Edna Krabappel-Flanders is a fictional character from the animated American sitcom The Simpsons, voiced by Marcia Wallace from 1990 until her death in October 2013. She was a 4th grade teacher. In the twenty-third season, she married Ned Flanders, the widower of Maude Flanders, helping raise Rod and Todd Flanders until her death. Edna is the only character. Following Wallace's death, the show's producers announced their intention to retire the character. Edna Krabappel's final speaking role was the epilogue of the 25th season episode "The Man Who Grew Too Much". Edna Krabappel holds, she is a surly and jaded caricature of the American public school system. In "The Seemingly Never-Ending Story", it is revealed that she was once a optimistic woman who genuinely wanted to help people in need, it would seem that after years of frustration thanks to the school, Bart Simpson in particular, this wore away. There is some inconsistency about Edna's origins, she is said to have come to Springfield to begin teaching in "The Seemingly Never-Ending Story".
However, in a case of retconning, she can be seen in "Springfield Up" as a student running through the background at Springfield High School while a young Chief Wiggum is filmed carrying out his duties as a hall monitor as part of the documentary featured in that episode. Edna smokes including during school hours. In the episode "Grade School Confidential", she and Principal Skinner have a romance after they are invited to Martin Prince's party, they are witnessed kissing in Martin's playhouse by Bart. Principal Skinner sends Bart to relay a message to Edna in front of his classmates who laugh at him, making him furious, he shows them what they are doing and tells them not to tell anyone about their relationship Superintendent Chalmers. Unknown to Bart they lose their jobs when Superintendent Chalmers finds out about their affair via Chief Wiggum and they lock themselves in the school with Bart until they are reinstated, they apologize to Bart for embarrassing him. After returning to their jobs, they resume their romance in a janitorial closet.
In "Bart Gets a'Z'", she is fired from teaching when she becomes drunk after drinking coffee, spiked with alcohol by Bart. She decides to open a muffin store, she is rehired when the substitute teacher gets drunk. In "Moms I'd Like to Forget", she fights a fifth grade teacher, who talks badly about her students. In "The Ned-Liest Catch", she is suspended from teaching for slapping Bart and is placed in the Teacher Holding Facility; when Bart attempts to free her, she is saved by Ned Flanders. A recurring theme is Edna's desire for a romantic partner, she is divorced. In early episodes, she is shown as sexually aggressive and promiscuous: in "Flaming Moe's", she is shown with her arms around two sailors in the parody of the famous Cheers theme, tries to pick up Aerosmith drummer Joey Kramer and Homer Simpson after learning he is married and is Bart's father. In "Bart's Friend Falls in Love", while the children are watching an unseen explicit scene in Fuzzy Bunny's Guide to You-Know-What, a sex ed film, she says to the children in disgust, "She's faking it".
In the same episode, Nelson Muntz asks why she does not live with "Mr. Krabappel", she tells him that her ex-husband "chased something small and fluffy down the rabbit hole". In "One Fish, Two Fish, Blue Fish", she has a "hot encounter" with a local Japanese sushi chef in the backseat of her car; the episode "Bart the Lover" was the first episode to give Edna a central role, to expand her character and personality. Edna appears to be desired by many men, as seen in Sideshow Bob's outrage wherein his romantic date with her is ruined by a spying Bart: "You only get one chance with Edna Krabappel!" Another theme is her relationship with Seymour Skinner. In the episode "Grade School Confidential", she develops a secret romance with Skinner, a relationship that leads to marriage. In the episode "Special Edna", Skinner proposes to Edna. However, in the episode "My Big Fat Geek Wedding", Edna leaves Skinner at the altar after realizing that he doesn't want to marry her. Since Edna's attitudes to Skinner have vacillated between passion and disdain in various episodes.
In The Simpsons Movie, she can be seen at the Green Day concert on top of Seymour's shoulders wearing a T-shirt saying "Not my boyfriend" with an arrow pointing down at Skinner. In season 17, a flashback showed that Edna was in a serious relationship with Moe Szyslak when she first moved to Springfield, before meeting Skinner or becoming a teacher, she was about to elope with him, but changed her mind when she met Bart Simpson, a student she believed needed help. Moe breaks up with her. At the end of the episode and Edna are a couple once again, much to Skinner's jealousy when he catches them making out on school property. In "Regarding Margie", she and Principal Skinner are seen making love on a golf course, he climbs off and she says, "Birthday is over, Seymour", lights up a cigarette. Edna is in a relationship with Ned Flanders. During the 22nd episode of the 22nd season, "The Ned-Liest Catch", Ned and Edna began dating
Paint Township is one of the fourteen townships of Madison County, United States. The 2000 census found 565 people in the township. Located in the southwestern part of the county, it borders the following townships: Union Township - northeast Oak Run Township - east Range Township - southeast Stokes Township - southwest Madison Township, Clark County - west Harmony Township, Clark County - northwestNo municipalities are located in Paint Township. Paint Township takes its name from Paint Creek, it is one of six Paint Townships statewide. The township is governed by a three-member board of trustees, who are elected in November of odd-numbered years to a four-year term beginning on the following January 1. Two are elected in the year after the presidential election and one is elected in the year before it. There is an elected township fiscal officer, who serves a four-year term beginning on April 1 of the year after the election, held in November of the year before the presidential election. Vacancies in the fiscal officership or on the board of trustees are filled by the remaining trustees.
Wendell E. Pritchett is an American lawyer, legal scholar and university administrator, he served as Chancellor of Rutgers University–Camden, as Interim Dean and Presidential Professor at the University of Pennsylvania Law School, serves as Provost of the University of Pennsylvania. Pritchett's father named Wendell Pritchett, was a classical pianist and public school teacher, his mother Carolyn was a high school English teacher. Pritchett grew up in Society Hill, Pennsylvania, to which his family moved in 1967, attended Friends Select School, he and his wife Anne Kringel, a native of Milwaukee, have two daughters. Kringel was the director of the legal research and writing program at the University of Pennsylvania Law School for 20 years, he earned a B. A. in Political Science from Brown University in 1986. Pritchett earned a J. D. from Yale Law School in 1991, became a member of the Pennsylvania Bar that year. From 1991 to 1992, he worked at the law firm Wolf, Schorr & Solis-Cohen, he earned a Ph.
D. in history from the University of Pennsylvania in 1997. For five years, from 1997 to 2002, Pritchett was an assistant professor of history at Baruch College of the City University of New York. Pritchett was a University of Pennsylvania Law School professor from 2001 to 2009, is the Presidential Professor of Law and Education at the school. Pritchett served as Chancellor of Rutgers University–Camden, Professor of Law and History, from 2009-14, with a salary in 2013 of $310,000. In 2012, he was elected president of the Coalition of Metropolitan Universities. From 2014-2015, he served as Interim Dean of the University of Pennsylvania Law School and as a Presidential Professor. In 2017, Pritchett was named Provost at the University of Pennsylvania. Pritchett has written two books and many articles on urban history and policy in the areas of housing, race relations, land use, economic development, his first book was Brownsville, Brooklyn: Blacks and the Changing Face of the Ghetto. His second book was Robert Clifton Weaver and the American City: The Life and Times of an Urban Reformer
Sidi Mahmoud Ben Amar was a revered Muslim scholar, one of the 333 Sufi saints said to be buried in Timbuktu. The tomb of Sidi Mahmoud Ben Amar is among 16 cemeteries and mausolea that are a part of Timbuktu, classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. On 30 June 2012, it was reported that his tomb had been destroyed by Ansar Dine following the Battle of Gao, as it contravened sharia according to Ansar Dine; these attacks resemble those carried out by the Wahabist movement on the Arabian peninsula during the late 18th century. According to tradition the Cadi Sidi Mahmoud belonged to a Berber tribe of the Godala, his forebears moved to Timbuktu after living in Macina and Oualata. He was born in 1463 or 1464 and was named Cadi in 1498 or 99 and he died in 1548. Sidi Mahmoud was Ahmed Baba's great uncle; the Tarikh of Timbuktu attributed him with numerous legends. His tomb is a place of pilgrimage and his descendants count many scholars; the tomb of Sidi Mahmoud Ben Amar is visited by local people who believe he has the power to bring rain, through the blessing of God.
The UNESCO website calls out the tomb of Sidi Mahmoud Ben Amar as follows: "Equally noteworthy and from the same general period the grave of the scholar Sidi Mahmoudou, who died in year 955 of the Hegira." In 2012, it was listed as "endangered" along with the other sites in Timbuktu. During the Tuareg rebellion of 2012, Islamist fighters attacked and desecrated the tomb of Sidi Mahmoud Ben Amar. In April 2012, Ansar Dine fighters had taken over Timbuktu and were trying to impose Sharia law. UNESCO had expressed concern about the safety of other sites in the city. On 30 June, it was reported by a local journalist that Ansar Dine had destroyed the mausoleum, along with two others, would destroy 13 other cemeteries and mausolea. Bourem Sidi Amar Buddhas of Bamiyan, Buddha statues in Afghanistan that were destroyed by the Taliban as being in violation of sharia 333 saints of Timbuktu
Fredrik Carl Mülertz Størmer was a Norwegian mathematician and astrophysicist. In mathematics, he is known for his work in number theory, including the calculation of π and Størmer's theorem on consecutive smooth numbers. In physics, he is known for studying the movement of charged particles in the magnetosphere and the formation of aurorae, for his book on these subjects, From the Depths of Space to the Heart of the Atom, he worked for many years as a professor of mathematics at the University of Oslo in Norway. A crater on the far side of the moon is named after him. Størmer was born on 3 September 1874 in Skien, the only child of a pharmacist Georg Ludvig Størmer and Elisabeth Amalie Johanne Henriette Mülertz, his uncle was inventor Henrik Christian Fredrik Størmer. Størmer studied mathematics at the Royal Frederick University in Kristiania, Norway from 1892 to 1897, earning the rank of candidatus realium in 1898, he studied with Picard, Poincaré, Painlevé, Jordan and Goursat at the Sorbonne in Paris from 1898 to 1900.
He returned to Kristiania in 1900 as a research fellow in mathematics, visited the University of Göttingen in 1902, returned to Kristiania in 1903, where he was appointed as a professor of mathematics, a position he held for 43 years. After he received a permanent position in Kristiania, Størmer published his subsequent writings under a shortened version of his name, Carl Størmer. In 1918, he was elected as the first president of the newly formed Norwegian Mathematical Society, he participated in Scandinavian mathematical congresses, was president of the 1936 International Congress of Mathematicians in Oslo. Størmer was affiliated with the Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics at the University of Oslo, founded in 1934, he died on 13 August 1957, at Blindern. He was an amateur street photographer, beginning in his student days. Near the age of 70 he put on an exhibition in Oslo of the photographs of celebrities that he had taken over the years. For instance it included one of Henrik Ibsen strolling down the main road in Oslo.
He was a supervisory council member of the insurance company Forsikringsselskapet Norden. In February 1900 he married consul's daughter Ada Clauson, with whom he had five children, their son Leif Størmer became a professor of historical geology at the University of Oslo. His daughter Henny married landowner Carl Otto Løvenskiold. Carl Størmer is the grandfather of the mathematician Erling Størmer. Størmer's first mathematical publication, published when he was a beginning student at the age of 18, concerned trigonometric series generalizing the Taylor expansion of the arcsine function, he revisited this problem a few years later. Next, he systematically investigated Machin-like formula by which the number π may be represented as a rational combination of the so-called "Gregory numbers" of the form arctan 1/n. Machin's original formula, π = 16 arctan 1 5 − 4 arctan 1 239, is of this type, Størmer showed that there were three other ways of representing π as a rational combination of two Gregory numbers.
He investigated combinations of three Gregory numbers, found 102 representations of π of this form, but was unable to determine whether there might be additional solutions of this type. These representations led to fast algorithms for computing numerical approximations of π. In particular, a four-term representation found by Størmer, π = 176 arctan 1 57 + 28 arctan 1 239 − 48 arctan 1 682 + 96 arctan 1 12943 was used in a record-setting calculation of π to 1,241,100,000,000 decimal digits in 2002 by Yasumasa Kanada. Størmer is noted for the Størmer numbers, which arose from the decomposition of Gregory numbers in Størmer's work. Størmer's theorem, which he proved in 1897, shows that, for any finite set P of prime numbers, there are only finitely many pairs of consecutive integers having only the numbers from P as their prime factors. In addition, Størmer describes an algorithm for finding all such pairs; the superparticular ratios generated by these consecutive pairs are of particular importance in music theory.
Størmer proves this theorem by reducing the problem to a finite set of Pell equations, the theorem itself can be interpreted as describing the possible factorizations of solutions to Pell's equation. Chapman quotes Louis Mordell as saying "His result is pretty, there are many applications of it."Additional subjects of Størmer's mathematical research included Lie groups, the gamma function, Diophantine approximation of algebraic numbers and of the transcendental numbers arising from elliptic functions. From 1905 Størmer was an editor of the journal Acta Mathematica, he was an editor of the posthumously-published mathematical works of Niels Henrik Abel and Sophus Lie. From 1903, when Størmer first observed Kristian Birkeland's experimental attempts to explain the aurora borealis, he was fascinated by aurorae and related phenomena, his first work on the subject atte
Davis's law is used in anatomy and physiology to describe how soft tissue models along imposed demands. It is the corollary to Wolff's law tissue, it is a physiological principle stating that soft tissue heal according to the manner in which they are mechanically stressed. It is an application of the Mechanostat model of Harold Frost, developed to describe the adaptational response of bones; the "stretch-hypertrophy rule" of that model states: "Intermittent stretch causes collagenous tissues to hypertrophy until the resulting increase in strength reduces elongation in tension to some minimum level". Similar to the behavior of bony tissues this adaptational response occurs only if the mechanical strain exceeds a certain threshold value. Harold Frost proposed that for dense collagenous connective tissues the related threshold values are around 23 Newton/mm2 or 4% strain elongation; the term Davis's law is named after Henry Gassett Davis, an American orthopedic surgeon known for his work in developing traction methods.
Its earliest known appearance is in John Joseph Nutt's 1913 book Diseases and Deformities of the Foot, where Nutt outlines the law by quoting a passage from Davis's 1867 book, Conservative Surgery: "Ligaments, or any soft tissue, when put under a moderate degree of tension, if that tension is unremitting, will elongate by the addition of new material. Nature never wastes her time and material in maintaining a muscle or ligament at its original length when the distance between their points of origin and insertion is for any considerable time, without interruption, shortened." Davis's writing on the subject exposes a long chain of competing theories on the subject of soft tissue contracture and the causes of scoliosis. Davis's comments in Conservative Surgery were in the form of a sharp rebuke of lectures published by Louis Bauer of the Brooklyn Medical and Surgical Institute in 1862. In his writing, Bauer averred that "a contraction of ligaments is a physiological impossibility". Bauer sided with work published in 1851 by Julius Konrad Werner, director of the Orthopedic Institute of Konigsberg, Prussia.
Tendons are soft tissue structures. Bulk mechanical properties, such as modulus, failure strain, ultimate tensile strength, decrease over long periods of disuse as a result of micro-structural changes on the collagen fiber level. In micro-gravity simulations, human test subjects can experience gastrocnemius tendon strength loss of up to 58% over a 90-day period. Test subjects who were allowed to engage in resistance training displayed a smaller magnitude of tendon strength loss in the same micro-gravity environment, but modulus strength decrease was still significant. Conversely, tendons that have lost their original strength due to extended periods of inactivity can regain most of their mechanical properties through gradual re-loading of the tendon, due to the tendon's response to mechanical loading. Biological signaling events initiate re-growth at the site, while mechanical stimuli further promote rebuilding; this 6-8 week process results in an increase of the tendon's mechanical properties until it recovers its original strength.
However, excessive loading during the recovery process may lead to material failure, i.e. partial tears or complete rupture. Additionally, studies show that tendons have a maximum modulus of 800 MPa; these results may change current physical therapy practices, since aggressive training of the tendon does not strengthen the structure beyond its baseline mechanical properties. Hypertrophy Davis, Henry Gassett, Conservative Surgery New York: D. Appleton & Co.. New York: E. B. Treat & Co.. Spencer AM, Practical podiatric orthopedic procedures. Cleveland: Ohio College of Podiatric Medicine. Tippett, Steven R. and Michael L. Voight, Functional Progression for Sport Rehabilitation. Champaigne IL: Human Kinetics.