click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Edmund Husserl

Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl was a German philosopher who established the school of phenomenology. In his early work, he elaborated critiques of historicism and of psychologism in logic based on analyses of intentionality. In his mature work, he sought to develop a systematic foundational science based on the so-called phenomenological reduction. Arguing that transcendental consciousness sets the limits of all possible knowledge, Husserl redefined phenomenology as a transcendental-idealist philosophy. Husserl's thought profoundly influenced the landscape of 20th-century philosophy, he remains a notable figure in contemporary philosophy and beyond. Husserl studied mathematics under the tutelage of Karl Weierstrass and Leo Königsberger, philosophy under Franz Brentano and Carl Stumpf, he taught philosophy as a Privatdozent at Halle from 1887 as professor, first at Göttingen from 1901 at Freiburg from 1916 until he retired in 1928, after which he remained productive. In 1933, due to racial laws, having been born to a Jewish family, he was expelled from the library of the University of Freiburg, months resigned from the Deutsche Akademie.

Following an illness, he died in Freiburg in 1938. Husserl was born in 1859 in Prostějov, a town in the Margraviate of Moravia, in the Austrian Empire, which today is Prostějov in the Czech Republic, he was born into the second of four children. His father was a milliner, his childhood was spent in Prostějov. Husserl traveled to Vienna to study at the Realgymnasium there, followed next by the Staatsgymnasium in Olomouc. At the University of Leipzig from 1876 to 1878, Husserl studied mathematics and astronomy. At Leipzig he was inspired by philosophy lectures given by Wilhelm Wundt, one of the founders of modern psychology, he moved to the Frederick William University of Berlin in 1878 where he continued his study of mathematics under Leopold Kronecker and the renowned Karl Weierstrass. In Berlin he found a mentor in Thomas Masaryk a former philosophy student of Franz Brentano and the first president of Czechoslovakia. There Husserl attended Friedrich Paulsen's philosophy lectures. In 1881 he left for the University of Vienna to complete his mathematics studies under the supervision of Leo Königsberger.

At Vienna in 1883 he obtained his PhD with the work Beiträge zur Variationsrechnung. Evidently as a result of his becoming familiar with the New Testament during his twenties, Husserl asked to be baptized into the Lutheran Church in 1886. Husserl's father Adolf had died in 1884. Herbert Spiegelberg writes, "While outward religious practice never entered his life any more than it did that of most academic scholars of the time, his mind remained open for the religious phenomenon as for any other genuine experience." At times Husserl saw his goal as one of moral "renewal". Although a steadfast proponent of a radical and rational autonomy in all things, Husserl could speak "about his vocation and about his mission under God's will to find new ways for philosophy and science," observes Spiegelberg. Following his PhD in mathematics, Husserl returned to Berlin to work as the assistant to Karl Weierstrass, yet Husserl had felt the desire to pursue philosophy. Professor Weierstrass became ill. Husserl became free to return to Vienna where, after serving a short military duty, he devoted his attention to philosophy.

In 1884 at the University of Vienna he attended the lectures of Franz Brentano on philosophy and philosophical psychology. Brentano introduced him to the writings of Bernard Bolzano, Hermann Lotze, J. Stuart Mill, David Hume. Husserl was so impressed by Brentano. Following academic advice, two years in 1886 Husserl followed Carl Stumpf, a former student of Brentano, to the University of Halle, seeking to obtain his habilitation which would qualify him to teach at the university level. There, under Stumpf's supervision, he wrote Über den Begriff der Zahl in 1887, which would serve as the basis for his first important work, Philosophie der Arithmetik. In 1887 Husserl married Malvine Steinschneider, a union that would last over fifty years. In 1892 their daughter Elizabeth was born, in 1893 their son Gerhart, in 1894 their son Wolfgang. Elizabeth would marry in 1922, Gerhart in 1923. Gerhart would become a philosopher of law, contributing to the subject of comparative law, teaching in the United States and after the war in Austria.

Following his marriage Husserl began his long teaching career in philosophy. He started. In 1891 he published his Philosophie der Arithmetik. Psychologische und logische Untersuchungen which, drawing on his prior studies in mathematics and philosophy, proposed a psychological context as the basis of mathematics, it drew the adverse notice of Gottlob Frege. In 1901 Husserl with his family moved to the University of Göttingen, where he taught as extraordinarius professor. Just prior to this a major work of his, Logische Untersuchungen, was published. Volume One contains seasoned reflections on "pure logic" in which he refutes "psychologism"; this work was well received and became the s

Allport, Arkansas

Allport is a town in Lonoke County, United States. Although a black enclave in the largely-white Lonoke County since the 1870s, the town did not incorporate until 1967 in order to receive funding for municipal services. Located within Central Arkansas along Highway 165, the community's economy is tied to agriculture; the population was 115 at the 2010 Census. Allport was incorporated in 1967 and its first Mayor was an African-American man and World War II veteran named Johnny E. Gay. Leading the movement to incorporate, he made several needed improvements to the town upon his election; the Allport community set aside a special day of celebration named Johnny E. Gay Day. Allport is located at 34°32′22″N 91°47′6″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2000, there were 127 people, 44 households, 30 families residing in the town. The population density was 272.4/km². There were 59 housing units at an average density of 126.6/km². The racial makeup of the town was 94.49 % Black or African American.

There were 44 households out of which 18.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 25.0% were married couples living together, 29.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.8% were non-families. 31.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.89 and the average family size was 3.77. In the town, the population was spread out with 26.8% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 26.0% from 25 to 44, 23.6% from 45 to 64, 14.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $17,500, the median income for a family was $18,333. Males had a median income of $23,125 versus $0 for females; the per capita income for the town was $18,685. There were 35.7% of families and 32.5% of the population living below the poverty line, including 52.4% of under eighteens and 48.4% of those over 64.

United States portal

Wear Your Love Like Heaven

"Wear Your Love Like Heaven" is a song and US single by British singer-songwriter Donovan, released in 1967. It became the opening title of his 1967 double album A Gift from a Flower to a Garden, it reached chart position No. 23 in the USA. The song mentions seven dye and pigment colours: Prussian blue, crimson, Havana lake, rose carmethene, alizarin crimson and carmine. Eartha Kitt, on her 1970 album Sentimental, they Might Be Giants, as a spoken word piece. Sarah McLachlan, for the Donovan tribute album Island of Circles. Japanese noise artist Masonna perform a noise "cover" of this song on Japanese/American Noise Treaty compilation. Peggy Lipton Her 1970 single appeared in the Record World "Non-Rock" Top 40. A track from Richie Havens' 1969 album, "Richard P. Havens, 1983." Guy Davis, son of Ruby Dee and Ossie Davis, included the song on his 2015 album "Kokomo Kidd." The song was featured in commercials for Menley & James' Love Cosmetics line in the late 1960s and early 1970s, including an Eau De Love fragrance commercial that featured Ali MacGraw.

It was featured in Season 13 The Simpsons episode "Weekend at Burnsie's" where Homer Simpson gets ready for work and pictures his world as a psychedelic wonderland. Definition of Sound's "Wear Your Love Like Heaven", a UK Top 20 hit in 1991, is a different song with the same title, but contains samples from the Donovan track. Wear Your Love Like Heaven - Donovan Unofficial Site

John Steinbeck IV

John Ernst Steinbeck IV was an American journalist and author. He was the second child of the Nobel Prize-winning author John Ernst Steinbeck. In 1965, he was served in Vietnam, he worked as a journalist for Armed Forces Radio and TV, as a war correspondent for the United States Department of Defense. In March 1968 he testified before a Senate subcommittee that in his opinion "about 60 percent of American soldiers between the ages of 19 and 27 smoke marijuana when they think it reasonable to do just that, taking into consideration their responsibilities at the moment." He said that Military Assistance Command, Vietnam itself promoted drug abuse by providing for distribution of narcotics such as amphetamines known as pep pills, to soldiers in combat. In 1968, Steinbeck returned to South Vietnam as a journalist. Along with Sean Flynn, he started Dispatch News Service, which published Seymour Hersh's story on the My Lai Massacre. Fluent in street Vietnamese and Steinbeck became independent of the flow of information dispensed by the United States Press Office, enabling them to discover the truth about the My Lai Massacre and the Con Son Island prison "tiger cages".

Flynn disappeared after being taken as a prisoner of war during a photo shoot in Cambodia. Steinbeck's Vietnam memoir In Touch was published by Knopf in 1969, he wrote about his experiences with the GIs. Steinbeck took the vows of a Buddhist monk while living on Phoenix Island in the Mekong Delta, under the tutelage of the politically powerful Coconut Monk, a silent tree-dwelling Buddhist yogi who adopted Steinbeck as a spiritual son. Amid the raging war, Steinbeck stayed in the monk's "peace zone", where the 400 monks who lived on the island hammered howitzer shell casings into bells. While in Saigon, Steinbeck participated in Michael Rubbo's 1970 documentary film Sad Song of Yellow Skin, as part of a group of young American journalists practicing a New Journalism approach to covering the war. Steinbeck traveled back and forth between Asia and the United States several more times before settling in Boulder, where he studied Tibetan Buddhism with Chögyam Trungpa. On March 6, 1982, he married Nancy Harper.

In 1983, the family traveled around the world for a year, living in Kathmandu to pursue their Buddhist studies. In 1984, Steinbeck was diagnosed with a genetic disease that causes iron retention. After years of heavy drinking, he quit in 1988, he became interested in alcoholism's genetic aspects, participated in Twelve-Step Programs. It was Steinbeck. A renewal of his journalistic career ensued as he wrote about the Dalai Lama, Tibetan Buddhism, alcoholism. In 1990, he began his autobiography as follows: "The reasons for attempting to write this book could be summed up by my desire to live free from fear. However, the path leading to that sort of fruition has, along its border, a lot of fearful things that at first glance can cause panic, or resentment, or shame. There is charity and sanity, which accompany this sort of voyage like good dolphins on a good quest. Frankly, I feel blessed that these guiding elements have never abandoned me and, as I and others continue to recover from the effects of my actions, I am encouraged that these qualities will endure shine."

In 1990, Steinbeck was diagnosed with a ruptured disc. He underwent corrective surgery on February 7, 1991, died after the operation. In 2001, his posthumous memoir The Other Side of Eden: Life With John Steinbeck was published by Prometheus Books; the book jacket reads: "Left unfinished at his untimely death, this testament to his life is here reconstructed by Nancy Steinbeck. Interweaving her own reminiscences of her life with John Steinbeck IV, Nancy has created an engrossing account from two perspectives: John's memories of his chaotic and adventurous upbringing and her own thoughts on their journey together to make a new life apart from the long shadow of a famous father and a troubled past." The book was co-distributed by the Hazelden Foundation, a treatment center for drug and alcohol addiction. Publishers Weekly said, "More than a memoir, this is a powerful account of liberation; this book can help many people." Steinbeck, John Steinbeck IV and Nancy. The Other Side of Eden: Life with John Steinbeck Prometheus Books.

ISBN 1-57392-858-5 Nancy Steinbeck.com−website: John Steinbeck IV — permission to reprint given by copyright holder, Nancy Steinbeck. New York Times.com John Steinbeck IV

Samuel Gray (Australian politician)

Samuel William Gray was an Irish Australian pastoralist and member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly for Kiama and The Richmond. Samuel Gray was born in Armagh, Ireland on 1 January 1823 to James Mackey Gray and Sarah Anna Burton, the first of their five children and their only son. Around 1835, his family moved to New South Wales. There, James bought his brother-in-law's grant of 1,280 acres of land south of Kiama, naming it "The Omega Retreat". James became a farmer and grazier there assisting many Ulster Protestants in migrating to Kiama, he was educated at the Normal Institution in Sydney. After going to sea in 1859 and to Bendigo during its gold rush, he returned to Kiama, becoming a farmer and grazier, he married Mary Bray on 14 March 1862 at Campbelltown. They had two sons. In the early 1860s, he improved a large block of land on the Tweed River, he moved to Sydney, where he had business interests, living there until his death in Woolahra on 19 April 1889. He was buried in the Gerringong Cemetery in Sydney.

On 16 June 1859, Samuel Gray was elected as the member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly for Kiama, with 70.36 percent of the vote. He was re-elected unopposed in 1860. After leaving office in 1864, he was elected as the member for Illawarra in 1874 with 56.76 percent of the vote and re-elected unopposed in 1877. He left office again in 1880 and was elected by the Richmond in 1882 with 60.39 percent of the vote, a position which he held until 1885 when he did not re-contest. New South Wales Legislative Assembly

Dunkirk, Kent

Dunkirk is a village and civil parish between Faversham and Canterbury in southeast England. It lies on the Canterbury Road between Boughton under Harbledown; this was the main Roman road from the Kentish ports to London known as Watling Street. The origin of the village's name is still not clear, but it is understood to come from a house called "Dunkirk", lived in by a Fleming from Dunkirk on the border between France and Belgium. In 1800, according to Edward Hasted, the village was once part of the king's ancient forest of Blean in the'hundred of Westgate'. Dunkirk's main claim to fame is that in 1838 it was the scene of the last armed rising on British soil, the Battle of Bossenden Wood to the north of the village. Eleven men died. In 1940 during World War II, the RAF Chain Home radar station in Dunkirk was bombed several times by the Luftwaffe. In 2011, the villagers had an official opening of their replacement Village Hall. £230,000 was raised to pay for the new hall. Media related to Dunkirk, Kent at Wikimedia Commons