Edmund I

Edmund I was King of the English from 939 until his death. His epithets include the Elder, the Deed-doer, the Just, the Magnificent. Edmund was the son of Edward the Elder and his third wife Eadgifu of Kent, a grandson of Alfred the Great, his father died when he was young, was succeeded by his oldest son Æthelstan. Edmund came to the throne upon the death of his half-brother in 939 with little opposition, his reign was marked by constant warfare, including conquests or reconquests of the Midlands and Strathclyde. Edmund was assassinated after six-and-a-half years as king, while attending Mass in Pucklechurch, Gloucestershire, he was succeeded by his brother Eadred, but his two sons—Eadwig and Edgar the Peaceful—both came to the throne. Edmund lost his father whilst a toddler, in 924 and his 30-year-old half-brother Athelstan came to the throne. Edmund grew up during the reign of Athelstan, participating in the Battle of Brunanburh in 937. Athelstan died in 939, Edmund become king. Shortly after his proclamation, he had to face several military threats.

King Olaf III Guthfrithson invaded the Midlands. Edmund encountered him at Leicester, but Olaf escaped and a peace was brokered by Oda of Canterbury and Wulfstan I of York; when Olaf died in 942, Edmund reconquered the Midlands. In 943, Edmund became the godfather of King Olaf of York. In 944, Edmund reconquered Northumbria. In the same year, his ally Olaf of York left for Dublin. Olaf became the king of Dublin as Amlaíb Cuarán, still allied to his godfather. In 945, Edmund conquered Strathclyde but ceded the territory to King Malcolm I of Scotland in exchange for a treaty of mutual military support. Edmund thus established a policy of peaceful relationships with Scotland. During his reign, the revival of monasteries in England began. One of Edmund's last known political efforts was his role in the restoration of his nephew Louis IV of France. Louis, son of Charles the Simple and Edmund's half-sister Eadgifu, had resided at the West-Saxon court for some time until 936, when he returned to be crowned King of France.

In the summer of 945, he was captured by the Normans and subsequently released to Duke Hugh the Great, who held him in custody. The chronicler Richerus claims that Eadgifu wrote letters both to Edmund and to Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor in which she requested support for her son. Edmund responded to her plea by sending angry threats to Hugh. Flodoard's Annales, one of Richerus' sources, report: Edmund, king of the English, sent messengers to Duke Hugh about the restoration of King Louis, the duke accordingly made a public agreement with his nephews and other leading men of his kingdom. Hugh, duke of the Franks, allying himself with Hugh the Black, son of Richard, the other leading men of the kingdom, restored to the kingdom King Louis. Edmund's first wife was Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury. There were two sons of this marriage: Eadwig, Edgar. Both became kings of England. Ælfgifu died in 944. There are no known children of this marriage. On 26 May 946, St Augustine's Day, Edmund was murdered by Leofa, a convicted outlaw, at Pucklechurch in Gloucestershire.

According to the post-Conquest chronicler, John of Worcester, Leofa attacked Edmund's seneschal, Edmund was stabbed when he intervened to protect his servant. A recent article re-examines Edmund's death and dismisses the chronicle accounts as fiction, it suggests. Edmund's sister Eadgyth, the wife of Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, died earlier the same year, as Flodoard's Annales for 946 report. Edmund was buried at Glastonbury Abbey, was succeeded as king by his brother Eadred, king from 946 until 955. Edmund's sons ruled England as: Eadwig, King of England from 955 until 957, king of only Wessex and Kent from 957 until his death on 1 October 959. Edgar the Peaceful, king of Mercia and Northumbria from 957 until his brother's death in 959 king of England from 959 until 975. Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury Burial places of British royalty David. "Learning and the Church in the England of King Edmund I, 939-946". The Historia Brittonum 3, The Vatican Recension. Cambridge, UK: Brewer. Edmund 14 at Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England

Hang Tuah

Hang Tuah was a warrior who lived in Malacca during the reign of Sultan Mansur Shah in the 15th century. He was the most powerful of all the laksamana, or admirals, is considered by the Malays to be one of history's greatest silat masters. Hang Tuah is held in the highest regard in present-day Malay culture, is arguably the most well-known and illustrious warrior figure in Malay history and literature; as a young boy, Hang Tuah worked as a woodcutter in his parents' shop. His grasp of spiritual concepts and potential as a fighter were apparent from a young age. At ten years old he learned silat together with his four comrades Hang Kasturi, Hang Jebat, Hang Lekir and Hang Lekiu, their teacher was a renowned master who lived a hermetic life at the top of a mountain. Under the guru's tutelage, Hang Tuah and his four compatriots were taught the arts of self-defense and meditation. Hang Tuah's appearance in the history of the region began when some men ran amok near Kampung Bendahara. Tun Perak came with a party of guards to investigate the incident, but was attacked.

His guards fled but when Hang Tuah and his friends, who happened to be at a nearby stall, saw what was happening, they rushed to save Tun Perak. They fought the group and, because of their ferociousness, they ran away. Tun Perak was amazed by the courage of his companions, he presented them to Sultan Muzaffar Syah. Hang Tuah's illustrious career as an admiral or laksamana includes tales of his absolute and unfaltering loyalty to his Sultan, some of which are chronicled in Sejarah Melayu and Hikayat Hang Tuah. Hang Tuah became the sultan's constant aide, accompanying the king on official visits to foreign countries. On one such visit to Majapahit, Hang Tuah fought a duel with the famed pendekar Taming Sari. After a brutal fight Hang Tuah emerged as winner, Singhavikramavardhana, the ruler of Majapahit, bestowed upon him Taming Sari’s kris or dagger; the Keris Taming Sari was named after its original owner, was purported to be magical, empowering its owner with physical invulnerability. Hang Tuah acted as the sultan's ambassador, travelling on the king's behalf to allied countries.

Another story concerning Hang Tuah's legendary loyalty to the ruler is found in the Hikayat Hang Tuah, involves his visit to Inderaputra or Pahang during one such voyage. The sultan sent Hang Tuah to Pahang with the task of persuading the princess Tun Teja, engaged, to become the sultan's companion. Tun Teja fell under the impression that Hang Tuah had come to persuade her to marry him, not the sultan, agreed to elope with him to Melaka, it was only during the voyage home. The Hikayat Hang Tuah and Sejarah Melayu each carry different accounts of this incident; the Hikayat records that it was Hang Tuah who persuaded Tun Teja to elope with him, thus deceiving her. The most famous story in which Hang Tuah is involved is the fight with his closest childhood companion, Hang Jebat. Hang Tuah's deep loyalty to and popularity with the sultan led to rumours being circulated that Hang Tuah was having an illicit affair with one of the sultan's dayang; the sultan sentenced Hang Tuah to death without trial for the alleged offence.

The death sentence was never carried out, because Hang Tuah's executioner, the bendahara, went against the sultan’s orders and hid Hang Tuah in a remote region of Melaka. Believing that Hang Tuah was dead, murdered unjustly by the king he served, Hang Jebat decided to avenge his friend's death. Hang Jebat's revenge became a palace killing spree or furious rebellion against the sultan, it remains consistent, that Hang Jebat wreaked havoc onto the royal court, the sultan was unable to stop him, as none of the warriors dared to challenge the more ferocious and skilled Hang Jebat. The bendahara informed the sultan that the only man, able to stop Hang Jebat, Hang Tuah, was still alive; the bendahara recalled Hang Tuah from his hiding place and the warrior was given full amnesty by the sultan and was instructed to kill Hang Jebat. After seven gruelling days of fighting, Hang Tuah was able to kill Hang Jebat, it is notable that the two main sources of Hang Tuah's life differ yet again on the details of his life.

According to the Hikayat Hang Tuah, it was Hang Jebat who avenged his friend's death, only to be killed by the same friend, but according to Sejarah Melayu, it was Hang Kasturi. The Sejarah Melayu or the Malay Annals are unique in that they constitute the only available account of the history of the Malay Sultanate in the 15th and early 16th century, but the Hang Jebat story, as the more romantic tale, remains more popular. Hang Tuah continued to serve Melaka after the death of Hang Jebat. In his life, as Hang Tuah progressed in his years, the warrior was ordered by the successive Melakan ruler to court a legendary princess on the sultan's behalf; the Puteri Gunung Ledang was so named because she resided on Mount Ledang at the Melaka-Johor border. According to legend, the Princess met with Hang Tuah, only agreed to marry the sultan if he satisfied a list of requirements, or pre-wedding gifts; the list included a golden bridge linking Melaka with the top of Gunung Ledang, seven trays of mosquito livers, seven jars of virgins' tears and a bowl of the sultan's first-born son's blood.

Hang Tuah knew the tasks would not be fulfilled, was said to be so overwhelmed that he failed his king that he flung his kris into a river and vowed only to return to Melaka if it resurfaced, which it never did. It was

Sean Cunningham (soccer)

Sean Patrick Cunningham is an American soccer player, a free agent after being released from Molde in July 2013. Cunningham was born in Troy and played soccer with Derby County Wolves Soccer Club and committed to play at the University of Michigan before he signed for Molde ahead of the 2011 season, he has not yet made his debut for Molde in the league, but played three matches in the 2011 Norwegian Cup. Ahead of the 2012 season, Ole Gunnar Solskjær the manager of Molde, stated that he wanted Cunningham on loan to another Tippeliga-club during the season to get match-training. On 7 March 2012 it was announced. In at the start of the 2013 season, Cunningham trained with IL Hødd. In July 2013, Cunningham was released from his contract with Molde with six months remaining and returned to the United States. Following Cunningham's release from Molde, he went on trial with Seattle Sounders, playing in a reserve fixture in July 2013. Updated on July 21, 2013 Source: