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Education reform

Education reform is the name given to the goal of changing public education. Reforms have taken different forms because the motivations of reformers have differed. However, since the 1980s, education reform has been focused on changing the existing system from one focused on inputs to one focused on outputs. In the United States, education reform acknowledges and encourages public education as the primary source of K-12 education for American youth. Education reformers desire to make public education into a market, where accountability creates high-stakes from curriculum standards tied to standardized tests; as a result of this input-output system, equality has been conceptualized as an end point, evidenced by an achievement gap among diverse populations. This conceptualization of education reform is based on the market-logic of competition; as a consequence, competition creates inequality which has continued to drive the market-logic of equality at an end point by reproduce the achievement gap among diverse youth.

The one constant for all forms of education reform includes the idea that small changes in education will have large social returns in citizen health and well-being. For example, a stated motivation has been to reduce cost to students and society. From ancient times until the 1800s, one goal was to reduce the expense of a classical education. Ideally, classical education is undertaken with a educated full-time personal tutor; this was available only to the most wealthy. Encyclopedias, public libraries and grammar schools are examples of innovations intended to lower the cost of a classical education. Related reforms attempted to develop similar classical results by concentrating on "why", "which" questions neglected by classical education. Abstract, introspective answers to these questions can theoretically compress large numbers of facts into few principles; this path was taken by some Transcendentalist educators, such as Amos Bronson Alcott. In the early modern age, Victorian schools were reformed to teach commercially useful topics, such as modern languages and mathematics, rather than classical subjects, such as Latin and Greek.

Many reformers focused on reforming society by reforming education on more scientific, pragmatic or democratic principles. John Dewey and Anton Makarenko are prominent examples of such reformers; some reformers incorporated several motivations, e.g. Maria Montessori, who both "educated for peace", to "meet the needs of the child". In historic Prussia, an important motivation for the invention of Kindergarten was to foster national unity by teaching a national language while children were young enough that learning a language was easy. Proponents of evidence-based education call for the use of evidence in guiding education reform. Reform has taken many directions. Throughout history and the present day, the meaning and methods of education have changed through debates over what content or experiences result in an educated individual or an educated society. Changes may be implemented by individual educators and/or by broad-based school organization and/or by curriculum changes with performance evaluations.

Plato believed. In The Republic, he said, "... compulsory learning never sticks in the mind." An educational debate in the time of the Roman Empire arose after Christianity had achieved broad acceptance. The question concerned the educational value of pre-Christian classical thought: "Given that the body of knowledge of the pre-Christian Romans was heathen in origin, was it safe to teach it to Christian children?" Though educational reform occurred on a local level at various points throughout history, the modern notion of education reform is tied with the spread of compulsory education. Education reforms did not become widespread until after organized schooling was sufficiently systematized to be'reformed.' In the modern world, economic growth and the spread of democracy have raised the value of education and increased the importance of ensuring that all children and adults have access to high-quality, effective education. Modern education reforms are driven by a growing understanding of what works in education and how to go about improving teaching and learning in schools.

However, in some cases, the reformers' goals of "high-quality education" has meant "high-intensity education", with a narrow emphasis on teaching individual, test-friendly subskills regardless of long-term outcomes, developmental appropriateness, or broader educational goals. Western classical education as taught from the 18th to the 19th century has missing features that inspired reformers. Classical education is most concerned with answering the who, what and when? Questions that concern a majority of students. Unless taught, group instruction neglects the theoretical "why" and "which" questions that concern fewer students. Classical education in this period did not teach local languages and cultures. Instead it taught their cultures; this produced odd social effects in which an intellectual class might be more loyal to ancient cultures and institutions than to their native vernacular languages and their actual governing authorities. Before there were government-funded public schools, education of the lower classes was by the charity school, pioneered in the 19th century by Protestant organizations and adapted by the Roman Catholic Church and governments.

Because these schools operated on small budgets and attempted to serve as many needy children

LeMessurier Consultants

LeMessurier Consultants is a Boston, Massachusetts firm, founded by William LeMessurier in 1961. It provides engineering support services to architects and construction firms, they focus on advanced structural impacts to construction materials. They are known for their modular construction techniques including the Mah-LeMessurier System for precast concrete in high-rise housing, the Staggered Truss System for high-rise steel structures, the tuned mass damper used to reduce tall building motion. One of the best known uses of the damper is the John Hancock Tower in Boston. In addition to new construction, they work with retrofitting buildings and historic preservation. Simpson Gumpertz & Heger Inc. Thornton Tomasetti Arup Group Skidmore and Merrill Audio Slide Show of the John Hancock Damper

Pearls of Passion

Pearls of Passion is the debut studio album by Swedish pop duo Roxette released on cassette and vinyl on 31 October 1986 in Scandinavia and Canada. The album was remastered and released on CD on 31 October 1997, with several unreleased bonus tracks, it was remastered and re-released again in 2009. Roxette are a Swedish duo consisting of Marie Fredriksson and Per Gessle, who were both established artists in their home country prior to the duo forming. Gessle had experienced considerable commercial success with his previous band Gyllene Tider, releasing three number one albums in Sweden during the early'80s; when the band broke up in 1984, Gessle's solo albums failed to replicate that level of success: 1983's Per Gessle and 1985's Scener both failed commercially. The latter peaked at number 39 on Sverigetopplistan, sold less than 20,000 copies—a substantial drop from 400,000 copies sold by Gyllene Tider's self-titled debut album five years earlier. Gessle revealed his contract with EMI Sweden was close to being terminated after the commercial performance of Scener.

Meanwhile, Fredriksson was signed to EMI Sweden, had released two commercially successful albums: 1984's Het vind and 1986's Den sjunde vågen, as well as several hit singles. On the advice of Rolf Nygren – the managing director of EMI Sweden – Gessle translated a song called "Svarta glas" into English, it was written for Pernilla Wahlgren. Nygren suggested that Gessle record the song as a duet with Fredriksson; this became the duo's first single, "Neverending Love", which peaked at number three on the Swedish Singles Chart. The rest of the album was recorded sporadically throughout the summer of 1986. Dance Passion, a compilation EP containing seven remixed versions of tracks found on Pearls of Passion, was released in Sweden in 1987, a further two songs from the album were re-recorded for inclusion on Roxette albums: CD versions of 1991's Joyride contained a version of "Soul Deep", while Tourism, released the following year, contained an acoustic version of "So Far Away". Jason Damas from AllMusic gave the album a negative review, rating it one-and-a-half stars out of five and writing: "Nothing here is bad, but it lacks nearly all of the elements that made Look Sharp! and Joyride massive hits just a few years later."

He elaborated that "Roxette's most intriguing qualities are that they are a pop band that can rock, that Per Gessle is a crack songwriter that never produces a bad tune. Here, there's a lot of indistinguishable dance-pop, their trademark gritty guitars are absent", he went on to say that the album contained three great songs: "Soul Deep", "Neverending Love" and "Secrets That She Keeps", but charactised the rest of the album as being "insignificant, except to the most serious of fans." The record was an immediate commercial success in Sweden, peaking at number two on the albums chart, going on to sell over 200,000 copies by the end of 1987. However, it failed to chart internationally. "Neverending Love", "Goodbye to You", "Soul Deep" and "I Call Your Name" were released as singles, with the first three becoming top twenty hits in Sweden. A non-album single, "It Must Have Been Love", was released in December 1987, became their second top five hit there; the song was re-recorded – with the reference to Christmas changed to a neutral winter reference – and became a substantial international hit after appearing on the soundtrack to the 1990 film Pretty Woman.

Pearls of Passion was remastered and released on CD for the first time eleven years after its original release, on 31 October 1997. Three songs were re-released as promotional singles in selected territories to promote the reissue: "From One Heart to Another" was issued as a promotional single in Brazil, a remixed version of "I Call Your Name" – "I Call Your Name'97" – was released as an airplay-only single in Spain. EMI Spain reissued "Neverending Love", to commemorate shipments of over 50,000 units of the album in that country; as of 2001, Pearls of Passion has sold 800,000 copies worldwide. All lyrics and music written except where noted. Credits adapted from the liner notes of Pearls of Passion. Roxette are Per Gessle and Marie Fredriksson Recorded at EMI Studios, Sweden Remastered by Alar Suurna at Polar Studio, Stockholm All songs published by Jimmy Fun Music, except: "Soul Deep" by Happy Accident Music.

Constitutional Convention Bill

The Constitutional Convention Bill was a bill introduced in the British House of Commons by Graham Allen MP on 22 July 2015 and never went past the first reading. The bill was introduced in the House of Lords by Lord Purvis of Tweed and reached committee stage. Under the bill, the following would be established: A Constitutional Convention would be created as a deliberative state organ. A position of Secretary of State for the Constitutional Convention would be created; the Convention would consider and make recommendations on further devolution to Cornwall, Northern Ireland and Wales - in legislative and fiscal matters, as well as the devolution of legal, political and fiscal competence to local authorities. The Convention would consider and make recommendations on the reform of the electoral system, the House of Lords, House of Commons, local government, the role of the monarchy, Crown Dependencies, British Overseas Territories, matters and procedures to govern further conventions and constitutional reforms.

And that these aims would be released within a year upon the bill being given Royal Assent. The Constitutional Convention Bill was first mentioned of in the Labour Party Manifesto for the 2015 General Election; the driving factor behind the Bill was the fact that the Labour Party had been pushing constitutional reform, as well as the left-wing movement in general, that there had not been a single constitutional document in the United Kingdom - rather a series of laws and agreements promulgated over centuries, like the Magna Carta and the Act of Settlement. This is a similar attempt to compile relevant legislation, comparable to when the Brown Ministry was working on the Equality Act, given royal assent in 2010; the Constitutional Convention would be composed of representatives of the nations and regions, the local authorities, registered political parties. There was a quota of 50% percent of convention members that must not be in any employment that could be considered political. House of Lords Reform Bill 2012

SS Japara (1930)

SS Japara was a freighter of 3,323 GRT built by Mach. Fabr. & Scheepswerf P. Smit Jr. Rotterdam in 1930 and operated by Koninklijke Paketvaart-Maatschappij in the Dutch East Indies trade; the 1930 Japara was operating with the United States Army permanent local fleet of the U. S. Army Forces in Australia from 1942 until 1945 while the larger ship, 9,312 GRT MS Japara, was active in Army service oceanwide. Japara of 1930 played an important logistics role in the New Guinea Campaign. Japara was one of twenty-one KPM vessels that took refuge in Australian ports after the fall of Java that Dutch officials requested be put into service for the war effort; the ship, among others, was chartered by the Chief Quartermaster, U. S. Army Forces in Australia on 26 March 1942 with long term details to be negotiated at higher levels to become part of the U. S. Army's local fleet crewed by its KPM officers and men with an Army local fleet number of X-18 being assigned until released from the fleet May 1945. Japara and SS Van Heemskerk escorted by HMAS Arunta were due in Milne Bay on the evening of 11 September, days after the surface raid that had sunk MV Anshun, when reports of another possible surface raid developing caused the convoy to hold until the morning of 12 September when it entered Milne Bay at about six in the morning.

The transports finished unloading and departed for Townsville under escort of Arunta and HMAS Stuart on 15 September. Logistical support of Allied offensive operations on the north coast of New Guinea by sea required establishment of a port west of Milne Bay at Oro Bay and a route by which large ships could pass through the uncharted and hazardous waters between. Small vessels transporting supplies in the early stages and survey vessels found that route and convoys code named Operation Lilliput were put into place to run two large ships under escort of one or two corvettes to Oro Bay in what were termed "flights" and given numbers. Japara was in a convoy of nine ships that departed Townsville 15 November 1942 that split on 17 November into a contingent going to Port Moresby and four, Balikpapan, Bantam and J. B. Ashe under escort of corvettes headed to Milne Bay with the three Dutch ships to become the first "flights" of Lilliput. Japara, escorted by HMAS Lithgow, departed Oro Bay on 18 December on the voyage starting Operation Lilliput transporting U.

S. Army port and engineer troops from Gili Gili at Milne Bay to Oro Bay that were to establish a functioning port and to construct a road from that shipping terminus to the new airfields at Dobodura which would make it possible to support and base bombers and fighters north of the Owen Stanley Range; the ship arrived with the troops, 750 tons of cargo, Australian pontoon barges to form a new docking facility and the Commander, Combined Operational Service Command detachment for Oro Bay that would operate the growing port on the night of 19 December and was unloaded and away from danger by daylight. Japara returned to Oro Bay on the night of 26 December with the remainder of the U. S. troops to operate the port and build the Dobodura road and a troop of Stuart light tanks to supplement those arriving earlier in Karsik and two brought in by Bantam on 23 December. Japara was sold in 1958 to Marden & Co.. Panama and renamed Davric, she was sold in 1963 renamed Phoenix, sold in 1966 renamed East Head, sold in 1967 renamed Arrow Head, sold in 1968 renamed Moji Trader and lastly sold in 1969 and renamed Victory, scrapped in Hong Kong in 1969.

Notes Bibliography

Belew Prints: The Acoustic Adrian Belew, Vol. 2

Belew Prints: The Acoustic Adrian Belew Volume Two is the eleventh solo album by Adrian Belew, released in 1998. A sequel to 1995's The Acoustic Adrian Belew, it reworks previous Belew songs via stripped-down arrangements for solo acoustic guitar and voice. Unlike its predecessor it sometimes expands the instrumentation - Belew plays string bass, piano and percussion at points on the record, one song is arranged for an additional string quartet; the album contains two reworked King Crimson songs which Belew co-wrote and performed with the band's 1990s incarnation and a Beatles cover. "Men in Helicopters" – 3:09 "Cage" – 2:25 "I Remember How to Forget" - 3:36 "Young Lions" – 3:07 "Never Enough" – 3:31 "Things You Hit with a Stick" – 2:05 "Everything" – 2:56 "Big Blue Sun" – 2:58 "Bad Days" – 2:58 "One of those Days" – 3:01 "Return of the Chicken" – 1:36 "Dinosaur" – 5:44 "1967" – 5:36 "Free as a Bird" – 3:19 "Nude Wrestling with a Christmas Tree" – 2:08The Japanese CD release running order is different and includes “Inner Revolution” and “Brave New World”, but not “Young Lions” and “Everything”.

The booklet contains a detailed diary of the work’s progress. Adrian Belew – acoustic guitars, string bass, acoustic drums, vocals David Davidson – first violin on “Men in Helicopters” David Angell – second violin on “Men in Helicopters” Kristin Wilkinson – viola on “Men in Helicopters” John Catchingscello on “Men in Helicopters” Adrian Belew – producer Ken Latchney – engineer Julie Schrader – layout Michael Wilson – photography Stan Hertzman – photography