd and 4th Soviet Shock armies between Army Groups North and Centre, had stretched the front to such an extent that the Germans could not occupy a single line, but resorted to isolated strong points instead. This defence stance, although nece