Publishing is the activity of making information, music and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works, such as books and magazines. With the advent of digital information systems, the scope has expanded to include electronic publishing such as ebooks, academic journals, websites, video game publishing, the like. Publishing may produce private, commons or public goods and may be conducted as a commercial, social or community activity; the commercial publishing industry ranges from large multinational conglomerates such as RELX, Pearson and Thomson Reuters to thousands of small independents. It has various divisions such as: trade/retail publishing of fiction and non-fiction, educational publishing and academic and scientific publishing. Publishing is undertaken by governments, civil society and private companies for administrative or compliance requirements, research, advocacy or public interest objectives; this can include annual reports, research reports, market research, policy briefings and technical reports.
Self-publishing has become common. "Publisher" can refer to a publishing company or organization, an individual who leads a publishing company or an imprint, or to an individual who leads a magazine. Publication is important as a legal concept: As the process of giving formal notice to the world of a significant intention, for example, to marry or enter bankruptcy As the essential precondition of being able to claim defamation. Prior to printing, distributed works were copied manually, by scribes. Due to printing, publishing progressed hand-in-hand with the development of books; the Chinese inventor Bi Sheng made movable type of earthenware circa 1045, but there are no known surviving examples of his work. Around 1450, in what is regarded as an independent invention, Johannes Gutenberg invented movable type in Europe, along with innovations in casting the type based on a matrix and hand mould; this invention made books less expensive to produce and more available. Early printed books, single sheets and images which were created before 1501 in Europe are known as incunables or incunabula.
"A man born in 1453, the year of the fall of Constantinople, could look back from his fiftieth year on a lifetime in which about eight million books had been printed, more than all the scribes of Europe had produced since Constantine founded his city in A. D. 330."Eventually, printing enabled other forms of publishing besides books. The history of modern newspaper publishing started in Germany in 1609, with publishing of magazines following in 1663. Missionaries brought printing presses to sub-Saharan Africa in the mid-18th century. Publishing has been handled by publishers, although some authors self-published; the establishment of the World Wide Web in 1989 soon propelled the website into a dominant medium of publishing. Wikis and Blogs soon developed, followed by online books, online newspapers, online magazines. Since its start, the World Wide Web has been facilitating the technological convergence of commercial and self-published content, as well as the convergence of publishing and producing into online production through the development of multimedia content.
Book publishers commission copy from independent authors. Magazines may employ a mixture. Traditional book publishers are selective about, they do not accept manuscripts direct from authors. Authors must first submit a query letter or proposal, either to a literary agent or direct to the publisher. Depending on the publisher's submission guidelines. If the publisher does accept unsolicited manuscripts the manuscript is placed in the slush pile, which publisher's readers sift through to identify manuscripts worthy of publication; the acquisitions editors review these and if they agree, send them to the editorial staff. Larger companies have more levels of assessment between submission and publication than smaller companies. Unsolicited submissions have a low rate of acceptance, with some estimates as low as 3 out of every 10,000 being accepted. Once a work is accepted, commissioning editors negotiate the purchase of intellectual property rights and agree on royalty rates. Authors sell exclusive territorial intellectual property rights that match the list of countries in which distribution is proposed.
In the case of books, the publisher and writer must agree on the intended formats of publication — mass-market paperback, "trade" paperback and hardback are the most common options. Where distribution is to be by CD-ROM or other physical media, the same rules are applied; however if distribution is offered electronically on the internet, national copyright can no longer be applied and this presents legal problems. These are solved by selling language or translation rights rather than national rights. Thus, internet access across the European Union is open because of the laws forbidding discrimination based on nationality, but the fact of publication in, France, limits the target market to those who read French; the parties must agree on royalty rates, (the percentage of the gross retail price to be
Huntsham Castle, England is an Iron Age Hill fort enclosure near the village of Huntsham, it is located 260 m above sea level on the edge of the former Parish of Tiverton. The monument includes a slight univallate hillfort situated on a prominent hill overlooking the valleys of two separate tributaries to the River Lowman; the monument survives as a sub-circular enclosure, defining an area which slopes down to the south and measures 150m in diameter. It is demarcated on all sides by a rampart which varies in height from 1m up to 2.4m internally, being of greater height on the northern side of the enclosure. Externally this rampart is up to 2.9m high. Surrounding the rampart is an outer ditch which measures up to 5.4m wide and 0.4m deep and this is visible on all sides of the monument, although it is predominantly preserved as a buried feature. On the north eastern side, the outer edge of this ditch is defined by a field boundary bank and the infilled ditch has been used in the past as a track.
There is an inturned entrance on the north eastern side which measures 7m wide, the inturned banks are up to 2.2m wide and 0.4m high. The enclosure is crossed by a parish boundary bank which measures up to 2m wide and 1.5m high, has been cut at the north eastern corner by a quarry 20m long, 15m wide and up to 2.8m deep, which lies to the north of the entrance. A further quarry lies to the south of the parish boundary bank, on the western side of the enclosure and measures 8.7 metres long, 5.3 metres wide and up to 1 metre deep. A third quarry lies to the north west and has cut into the ditch and rampart on this side. A further entrance to the enclosure may lie on the western side, where the rampart is seen to kink inwards; the stock proof fences around the rampart and ditch, the gates and gateposts which facilitate access, the Ordnance Survey triangulation point, situated on the north eastern side of the enclosure just above the quarry, the field boundary bank which defines the outer edge of the ditch in the north eastern corner are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath all these features is included
The Boys' Doubles tournament of the 2013 Asian Junior Badminton Championships was held from July 10–14 in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia. The defending champion of the last edition were Arya Maulana Aldiartama and Edi Subaktiar from Indonesia. Aldiartama this time teamed-up with Kevin Sanjaya Sukamuljo, standing in the top seeds; the final turned into all-Chinese final after Li Junhui / Liu Yuchen faced their fellow countrymen Huang Kaixiang / Zheng Siwei in the finals that won by Li and Liu in straight games 21–15, 21–14. Main Draw