The Thorvaldsen Museum is a single-artist museum in Copenhagen, dedicated to the art of Danish neoclassicistic sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen, who lived and worked in Rome for most of his life. The museum is located on the island of Slotsholmen in central Copenhagen next to Christiansborg Palace. Designed by Michael Gottlieb Bindesbøll, the building was constructed from 1838-48 following a collection of funds in 1837. The building is inspired by antique Greek architecture and built around an inner courtyard where the artist is buried. The courtyard is particularlarly notable being painted in Eqyptian motifs, tall palms and crocodile prowl among exotic birds. It is particularly noteworthy for its use of colors both inside and outside. Every room in the museum has a unique ceiling decoration in the grotesque style, the outside is adorned with a frieze depicting Thorvaldsens homecoming from Rome in 1838 made by Jørgen Sonne
Vestre Cemetery (Copenhagen)
Vestre Cemetery is located in a large park setting in the Kongens Enghave district of Copenhagen, Denmark. With its 54 hectares it is the largest cemetery in Denmark, beautifully landscaped, it serves as an important open space, popular for people to take a stroll, and look at the old graves and monuments. It is located southwest of the city center, between the Enghave, Sydhavn, Sjælør and Valby train stations on Copenhagens S-train system, the cemetery is one of five run by Copenhagen municipality. The other cemeteries are Assistens Cemetery, Brønshøj Cemetery, Sundby Cemetery, the cemetery has a Catholic section, and next to that is a Jewish cemetery. Vestre Kirkegård was opened on 2 November 1870 to accommodate an urgent need for adequate burial places for the population of Copenhagen. Assistens Cemetery, till the cemetery of the city, had long been unable to cope with the increasing number of burials. First a burial place for the poor, Vestre Kirkegaard became the burial place during the 1990s.
The cemetery is noted for its scenery, offers a maze of dense groves, open lawns, winding paths, overgrown tombs, tree-lined avenues, ponds. Many graves have distinctive gravestones, sculptures or large mausoleums and are eclectically placed, the cemeterys grounds boast a huge variety of trees with many rare species and is a heaven to birds and small mammals. Almost all the buildings in the grounds have been designed by Hans Jørgen Holm or Holger Jacobsen who succeeded him as resident architect for the Copenhagen Burial Services, Holm designed both the North Chapel and South Chapel as well as an office building the gate at the main entrance. It is unclear who were responsible for the design of the former inspectors house just inside the main entrance, the East Chapel was inaugurated in 1914 to a design by Holger Jacobsen but only remained in use until 1926. The Crossroads Project, designed by Schønher Landskab, is a project centred on the remains of the West Chapel. The complex is intended to serve a dual purpose both relating to the function as a burial place and as an open space and meeting place in the city.
The complex consists of two intersecting axes with the former Southern Chapel in its centre, the chapel was partly demolished, leaving only the central part as an open pavilion-like domed structure. The building is partly overgrown by ivy, the surrounding garden spaces of the two axes, creating a Greek cross, are confined by tall yew hedges and have a grass surface. Embedded in the lawns of the arms are narrow, rust coloured paths made of oxidized iron plates. At the end of each arm is a 9 metre tall rust coloured iron arch. The design of the project is inspired by Bramantes Tempietto in Rome, the latter is characterized by the garden being contained in the two axes of the garden, instead of the axes being the connecting feature of the surrounding gardens as is normally the case
The Little Mermaid (statue)
The Little Mermaid is a bronze statue by Edvard Eriksen, depicting a mermaid. The sculpture is displayed on a rock by the waterside at the Langelinie promenade in Copenhagen and it is 1.25 metres tall and weighs 175 kilograms. Based on the tale of the same name by Danish author Hans Christian Andersen. In recent decades it has become a target for defacement by vandals. Mermaid is among iconic statues that symbolize cities, others include, Manneken Pis in Brussels, in several cases, cities have commissioned statues for such a purpose, such as with Singapores Merlion. The sculptor Edvard Eriksen created the statue, which was unveiled on August 23,1913. The statues head was modelled after Price, but as the ballerina did not agree to model in the nude, while the statue was away in Shanghai an authorised copy was displayed on a rock in the lake in Copenhagens nearby Tivoli Gardens. This statue has been damaged and defaced many times since the mid-1960s for various reasons, on April 24,1964, the statues head was sawn off and stolen by politically oriented artists of the Situationist movement, amongst them Jørgen Nash.
The head was never recovered and a new head was produced and placed on the statue, on July 22,1984, the right arm was sawn off and returned two days by two young men. In 1990, an attempt to sever the head left an 18 centimeters deep cut in the neck. On January 6,1998, the statue was decapitated again, the culprits were never found, but the head was returned anonymously to a television station. On the night of September 10,2003, the statue was knocked off its base with explosives, holes had been blasted in the mermaids wrist and knee. In 2004, the statue was draped in a burqa in a protest against Turkeys application to join the European Union, in May 2007, it was again found draped in Muslim dress and a head scarf. Paint has been poured on the several times, including one episode in 1963. On March 8,2006, a dildo was attached to the hand, green paint was dumped over it. It is suspected that this vandalism was connected with International Womens Day, the grave of Danish-American entertainer Victor Borge includes a copy as well.
The Copenhagen Airport has a replica of the mermaid along with a statue of Andersen, some statues similar to The Little Mermaid are In Sicily. The first it placed in 1962 on the seafront in Giardini Naxos, a second always portraying a mermaid Post on a depth of sea about 18 meters
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic Ocean. It has a population of 332,529 and an area of 103,000 km2, the capital and largest city is Reykjavík. Reykjavík and the areas in the southwest of the country are home to over two-thirds of the population. Iceland is volcanically and geologically active, the interior consists of a plateau characterised by sand and lava fields and glaciers, while many glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Iceland is warmed by the Gulf Stream and has a climate, despite a high latitude just outside the Arctic Circle. Its high latitude and marine influence still keeps summers chilly, with most of the archipelago having a tundra climate. According to the ancient manuscript Landnámabók, the settlement of Iceland began in the year 874 AD when the Norwegian chieftain Ingólfr Arnarson became the first permanent settler on the island. In the following centuries, and to a lesser extent other Scandinavians, emigrated to Iceland, the island was governed as an independent commonwealth under the Althing, one of the worlds oldest functioning legislative assemblies.
Following a period of strife, Iceland acceded to Norwegian rule in the 13th century. The establishment of the Kalmar Union in 1397 united the kingdoms of Norway, Iceland thus followed Norways integration to that Union and came under Danish rule after Swedens secession from that union in 1523. In the wake of the French revolution and the Napoleonic wars, Icelands struggle for independence took form and culminated in independence in 1918, until the 20th century, Iceland relied largely on subsistence fishing and agriculture, and was among the poorest in Europe. Industrialisation of the fisheries and Marshall Plan aid following World War II brought prosperity, in 1994, it became a part of the European Economic Area, which further diversified the economy into sectors such as finance and manufacturing. Iceland has an economy with relatively low taxes compared to other OECD countries. It maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. Iceland ranks high in economic and social stability and equality, in 2013, it was ranked as the 13th most-developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index.
Iceland runs almost completely on renewable energy, some bankers were jailed, and the economy has made a significant recovery, in large part due to a surge in tourism. Icelandic culture is founded upon the nations Scandinavian heritage, most Icelanders are descendants of Germanic and Gaelic settlers. Icelandic, a North Germanic language, is descended from Old Norse and is related to Faroese
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts, a wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving, assembled by welding or modelling, or molded, or cast. However, most ancient sculpture was painted, and this has been lost. Those cultures whose sculptures have survived in quantities include the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean and China, the Western tradition of sculpture began in ancient Greece, and Greece is widely seen as producing great masterpieces in the classical period. During the Middle Ages, Gothic sculpture represented the agonies and passions of the Christian faith, the revival of classical models in the Renaissance produced famous sculptures such as Michelangelos David. Relief is often classified by the degree of projection from the wall into low or bas-relief, high relief, sunk-relief is a technique restricted to ancient Egypt. Relief sculpture may decorate steles, upright slabs, usually of stone, techniques such as casting and moulding use an intermediate matrix containing the design to produce the work, many of these allow the production of several copies.
The term sculpture is used mainly to describe large works. The very large or colossal statue has had an enduring appeal since antiquity, another grand form of portrait sculpture is the equestrian statue of a rider on horse, which has become rare in recent decades. The smallest forms of life-size portrait sculpture are the head, showing just that, or the bust, small forms of sculpture include the figurine, normally a statue that is no more than 18 inches tall, and for reliefs the plaquette, medal or coin. Sculpture is an important form of public art, a collection of sculpture in a garden setting can be called a sculpture garden. One of the most common purposes of sculpture is in form of association with religion. Cult images are common in cultures, though they are often not the colossal statues of deities which characterized ancient Greek art. The actual cult images in the innermost sanctuaries of Egyptian temples, of which none have survived, were rather small. The same is true in Hinduism, where the very simple.
Some undoubtedly advanced cultures, such as the Indus Valley civilization, appear to have had no monumental sculpture at all, though producing very sophisticated figurines, the Mississippian culture seems to have been progressing towards its use, with small stone figures, when it collapsed. Other cultures, such as ancient Egypt and the Easter Island culture, from the 20th century the relatively restricted range of subjects found in large sculpture expanded greatly, with abstract subjects and the use or representation of any type of subject now common. Today much sculpture is made for intermittent display in galleries and museums, small sculpted fittings for furniture and other objects go well back into antiquity, as in the Nimrud ivories, Begram ivories and finds from the tomb of Tutankhamun
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Christian IX of Denmark
Christian IX was King of Denmark from 1863 to 1906. From 1863 to 1864, he was concurrently Duke of Schleswig, however, in 1852, Christian was chosen as heir to the Danish monarchy in light of the expected extinction of the senior line of the House of Oldenburg. Upon the death of King Frederick VII of Denmark in 1863, Christian married his second cousin, Princess Louise of Hesse-Kassel, in 1842. Their six children married into royal families across Europe, earning him the sobriquet the father-in-law of Europe. The British consort Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh is a descendant of Christian IX, as are Michael I of Romania and Constantine II of Greece. Also, the queens consort Anne of Romania, Anne-Marie of Greece and he was named after Prince Christian of Denmark, the King Christian VIII, who was his godfather. Christians father was the head of the house of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck. As such, Christian was eligible to succeed in the duchies of Schleswig-Holstein. Initially, Christian lived with his parents and many siblings at Gottorf Castle, however, on 6 June 1825, Duke Friedrich Wilhelm was appointed Duke of Glücksburg by his brother-in-law Frederick VI of Denmark, as the elder Glücksburg line had become extinct in 1779.
He subsequently changed his title to Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and founded the younger Glücksburg line, the family moved to Glücksburg Castle, where Christian was raised with his siblings under their fathers supervision. Following the early death of the father in 1831, Christian grew up in Denmark and was educated in the Military Academy of Copenhagen, as a young man, Christian unsuccessfully sought the hand of his third cousin, Queen Victoria, in marriage. At the Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen on 26 May 1842, he married his cousin, Louise of Hesse-Kassel. A justification for this choice was his marriage to Louise of Hesse-Kassel, Frederick VIIs childlessness had presented a thorny dilemma and the question of succession to the Danish throne proved problematic. Denmarks adherence to the Salic Law and a burgeoning nationalism within the German-speaking parts of Schleswig-Holstein hindered all hopes of a peaceful solution, proposed resolutions to keep the two Duchies together and part of Denmark proved unsatisfactory to both Danish and German interests.
While Denmark had adopted the Salic Law, this affected the descendants of Frederick III of Denmark. Agnatic descent from Frederick III would end with the death of the childless King Frederick VII and his childless uncle. At that point, the law of succession promulgated by Frederick III provided for a Semi-Salic succession, as the nations of Europe looked on, the numerous descendants of Helvig of Schauenburg began to vie for the Danish throne. Frederick VII belonged to the branch of Helvigs descendants
Louise of Hesse-Kassel
Louise of Hesse-Kassel was Queen of Denmark as the wife of King Christian IX of Denmark. Louise of Hesse was a descendant of an ancient German princely family, the Landgraves of Hesse and she was a daughter of Prince William of Hesse-Kassel and Princess Charlotte of Denmark. Her mother, a princess of Denmark, saw her become the countrys queen, as children, her brother Frederik Wilhelm, her sisters and she were the closest relatives of King Christian VIII who were likely to produce heirs. It was easy to see that the succession from King Frederick III of Denmark would probably become extinct within a generation. Louise was one of the descended from Frederick III of Denmark. Louise was married at the Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen on 26 May 1842 to her second cousin Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glucksburg and he was soon selected as hereditary prince of Denmark and ascended the throne of Denmark as King Christian IX. Louise and Christian lived a family life. Louises mother and siblings renounced their rights to the Danish throne to her, Louise herself in turn renounced her rights to the throne to her spouse Christian.
In 1852, this order was confirmed by the Nordic countries. In 1847, Prince Christian was, with the approval of Europes Great Powers and this resolved the succession to the Danish crown, but not Denmarks claim on the twin duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. The result of conflict was the Second War of Schleswig. On 3 July 1853, King Frederick VII confirmed this succession, by that act and Christian became Crown Princess and Crown Prince of Denmark. Louise had a relationship with King Frederick VII, who contradicted the succession of her spouse. Therefore, the King and the Crown Prince couple did not see each other very often, on 15 November 1863, Louise and Christian became Queen and King of Denmark. Their life style is described as simple and puritan, and as this suited the contemporary view of a family life. As queen, Louise lived a life isolated from the people and she took no part in state affairs, her political interests focused on the arranged dynastic marriages of her children and were affected by her anti-German views.
The high status marriages she arranged for her children secured the newly established Danish dynasty international status, connecting Denmark to Great Britain, Russia and Greece. Known as The Mother-in-law of Europe, her annual family gatherings at Bernstorff and Fredensborg attracted more attention every year, Louise supported 26 different charity organizations
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Langelinie is a pier and park in central Copenhagen and home of the statue of The Little Mermaid. The area has for centuries been a destination for excursions. Most cruise ships arriving in Copenhagen berth at Langelinie Pier, for a long time, the stretch was a military area where civilians were not granted unrestricted access. Under a general order from 1819, soldiers were required to throw water in the head and on the breast, eventually a beach promenade and a park for the Bourgeoisie were made but with access only on the payment of a toll to keep the more common people out. Not until an uprising in 1848 did the area become open to everybody. The expansion of the city and the increasing industrialization soon made it clear that the harbour was becoming too small. In a plan from 1862 it was decided to dig out the area to access for the largest ocean-going vessels. A suggestion to make all of Amager into a zone was abolished. The beginning of the work was prompted by Germanys construction of the Kiel Canal that was begun in 1887, in 1894 the work was completed and Copenhagen had got an entirely new harbourfront.
Langelinie became now a pier on the side of that harbour basin. The Langelinie Park stretches from Esplanaden in the south to Langelinie Marina, formally, it includes Kastellet although this site is generally referred to under its own name. The park contains numerous monuments, buildings, a marina, among these are the Gefion Fountain, the Ivar Huitfeldt Column and The Little Mermaid. Langelinie Marina was established in the 1890s in connection with the foundation of the Free Port, Copenhagen rowing clubs have for many years had their base at the marina. Today only B&Ws and DFDS are left after ØKs passed their premises to Langelinie Marinas Boat Huild, the Langelinie Pier has a water depth allowing big ocean-going vessels to tie up. The area has a number of statues and memorials and these include a cast bronze sculpture polar bear with cubs and memorials for MS Jutlandia, Ludvig Mylius-Erichsen. The polar bear has some bullet holes at the head and they were made by a German soldier under the Occupation of Denmark
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen