Education in Australia

Education in Australia encompasses the sectors of early childhood education and primary education, followed by secondary education, tertiary education and adult education. Regulation and funding of education is the responsibility of the States and territories, however the Australian Government plays a funding role. Education in Australia is compulsory between the ages of five or six and fifteen, sixteen or seventeen, depending on the State or territory and date of birth. For primary and secondary education, government schools educate 60 percent of Australian students, with 40 percent in non-government schools. At the tertiary level, the majority of Australia's universities are public, student fees are subsidised through a student loan program where payment becomes due when debtors reach a certain income level. Underpinned by the Australian Qualifications Framework, implemented in 1995, Australia has adopted a national system of qualifications, encompassing higher education, vocational education and training, school-based education.

For primary and secondary schools, a national Australian Curriculum has been progressively developed and implemented since 2010. Australia is a leading global provider of education to international students. Australia has the highest ratio of international students per head of population in the world by a large margin, with 812,000 international students enrolled in the nation's universities and vocational institutions in 2019.. The Education Index, published with the UN's Human Development Index in 2018, based on data from 2017, listed Australia as 0.929, the second-highest in the world. In 1966 the Australian Government signed the Convention against Discrimination in Education, that aimed to combat discrimination and racial segregation in the field of education; the regulation and funding of education is the responsibility of the States and territories, because the Australian Government does not have a specific constitutional power to pass laws with respect to education. However, the Federal government helps to fund non-government schools, helps to fund public universities and subsidises tertiary education through a national student loan scheme, regulates vocational education providers.

Post-compulsory education is regulated within the Australian Qualifications Framework, a unified system of national qualifications in schools, vocational education and training, the tertiary education sector. The Australian Government's involvement in education has been the responsibility of a number of departments over the years, the present version of, the Department of Education and Training; the academic year in Australia varies between States and institutions, however runs from late January/early February until early/mid-December for primary and secondary schools, with slight variations in the inter-term holidays and TAFE colleges, from late February until mid-November for universities with seasonal holidays and breaks for each educational institute. Preschool and pre-prep programmes in Australia are unregulated, are not compulsory; the first exposure many Australian children have to learning with others outside of traditional parenting is day care or a parent-run playgroup. This sort of activity is not considered schooling, as preschool education is separate from primary school in all states and territories, except Western Australia where pre-school education is taught as part of the primary school system and Victoria where the state framework, the Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework covers children from birth to 8 years old, is used by some schools over the national framework.

In Queensland, preschool programmes are called Kindergarten or Pre-Prep, are privately run but attract state government funding if run for at least 600 hours a year and delivered by a registered teacher. Preschools are run by the state and territory governments, except in Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales where they are more run by local councils, community groups or private organisations. Preschool is offered to three- to five-year-olds; the year before a child is due to attend primary school is the main year for pre-school education. This year is far more attended, may take the form of a few hours of activity during weekdays. There are 10,584 registered schools operating in Australia in 2019 of which 7,092 were government schools; as of 2019, government schools educated 65.4% of all students. In 2017, there were just under 282,000 teachers in Australian secondary schools. Of the non-government schools, nearly two-thirds were Catholic schools; the major part of government run schools' costs are met by the relevant state or territory government.

The Australian Government provides the majority of public funding for non-government schools, supplemented by states and territories. Non-government schools, both religious or secular charge compulsory tuition and other fees. Government schools provide education without compulsory tuition fees, although many government schools ask for payment of'voluntary' fees to defray particular expenses. Regardless of whether a school is government or non-government, it is regulated by the same curriculum standards framework; the framework is administered by the Australian Curriculum and Reporting Authority

Kilju County

Kilju, sometimes romanized as Kilchu, is a county in North Hamgyong province, North Korea. The county seat is Kilju Town; the area around Kilju was part of the ancient Goguryeo kingdom and was long inhabited by various Jurchen tribes. In 1107 it was annexed by Goryeo. After the ascension of Joseon Dynasty, Kilju was promoted to county in 1398, in 1509 the county was included in the newly formed Hamgyong Province In 1895, during a reorganization of regional governments, Hamgyong was dissolved and replaced with several small departments. In 1896 however, the new organization was abandoned, with the departments re-organized into North and South Hamgyong provinces. During the Japanese occupation, the county was used for manufacturing telecommunications equipment and electric insulation. Kilju is located in the southern part of North Hamgyong, it borders Myŏngch'ŏn on the east, Kimch'aek and Hwadae to the south, Myŏnggan and Ŏrang to the north. To the west it borders Tanch ` ŏn in South Paegam in Ryanggang.

Kilju stands at the junction of the Hamgyŏng Mountains and the Maryŏng Mountains, its northwestern region is mountainous. The average annual temperature is 7.5 °C. Tourist sites in Kilju include the former Kilju Magistrate's Hall, built in 1888 to house the office, the Kilju Hyanggyo, one of the provincial schools founded during the Yi dynasty to teach the children of the rural Yangban who lived in the area. ) The Pukkwan Victory Monument, located in this county before the 1950s redistricting, is now located just across the border in what is now Kimchaek city. In addition to its airport, the county is served by the Pyongra Line railway, which stops at Kilju Chongnyon Station and connects it to Pyongyang and Rason; the city is linked by road to Hamhung and Chongjin. A number of military facilities are believed to be located in Kilju; these include the Hwadae-ri atomic weapons training facility. This was first built with Soviet assistance in 1958, rose to international prominence when the 2006 North Korean nuclear test, 2009 North Korean nuclear test, 2013 North Korean nuclear test, 2017 North Korean nuclear test were reported to have been held at Punggye-ri Nuclear Test Site in the area of Mantapsan mountain, in the northernmost part of the county.

The Musudan-ri missile facility is located in nearby Hwadae county, a separate Scud facility has been reported in the area. Reports from defectors who lived in the area indicate that residents are suffering from radiation exposure, with high rates of cancers and birth defects being experienced by those living near the Punggye-ri Test Site; the county is divided into one town, five worker's districts, 22 villages. Punggye-ri Nuclear Test Site Global Security profile, with extensive background information In Korean language online encyclopedias: Doosan Encyclopedia Korean language Britannica Encyclopedia of Korean Culture Pascal World Encyclopedia

Extra EA-400

The Extra EA-400 is a six-seat, single-engined, high-wing monoplane produced by Extra Flugzeugbau GmbH. The EA-400 is powered by a liquid-cooled Continental Voyager turbocharged piston engine. Started by Walter Extra, the company manufactures aerobatic airplanes exclusively, with their latest products being the Extra EA-300 series; this changed with the introduction of the EA-400, a cross-country pressurized airplane with many exclusive features including carbon fiber construction, cantilevered high wing, a water-cooled Teledyne Continental TSIOL 550C engine. This exotic engine is a great asset and a challenge for the Extra 400: it is immune to shock cooling during descents, but troublesome and costly to operate in hot climates; the airframe was designed with engineering help from the Technical University of Delft in Holland under leadership from Prof. Egbert Torenbeek and with contributions of Mr Loek Boermans for airfoil design; the aircraft's Fowler flaps feature a recessed mechanism and achieve a remarkable reduction of stall speed from 76 to 58 knots in landing configuration at maximum takeoff weight.

The landing gear was manufactured by Gomolzig in Germany. It is unusual in its geometry strongly built, sealed behind large carbon fiber doors once retracted, its complexity requires knowledgeable maintenance personnel and contributes to the aircraft's high operating costs. The optional weather radar pod is smoothly blended into the left wing tip. All Extra 400 aircraft have been retrofitted with the Flight Into Known Icing modification. Deicing equipment consists of Teflon boots, a heated prop, a heated pilot side windscreen, dual heated pitot tubes and static ports, a heated stall sensor connected to the autopilot; the deicing equipment is powered by a pair of large alternators that feed the AC compressor located in the tail. The cockpit is unusually comfortable with good forward and lateral visibility. Avionics are conventional with a full set of instruments for each of the two crew and a central stack. STCs for upgrades to modern GPS navigators and "glass cockpit" displays are available, but the only autopilot certified is the STEC 55X.

An improved propeller with the "b" type blades is available from MT-Propeller under FAA Form 337 Major Modification. It increases climb cruise speed. Time to climb to FL200 is 20 minutes and cruise speed at 75% power ranges from 200 knots at 16'000 ft to a maximum of 220 knots at FL 250; the passenger cabin is air-conditioned and offers four seats in a club arrangement with a folding table. It is much roomier than one would expect in this aircraft category and similar in size to that of the smaller jets such as the Eclipse 550; the single-skin pressurized vessel is rigid, resulting in a low level of noise and vibration in the cabin. The Extra 400 was costly to manufacture, requiring 16'000 hours of labor, carried a price tag of $1 million. Despite the aircraft's qualities, only 27 were built. A fatal accident occurred upon delivery of the first customer aircraft on August 21, 1998, due to flying into a storm, this caused German authorities to impose a type rating on Extra 400 pilots, withdrawn in December 2015.

Another Extra 400 was lost to an engine failure on March 10, 2018, causing the aircraft to ditch in a field in Sharpsburg North Carolina with no casualties. The sole occupant was not injured. A third Extra 400 was lost in Oklahoma on August 4, 2018, due to unknown circumstances that caused the aircraft to lose altitude after takeoff and crash and burn with 5 fatalities. Data from Extra EA-400 Standard Specification, Pilots Information ManualGeneral characteristics Crew: 1 Capacity: 5 passengers Length: 9.57 m Wingspan: 11.5 m Height: 3.09 m Empty weight: 1,500 kg Max takeoff weight: 1,999 kg Powerplant: 1 × Continental TSIOL-550-C Voyager 6-cyl. Horizontally opposed liquid cooled turbocharged intercooled fuel-injected direct drive piston engine, 261 kW for takeoff, 242 kW continuousPerformance Cruise speed: 376 km/h KTAS at MTOW, 75% power, FL180 5,500 m Never exceed speed: 406 km/h Range: 2,000 km Service ceiling: 7,600 m Rate of climb: 7.1 m/s at MTOW - ISA Related development Extra EA-500 European Aviation Safety Agency: TYPE-CERTIFICATE DATA SHEET