Dukes of Norfolk family tree
The following chart is a family tree of the Dukes of Norfolk, who were members of the Plantagenet and Howard families. Errors: Edward II was the issue of Edward I's first marriage to Eleanor of Castile, not of his second marriage to Marguerite of France. There is no hard evidence that Richard, Duke of York, married as a child to Ann Mowbray, died in 1483. Frances de Vere, Countess of Surrey, wife of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, was daughter of the 15th Earl of Oxford and Elizabeth Trussell, not the 14th Earl of Oxford and Anne Howard. Robert Petre, 10th Baron Petre's mother wasn't Juliana Howard, the daughter of Henry Howard of Glossop, his mother was Anne Howard, the daughter of Philip Howard and the great-granddaughter of Henry Howard, 6th Duke of Norfolk. Duke of Norfolk House of Howard
St Edmund's College, Cambridge
St Edmund's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England. It is the second-oldest of the four Cambridge colleges oriented to mature students, which only accept students reading for either masters or doctorate degrees, or undergraduate degrees if they are aged 21 or older. Named after St Edmund of Abingdon, the first known Oxford Master of Arts and the Archbishop of Canterbury from 1234 to 1240, the college has traditionally Catholic roots, its founders were Henry Fitzalan Howard, the 15th Duke of Norfolk the most prominent Catholic in England, Baron Anatole von Hügel, the first Catholic to take a Cambridge degree since the revolution of 1688. In recognition of this Catholic connection, the College Visitor is the Archbishop of Westminster; the college is located on Mount Pleasant, northwest of the centre of Cambridge, beside Lucy Cavendish College, Murray Edwards College and Fitzwilliam College. Its campus consists of a garden setting on the edge of what was Roman Cambridge, with housing for over 350 students.
Members of St Edmund's include the former Archbishop of Amagh, Eamon Martin and Big Bang theorist Georges Lemaître, the Bishop of Menevia, John Petit, the Leader of the House of Commons, Norman St John-Stevas, Lord St John of Fawsley. St Edmund's was the residential college of the university's first Catholic students in two hundred years - most of whom were studying for the Priesthood - after the lifting of the papal prohibition on attendance at the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge in 1895 at the urging of a delegation to Pope Leo XIII led by Baron von Hügel. St Edmund's House was founded in 1896 by Henry Fitzalan Howard, the 15th Duke of Norfolk, Baron Anatole von Hügel as an institution providing board and lodging for Roman Catholic students at the University of Cambridge. After Catholic Emancipation, in particular after the repeal of the Test Acts in 1873, students who were Roman Catholics were admitted as members of the university. In its early days the college functioned predominantly as a lodging house, or residential hall of residence, for students who were matriculated at other colleges.
Most of the students, at that time, were ordained Catholic priests who were reading various subjects offered by the university. The college was established in the buildings of Ayerst Hostel, set up for non-collegiate students by the Reverend William Ayerst in 1884, its founding master for Fr Edmund Nolan Vice-Rector of St Edmund's College Ware. In 1896 Ayerst Hostel had to close due to lack of funds, the property was transferred to the Catholic Church. Attempts to make St Edmund's House into a fully-fledged constituent college were made at various times after foundation, but were met by continuing hostility by the predominantly Protestant body of Cambridge MAs, graduates of the university who had the right to vote in the Senate House. Due to Cambridge's Anglican student body, large numbers of MAs scuppered any attempt to grant St Edmund's House full collegiate status as they viewed it as a "papist" institution. Despite the initial pushback, the college continued its development, the chapel was consecrated in 1916 by Cardinal Francis Bourne, Archbishop of Wesminster.
A new dining hall was painstakingly constructed in 1939 and the membership of the college increased as it became a recognized House of Residence of the university, just below official college status. In response to growing postgraduate student numbers in the early 1960s, the Regent House of the university established several colleges for postgraduate students, St Edmund's House became one of the graduate colleges in the university; this spurred further progress regarding St Edmund's status within the university, in 1965, the college was permitted to matriculate its own students and new fellows were elected. In 1975 St Edmund's acquired the status of an "Approved Foundation", after the transfer of the college assets from the Catholic Church to the Masters and Fellows of the college in 1986, the college changed its name from "St Edmund's House" to "St Edmund's College" and received full collegiate status in 1996; the college now accepts students of none. In 2000, a new residential building housing 50 students was opened, named after Richard Laws, one of the former masters.
In 2006, two new residential buildings, including rooms for 70 students as well as apartments for couples, were opened. In 2016, major plans were announced for the development of two new courts and several buildings which will expand the college and provide modern, world class facilities for the scholars and students of St Edmunds College. While contemporary, the buildings external features and material will be in the traditional architectural vernacular, found elsewhere in the college. Large brick buildings with close detail will form the perimeter of the two new courts and a new multi-million pound student centre will frame the west side of the college; the expansion plans were approved by Cambridge city councillors in June 2017. St Edmund's is one of the most international colleges of the university, with students from over 70 countries; the full spectrum of academic subjects is represented in the college. The
High Court of Chivalry
Her Majesty's High Court of Chivalry is a civil law court in English and Welsh law with jurisdiction over matters of heraldry. The court has been in existence since the fourteenth century; the sole judge is now the hereditary Earl Marshal of England, the Duke of Norfolk, though if not a professional lawyer, he appoints a professional lawyer as his lieutenant or surrogate. In Scotland, these types of cases are heard in the Court of the Lord Lyon, a standing civil and criminal court, with its own judge - the Lord Lyon King of Arms and its own procurator fiscal under the Scottish legal system; the court was known as the Curia Militaris, the Court of the Constable and the Marshal, or the Earl Marshal's Court. Since it was created in the fourteenth century the court has always sat when required, except for the short time between 1634 and its temporary abolition by the Long Parliament in 1640 when it sat on a regular basis. During this time the court heard well over a thousand cases, of which evidence survives from 738 cases.
The court was last convened in 1954 for the case of Manchester Corporation v Manchester Palace of Varieties Ltd. The proceedings opened with the reading of various letters patents in order to make clear that the Duke of Norfolk was indeed Hereditary Earl Marshal and that he had appointed Lord Goddard as his lieutenant in the court, it had ruled that the Earl Marshal was allowed to sit in judgement without the Lord High Constable of England, an office which until 1521 was held as a hereditary dignity by the Dukes of Buckingham. The case itself was that the Palace theatre had been displaying the arms of the Manchester Corporation both inside and on its seal and this usage implied that it was linked with the city's council; the Corporation had requested that the theatre stop using it. The court ruled in favour of the Corporation. More in Oct 2012, Aberystwyth Town Council declared its intention to take legal action against a Facebook page displaying unauthorised use of its coat of arms: these were subsequently removed.
In 1832, the Privy Council Appeals Act 1832 made the Privy Council the appeal court for cases heard by the High Court of Chivalry. From 1 February 1833, following the passage of the Judicial Committee Act 1833, appeals have been heard directly by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Prior to that, in common with the admiralty and ecclesiastical courts, appeals from the Court of Chivalry were made to the Crown in Chancery, with appeals being heard by Commissioners appointed by letters patent under the Great Seal in each case. Sittings by these Commissioners became known as the High Court of Delegates by the time of the 1832 Act; the court had two hereditary judges - the Duke of Norfolk as Earl Marshal of England, the Duke of Buckingham as Lord High Constable of England - but in 1521 Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham was convicted of treason, stripped of his titles and offices, executed. Since the office of Lord High Constable of England has only been appointed to perform ceremonial duties during a Coronation and there has only been the Earl Marshal acting as the sole judge.
Sir Edmund Isham Bt DCL 1728-1772 The Lord Goddard 24 October 1954 – 1959 George Squibb, LVO QC Norfolk Herald Extraordinary 1976-1994 Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Anthony Wagner KCB Garter Principal King of Arms 27 October 1954–1995 Wilfred Maurice Phillips, 27 October 1954. A. H. Smith, 1954 About the Court of Chivalry Regulation of Heraldry in England: the Middle Ages Cases in the Court of Chivalry A short piece about the Courts of Chivalry University of Birmingham Index of Cases The High Court of Chivalry in the early seventeenth century
United Press International
United Press International is an international news agency whose newswires, news film, audio services provided news material to thousands of newspapers, magazines and television stations for most of the 20th century. At its peak, it had more than 6,000 media subscribers. Since the first of several sales and staff cutbacks in 1982, the 1999 sale of its broadcast client list to its rival, the Associated Press, UPI has concentrated on smaller information-market niches. Formally named "United Press Associations" for incorporation and legal purposes, but publicly known and identified as United Press or UP, the news agency was created by the 1907 uniting of three smaller news syndicates by the Midwest newspaper publisher E. W. Scripps, it was headed by Hugh Baillie from 1935 to 1955. At the time of his retirement, UP had 2,900 clients in the United States, 1,500 abroad. In 1958, it became United Press International after absorbing the International News Service in May; as either UP or UPI, the agency was among the largest newswire services in the world, competing domestically for about 90 years with the Associated Press and internationally with AP, Reuters and Agence France-Presse.
At its peak, UPI had more than 2,000 full-time employees. With the rising popularity of television news, the business of UPI began to decline as the circulation of afternoon newspapers, its chief client category, began to fall, its decline accelerated after the 1982 sale of UPI by the Scripps company. The E. W. Scripps Company controlled United Press until its absorption of William Randolph Hearst's smaller competing agency, INS, in 1958 to form UPI. With the Hearst Corporation as a minority partner, UPI continued under Scripps management until 1982. Since its sale in 1982, UPI has changed ownership several times and was twice in Chapter 11 bankruptcy reorganization. With each change in ownership came deeper service and staff cutbacks and changes of focus and a corresponding shrinkage of its traditional media customer base. Since the 1999 sale of its broadcast client list to its one-time major rival, the AP, UPI has concentrated on smaller information market niches, it no longer services media organizations in a major way.
In 2000, UPI was purchased by News World Communications, an international news media company founded in 1976 by Unification Church leader Sun Myung Moon. It now maintains a news website and photo service and electronically publishes several information product packages. Based on aggregation from other sources on the Web and gathered by a small editorial staff and stringers, UPI's daily content consists of a newsbrief summary service called "NewsTrack," which includes general, sports, science and entertainment reports, "Quirks in the News." It sells a premium service, which has deeper coverage and analysis of emerging threats, the security industry, energy resources. UPI's content is presented in text and photo formats, in English and Arabic. UPI's main office is in the Miami metropolitan area and it maintains office locations in five other countries and uses freelance journalists in other major cities. Beginning with the Cleveland Press, publisher E. W. Scripps created the first chain of newspapers in the United States.
Because the recently reorganized Associated Press refused to sell its services to several of his papers, most of them evening dailies in competition with existing AP franchise holders, in 1907 Scripps merged three smaller syndicates under his ownership or control, the Publishers Press Association, the Scripps-McRae Press Association, the Scripps News Association, to form United Press Associations, with headquarters in New York City. Scripps had been a subscriber to an earlier news agency named United Press, that existed in the late 1800s in cooperation with management of the original New York-based AP and in existential competition with two Chicago-based organizations using the AP name. Drawing lessons from the battles between the earlier United Press and the various AP's, Scripps required that there be no restrictions on who could buy news from his news service, he made the new UP service available to anyone, including his competitors. Scripps hoped to make a profit from selling that news to papers owned by others.
At that time and until World War II, most newspapers relied on news agencies for stories outside their immediate geographic areas. Despite strong newspaper industry opposition, UP started to sell news to the new and competitive radio medium in 1935, years before competitor AP, controlled by the newspaper industry, did likewise. Scripps' United Press was considered "a scrappy alternative" news source to the AP. UP reporters were called "Unipressers" and were noted for their fiercely aggressive and competitive streak. Another hallmark of the company's culture was little formal training of reporters, they were weaned on UP's famous and well-documented slogan of "Get it first, but FIRST, get it RIGHT." Despite controversy, UP became a common training ground for generations of journalists. Walter Cronkite, who started with United Press in Kansas City, gained fame for his coverage of World War II in Europe and turned down Edward R. Murrow's first offer of a CBS job to stay with UP, but who went on to anchor the CBS Evening News, once said, "I felt every Unipresser got up in the morning saying,'This is the day I'm going to be
Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, she was educated at home, her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; when her father died in February 1952, she became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Ceylon. She has reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, the decolonisation of Africa. Between 1956 and 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence and realms, including South Africa and Ceylon, became republics.
Her many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, 2012 respectively. In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a Sapphire Jubilee, she is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch as well as the world's longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state, the oldest and longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state. Elizabeth has faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992 and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales. However, support for the monarchy has been and remains high, as does her personal popularity. Elizabeth was born at 02:40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V.
Her father, the Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, the Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May, named Elizabeth after her mother, Alexandra after George V's mother, who had died six months earlier, Mary after her paternal grandmother. Called "Lilibet" by her close family, based on what she called herself at first, she was cherished by her grandfather George V, during his serious illness in 1929 her regular visits were credited in the popular press and by biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery. Elizabeth's only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930; the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford.
Lessons concentrated on history, language and music. Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family; the book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, her attitude of responsibility. Others echoed such observations: Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character, she has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant." Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved". During her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, as Edward was still young. Many people believed he would have children of his own; when her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, after her father.
That year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Elizabeth's father became king, she became heir presumptive. If her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession. Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from Henry Marten, Vice-Provost of Eton College, learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses. A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed so she could socialise with girls her own age, she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger. In 1939, Elizabeth's parents toured the United States; as in 1927, when her parents had toured Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain, since her father thought her too young to undertake public tours. Elizabeth "looked tearful", they corresponded and she and her parents made the first royal transatlantic telephone call on 18 May.
In September 1939, Britain entered the Second World War. Lord Hailsham suggested that the two princesses should be evacuated to Canada to avoid the frequent aerial bombing; this was rejected by Elizabeth's mother. I won't leave wit
The Cathedral Church of Our Lady and St Philip Howard is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Arundel, West Sussex, England. Dedicated in 1873 as the Catholic parish church of Arundel, it became a cathedral at the foundation of the Diocese of Arundel and Brighton in 1965, it now serves as the seat of the Bishop of Brighton. The cathedral's location, construction and dedication owe much to the Howard family, who, as Dukes of Norfolk and Earls of Arundel are the most prominent English Catholic family, rank first in the Peerage of England. Since 1102 the seat of the Howards' ancestors has been Arundel Castle. In 1664 Roman Catholic worship was suppressed in England by the Conventicle Act and all churches and cathedrals in England were transferred to the Church of England. With the Catholic Emancipation Act of 1829 the foundation of Roman Catholic parishes became again legal. In 1868 Henry Fitzalan-Howard, 15th Duke of Norfolk commissioned architect Joseph Hansom to design a new Roman Catholic sanctuary as a suitable counterpart to Arundel Castle.
The architectural style of the cathedral is French Gothic, a style that would have been popular between 1300 and 1400—the period in which the Howards and the Dukes of Norfolk rose to national prominence in England. The building is Grade I listed, regarded as one of the finest examples of Gothic Revival architecture in the French Gothic style in the country; the church was dedicated to Our Lady and St Philip Neri, but in 1971, following the canonisation of Philip Howard, 1st Earl of Arundel and the reburial of his relics in the cathedral, the dedication was changed to Our Lady and St Philip Howard. In 2002, Elizabeth Stratford was appointed Organist and Master of the Choristers of the cathedral, becoming the first woman to hold the post of Director of Music in an English cathedral. Stratford was educated at St. Joseph's Catholic College, Bradford and at the University of Huddersfield winning scholarships for voice and organ from the RCO and other trusts, she studied at the University of Leeds with Simon Lindley and Philip Wilby.
She succeeded Alistair Warwick as the Organist and Director of Music of the cathedral, she teaches piano at Brighton College. Grade I listed buildings in West Sussex List of places of worship in Arun Arundel Cathedral Website Friends of Arundel Cathedral 360° panorama of Cathedral interiors
The Herald (Glasgow)
The Herald is a Scottish broadsheet newspaper founded in 1783. The Herald is the longest running national newspaper in the world and is the eighth oldest daily paper in the world; the title was simplified from The Glasgow Herald in 1992. A Sunday edition was launched on 9 September 2018; the newspaper was founded by an Edinburgh-born printer called John Mennons in January 1783 as a weekly publication called the Glasgow Advertiser. Mennons' first edition had a global scoop: news of the treaties of Versailles, reached Mennons via the Lord Provost of Glasgow just as he was putting the paper together. War had ended with the American colonies, he revealed; the Herald, therefore, is as old as the United States give or take an hour or two. The story was, only carried on the back page. Mennons, using the larger of two fonts available to him, put it in the space reserved for late news. In 1802, Mennons sold the newspaper to Benjamin Mathie and Dr James McNayr, former owner of the Glasgow Courier, which. Along with the Mercury, was one of two papers Mennons had come to Glasgow to challenge.
Mennons' son Thomas retained an interest in the company. The new owners changed the name to The Herald and Advertiser and Commercial Chronicle in 1803. In 1805 the name changed again, this time to The Glasgow Herald when Thomas Mennons severed his ties to the paper. From 1836 to 1964, The Glasgow Herald was owned by George Outram & Co. becoming the first daily newspaper in Scotland in 1858. The company took its name from the paper's editor of 19 years, George Outram, an Edinburgh advocate best known in Glasgow for composing light verse. Outram was an early Scottish nationalist, a member of the National Association for the Vindication of Scottish Rights; the Glasgow Herald, under Outram, argued that the promised privileges of the Treaty of Union had failed to materialise and demanded that, for example, that the heir to the British throne be called "Prince Royal of Scotland". "Any man calling himself a Scotsman should enrol in the National Association," said The Herald. In 1895, the publication moved to a building in Mitchell Street designed by Charles Rennie Mackintosh, which now houses the architecture centre, The Lighthouse.
In 1980, the publication moved to offices in Albion Street in Glasgow into the former Scottish Daily Express building. It is now based at in a purpose-built building in Glasgow. One of the most traumatic episodes in the history of The Glasgow Herald was the battle for control and ownership of the paper in 1964. Millionaires Hugh Fraser and Roy Thomson, whose newspaper empire included The Glasgow Herald's archrival, The Scotsman, fought for control of the title for 52 days. Sir Hugh Fraser was to win; the paper's editor James Holburn was a "disapproving onlooker". The Labour Party condemned the battle as "big business at its worst"; the newspaper changed its name to The Herald on 3 February 1992, dropping Glasgow from its title, but not its masthead. That same year the title was bought by Caledonia Newspaper Glasgow. In 1996 was purchased by Scottish Television; as of 2013, the newspaper along with its related publications, the Evening Times and Sunday Herald, were owned by the Newsquest media group.
Graeme Smith assumed editorship of The Herald in January 2017, replacing Magnus Llewellin, who had held the post since 2013. Notable past editors include: John Mennons, 1782; the Herald's main political commentator is Iain Macwhirter, who writes twice a week for the paper and, broadly supportive of independence. Columnist and political pundit David Torrance, however, is more sceptical about the need for - and prospect of - a new Scottish state. Other prominent columnists include Alison Rowat, who covers everything from cinema to international statecraft. Foreign editor David Pratt and business editor Ian McConnell, both multi-award-winning journalists, provide analysis of their fields every Friday. Edited by Ken Smith, the column has been spun off in to a popular series of books since the 1980s; the Herald Diary used to be edited by writer Tom Shields. Sean Connery once said: "First thing each morning I turn to The Herald on my computer - first for its witty Diary, which helps keep my Scots sense of humour in tune."
It is printed at Carmyle, just south east of Glasgow. The paper is published Monday to Saturday in Glasgow and as of 2017 it had an audited circulation of 28,900; the Herald's website is protected by a paywall. It is part of the Newsquest Scotland stable of sites; the Herald in every edition declares. However, the newspaper backed a'No' vote in the 2014 referendum on Scottish independence; the accompanying headline stated, "The Herald's view: we back staying within UK, but only if there's more far-reaching further devolution." List of newspapers in Scotland Sunday Herald, former sister paper. Griffiths, Dennis, ed.. The Encyclopedia of the British Press, 1422–1992. London & Basingstoke: Macmillan. Phillips, Alastair. Glasgow's Herald: Two Hundred Years of a Newspaper 1783–1983. Glasgow: Richard Drew Publishing. ISBN 0-86267-008-X. Reid, Harry. Deadline: The Story of the Scottish Press. Edinburgh: Saint Andrew Press. ISBN 978-0-7152-0836-6. Official website Google news archive of The Glasgow Herald