A pendulum is a weight suspended from a pivot so that it can swing freely. When a pendulum is displaced sideways from its resting, equilibrium position, it is subject to a restoring force due to gravity that will accelerate it back toward the equilibrium position; when released, the restoring force acting on the pendulum's mass causes it to oscillate about the equilibrium position, swinging back and forth. The time for one complete cycle, a left swing and a right swing, is called the period; the period depends on the length of the pendulum and to a slight degree on the amplitude, the width of the pendulum's swing. From the first scientific investigations of the pendulum around 1602 by Galileo Galilei, the regular motion of pendulums was used for timekeeping, was the world's most accurate timekeeping technology until the 1930s; the pendulum clock invented by Christian Huygens in 1658 became the world's standard timekeeper, used in homes and offices for 270 years, achieved accuracy of about one second per year before it was superseded as a time standard by the quartz clock in the 1930s.
Pendulums are used in scientific instruments such as accelerometers and seismometers. They were used as gravimeters to measure the acceleration of gravity in geophysical surveys, as a standard of length; the word "pendulum" is new Latin, from the Latin pendulus, meaning'hanging'. The simple gravity pendulum is an idealized mathematical model of a pendulum; this is a weight on the end of a massless cord suspended without friction. When given an initial push, it will swing forth at a constant amplitude. Real pendulums are subject to friction and air drag, so the amplitude of their swings declines; the period of swing of a simple gravity pendulum depends on its length, the local strength of gravity, to a small extent on the maximum angle that the pendulum swings away from vertical, θ0, called the amplitude. It is independent of the mass of the bob. If the amplitude is limited to small swings, the period T of a simple pendulum, the time taken for a complete cycle, is: T ≈ 2 π L g θ 0 ≪ 1 r a d i a n where L is the length of the pendulum and g is the local acceleration of gravity.
For small swings the period of swing is the same for different size swings: that is, the period is independent of amplitude. This property, called isochronism, is the reason. Successive swings of the pendulum if changing in amplitude, take the same amount of time. For larger amplitudes, the period increases with amplitude so it is longer than given by equation. For example, at an amplitude of θ0 = 23 ° it is 1 % larger; the period increases asymptotically as θ0 approaches 180°, because the value θ0 = 180° is an unstable equilibrium point for the pendulum. The true period of an ideal simple gravity pendulum can be written in several different forms, one example being the infinite series: T = 2 π L g where θ 0 is in radians; the difference between this true period and the period for small swings above is called the circular error. In the case of a typical grandfather clock whose pendulum has a swing of 6° and thus an amplitude of 3°, the difference between the true period and the small angle approximation amounts to about 15 seconds per day.
For small swings the pendulum approximates a harmonic oscillator, its motion as a function of time, t, is simple harmonic motion: θ = θ 0 cos where φ is a constant value, dependent on initial conditions. For real pendulums, the period varies with factors such as the buoyancy and viscous resistance of the air, the mass of the string or rod, the size and shape of the bob and how it is attached to the string, flexibility and stretching of the string. In precision applications, corrections for these factors may need to be applied to eq. to give the period accurately. Any swinging rigid body free to rotate about a fixed horizontal axis is called a compound pendulum or physical pendulum; the appropriate equivalent length L for calculating the period of any such pendulum is the distance from the pivot to the center of oscillation. This point is located under the center of mass at a distance from the pivot traditionally called the radius of oscillation, which depends on the mass distribution of the pendulum.
If most of the mass is concentrated in a small bob compared to the pendulum length, the center of oscillation is close to the center of mass. The radiu
Patrick Henry Pearse was an Irish teacher, poet, nationalist, republican political activist and revolutionary, one of the leaders of the Easter Rising in 1916. Following his execution along with fifteen others, Pearse came to be seen by many as the embodiment of the rebellion. Pearse, his brother Willie, his sisters Margaret and Mary Brigid were born at 27 Great Brunswick Street, the street, named after them today, it was here that their father, James Pearse, established a stonemasonry business in the 1850s, a business which flourished and provided the Pearses with a comfortable middle-class upbringing. Pearse's father was a mason and monumental sculptor, a Unitarian from Birmingham in England, his mother, Margaret Brady, was from Dublin, her father's family from County Meath were native Irish speakers. She was James' second wife. Pearse's maternal grandfather Patrick was a supporter of the 1848 Young Ireland movement, a member of the Irish Republican Brotherhood. Pearse recalls attending a ballad singer perform republican songs, afterwords he went around looking for armed men ready to fight, he found none and declared sadly to his grandfather that "the fenians are all dead".
His maternal grand-uncle, James Savage, fought in the American Civil War. The Irish-speaking influence of Pearse's grand-aunt Margaret, together with his schooling at the CBS Westland Row, instilled in him an early love for the Irish language and culture. Pearse grew up surrounded by books, his father had had little formal education, but was self-educated. He recalls that at the age of ten he prayed to God, promising him he would dedicate his life to Irish freedom. Pearse's early heroes were ancient Gaelic folk heroes such as Cúchulainn, though in his 30s he began to take a strong interest in the leaders of past republican movements, such as the United Irishmen Theobald Wolfe Tone and Robert Emmet. Pearse soon became involved in the Gaelic revival. In 1896, at the age of 16, he joined the Gaelic League, in 1903, at the age of 23, he became editor of its newspaper An Claidheamh Soluis. In 1900, Pearse was awarded a B. A. in Modern Languages by the Royal University of Ireland, for which he had studied for two years and for one at University College Dublin.
In the same year, he was enrolled as a Barrister-at-Law at the King's Inns. Pearse was called to the bar in 1901. In 1905, Pearse represented Neil McBride, a poet and songwriter from Feymore, Donegal, fined for having his name displayed in "illegible" writing on his donkey cart; the appeal was heard before the Court of King's Bench in Dublin. It was Pearse's only court appearance as a barrister; the case was lost but it became a symbol of the struggle for Irish independence. In his 27 June 1905 An Claidheamh Soluis column, Pearse wrote of the decision, "...it was in effect decided that Irish is a foreign language on the same level with Yiddish." As a cultural nationalist educated by the Irish Christian Brothers, like his younger brother Willie, Pearse believed that language was intrinsic to the identity of a nation. The Irish school system, he believed, raised Ireland's youth to be good Englishmen or obedient Irishmen, an alternative was needed, thus for him and other language revivalists saving the Irish language from extinction was a cultural priority of the utmost importance.
The key to saving the language, would be a sympathetic education system. To show the way he started his own bilingual school for boys, St. Enda's School in Cullenswood House in Ranelagh, a suburb of County Dublin, in 1908; the pupils were taught in both English. Cullenswood House is now the home of a Gaelscoil, Lios na nÓg. Two years St. Enda's School moved to The Hermitage in Rathfarnham, County Dublin, now home to the Pearse Museum. With the aid of Thomas MacDonagh, Pearse's younger brother Willie Pearse, their mother and both Margaret and Mary Brigid Pearse, along with other academics, it soon proved a successful experiment. Pearse did all he planned, took students on field trips to the Gaeltacht in the West of Ireland. Pearse's restless idealism led him in search of an more idyllic home for his school, he found it in the Hermitage, Rathfarnham, to which he moved St Enda's in 1910. Pearse was involved in the foundation of St Ita's school for girls, a school with aims similar to those of St Enda's.
However, the new home, while splendidly located in an 18th-century house surrounded by a park and woodlands, caused financial difficulties that brought Pearse to disaster. He strove continually to keep ahead of his debts. In February 1914, he went on a fund-raising trip to the United States, where he met John Devoy and Joseph McGarrity both of whom were impressed by his fervour and supported him in raising sufficient money to secure the continued existence of the school. In April 1912 John Redmond leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party, which held the balance of power in the House of Commons committed the government of the United Kingdom to introducing an Irish Home Rule Bill. Pearse gave the Bill a qualified welcome, he was one of four speakers, including Redmond, Joseph Devlin MP, leader of the Northern Nationalists, Eoin MacNeill a prominent Gaelic Leaguer, who addressed a large Home Rule Rally in Dublin at the end of March 1912. Speaking in Irish, Pearse said he thought that "a good measure can
A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet. In the Solar System there are six planetary satellite systems containing 185 known natural satellites. Four IAU-listed dwarf planets are known to have natural satellites: Pluto, Haumea and Eris; as of September 2018, there are 334 other minor planets known to have moons. The Earth–Moon system is unique in that the ratio of the mass of the Moon to the mass of Earth is much greater than that of any other natural-satellite–planet ratio in the Solar System. At 3,474 km across, the Moon is 0.27 times the diameter of Earth. The first known natural satellite was the Moon, but it was considered a "planet" until Copernicus' introduction of De revolutionibus orbium coelestium in 1543; until the discovery of the Galilean satellites in 1610, there was no opportunity for referring to such objects as a class. Galileo chose to refer to his discoveries as Planetæ, but discoverers chose other terms to distinguish them from the objects they orbited.
The first to use of the term satellite to describe orbiting bodies was the German astronomer Johannes Kepler in his pamphlet Narratio de Observatis a se quatuor Iouis satellitibus erronibus in 1610. He derived the term from the Latin word satelles, meaning "guard", "attendant", or "companion", because the satellites accompanied their primary planet in their journey through the heavens; the term satellite thus became the normal one for referring to an object orbiting a planet, as it avoided the ambiguity of "moon". In 1957, the launching of the artificial object Sputnik created a need for new terminology. Sputnik was created by Soviet Union, it was the first satellite ever; the terms man-made satellite and artificial moon were quickly abandoned in favor of the simpler satellite, as a consequence, the term has become linked with artificial objects flown in space – including, sometimes those not in orbit around a planet. Because of this shift in meaning, the term moon, which had continued to be used in a generic sense in works of popular science and in fiction, has regained respectability and is now used interchangeably with natural satellite in scientific articles.
When it is necessary to avoid both the ambiguity of confusion with Earth's natural satellite the Moon and the natural satellites of the other planets on the one hand, artificial satellites on the other, the term natural satellite is used. To further avoid ambiguity, the convention is to capitalize the word Moon when referring to Earth's natural satellite, but not when referring to other natural satellites. Many authors define "satellite" or "natural satellite" as orbiting some planet or minor planet, synonymous with "moon" – by such a definition all natural satellites are moons, but Earth and other planets are not satellites. A few recent authors define "moon" as "a satellite of a planet or minor planet", "planet" as "a satellite of a star" – such authors consider Earth as a "natural satellite of the sun". There is no established lower limit on what is considered a "moon"; every natural celestial body with an identified orbit around a planet of the Solar System, some as small as a kilometer across, has been considered a moon, though objects a tenth that size within Saturn's rings, which have not been directly observed, have been called moonlets.
Small asteroid moons, such as Dactyl, have been called moonlets. The upper limit is vague. Two orbiting bodies are sometimes described as a double planet rather than satellite. Asteroids such as 90 Antiope are considered double asteroids, but they have not forced a clear definition of what constitutes a moon; some authors consider the Pluto–Charon system to be a double planet. The most common dividing line on what is considered a moon rests upon whether the barycentre is below the surface of the larger body, though this is somewhat arbitrary, because it depends on distance as well as relative mass; the natural satellites orbiting close to the planet on prograde, uninclined circular orbits are thought to have been formed out of the same collapsing region of the protoplanetary disk that created its primary. In contrast, irregular satellites are thought to be captured asteroids further fragmented by collisions. Most of the major natural satellites of the Solar System have regular orbits, while most of the small natural satellites have irregular orbits.
The Moon and Charon are exceptions among large bodies in that they are thought to have originated by the collision of two large proto-planetary objects. The material that would have been placed in orbit around the central body is predicted to have reaccreted to form one or more orbiting natural satellites; as opposed to planetary-sized bodies, asteroid moons are thought to form by this process. Triton is another exception; the capture of an asteroid from a heliocentric orbit is not always permanent. According to simulations, temporary satellites should be a common phenomenon; the only observed example is 2006 RH120, a temporary satellite of Earth for nine months in 2006 and 2007. Most regular moons (natural satellites following close and prograde orbits with small orb
Castlemartyr is a village in East Cork, County Cork, Ireland. It is located 25 minutes east of Cork city, 10 km east of Midleton, 16 km west of Youghal and 6 km from the coast. 1,600 people live in the village and its hinterland. It is situated on the N25 national primary road, it is home to a number of community and sporting organisations, a 15th century tower house, an 18th century country house. Traces of ancient civilisation, including from the Bronze Age, are to be found in the vicinity of Castlemartyr; this includes a group including three examples in the townland of Ballyvorisheen. There is evidence of the early inhabitants' attempts to defend themselves and their livestock against marauders and the threat posed by wild animals; these defences were in the form of ringforts, which were circular earthworks used as dwellings and farmyards. Examples of these structures are to be found in the vicinity of the village; some of the earliest evidence for the existence of a town or "vill" in the vicinity of Castlemartyr is to be found in the Pipe Roll of Cloyne.
This document lists all lands held by the feudal Bishop of Cloyne and the valuations put on those lands. Ballyoughtera, now the site of a ruin and graveyard, had originally been a monastic settlement which under Norman influence and through their settlement became the focal point for a "ville" or feudal village. There had been two adjoining medieval parishes and Ballyoughtera and both are known to have been in existence by 1300 at least, when Ballyoughtera was valued at 5 marks and Cahairultan at 3 marks. A reference dated 1364 records that "Richard Kerdyf holds the land of the whole Ville of Martyre". A ville implied a nearby mill where tenant farmers could grind their corn, a castle, providing those tenants with protection. In this case the castle was Castlemartyr Castle, built for James FitzGerald, 6th Earl of Desmond after his appointment as Seneschal of Imokilly in 1420. Castlemartyr was known as "Leperstown" in ancient times because of the Leper House, said to have existed near Ballyoughtera, itself said by Smith to have become a village of some note during the Middle Ages.
Another historian, states that Ballyoughtera Church was built in 1549, only to be destroyed during the conflict of 1641-1642. But there is evidence to suggest that the Church was in ruins before 1641 and that it was built before 1539, with a Chancel being added on possibly to cope with an expanding population in and around the village. In the Norman invasion of Ireland, the FitzGerald dynasty was granted lands in the barony of Imokilly. In 1575, the Cambro-Norman castle that they built called the castle of Ballymartyr, was attacked by Sir Henry Sidney, the Lord Deputy, who captured the castle; the Fitzgeralds of Imokilly were known to the local peasantry as the Madraí na Fola due to the blood-thirsty disposition they displayed. During the Desmond Rebellion, the Fitzgeralds fought against the forces of Queen Elizabeth I in the region; the Fitzgeralds, together with the other southern lords of the Hiberno-Norman stock, formed the Geraldine League to oppose the Queen's plan to force Protestantism on the Irish people and her attempt to rout the native chiefs and replace them with English landlords.
In 1581 the Earl of Ormond overran Imokilly. FitzEdmund submitted to the Earl, but he did not recover his lands. Instead, the property shared the fate of other properties after the Desmond Rebellion, it was confiscated and included in the grant of land between Lismore and Castlemartyr that were given to Sir Walter Raleigh. FitzEdmund himself was died in Dublin Castle in the following year. In 1602, Raleigh's lands around Castlemartyr were bought by Richard Boyle, the First Earl of Cork and ancestor to the Earls of Shannon. By the early 17th century the FitzGeralds were a spent force. In the south-east corner of the old church in Ballyoughtera, the stone has a boar crest surrounded by triple incised circles and shallow cross carving, encircle. At the northern end of Ballyoughtera church ruin is the grave of another Richard Boyle, the 4th Earl of Shannon who died in 1868; this tomb bears the inscription, "A sorrowing wife placed this stone in memory of the best and most affectionate of husbands".
For the next two hundred years the history of Castlemartyr was linked with that branch of the Boyle family which have the title Earl of Shannon. In 1689 it was a centre of Protestant resistance against the rule of James II, but was swiftly defeated by Irish Army forces under Justin MacCarthy who put down a larger rising at Bandon. After Orrery's death in 1679, his title was passed on to his oldest son. Orrery's second son had four sons of his own, Henry and William, it was this Henry who became a member of the Privy Council of Ireland, Speaker of the Irish House of Commons, Chancellor of the Exchequer and Lord Chief Justice of Ireland, he was elevated to the peerage in 1756 as Viscount Boyle, Earl of Shannon. It was he who provided the land for the construction of a new church in the village when an act of Parliament allowed for the dismantling of Ballyoughtera Church and the re-use of some of the stones on the new church, it was Henry Boyle, 1st Earl of
A dentist known as a dental surgeon, is a surgeon who specializes in dentistry, the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and conditions of the oral cavity. The dentist's supporting team aids in providing oral health services; the dental team includes dental assistants, dental hygienists, dental technicians, in some states, dental therapists. In China as well as France, the first people to perform dentistry were barbers, they have been categorized into 2 distinct groups: lay barbers. The first group, the Guild of Barbers, was created to distinguish more educated and qualified dental surgeons from lay barbers. Guild barbers were trained to do complex surgeries; the second group, the lay barbers, were qualified to perform regular hygienic services such as shaving and tooth extraction as well as basic surgery. However, in 1400 France made decrees prohibiting lay barbers from practicing all types of surgery. In Germany as well as France from 1530 to 1575 publications devoted to dentistry were being published.
Ambrose Pare known as the Father of Surgery, published his own work about the proper maintenance and treatment of teeth. Ambrose Pare was a French barber surgeon, he is credited with having raised the status of barber surgeons. Pierre Fauchard of France is referred to as the "father of modern dentistry" for being the first to publish a scientific textbook on the techniques and practices of dentistry. Over time, trained dentists immigrated from Europe to the Americas to practice dentistry, by 1760, America had its own native born practicing dentists. Newspapers were used at the time to promote dental services. In America from 1768–1770 the first application of dentistry to verify forensic cases was being pioneered. With the rise of dentists there was the rise of new methods to improve the quality of dentistry; these new methods included the spinning wheel to rotate a drill and chairs made for dental patients. In the 1840s the world's first dental school and national dental organization were established.
Along with the first dental school came the establishment of the Doctor of Dental Surgery degree referred to as a DDS degree. In response to the rise in new dentists as well as dentistry techniques, the first dental practice act was established to regulate dentistry. In the United States, the First Dental Practice Act required dentists to pass each specific states medical board exam in order to practice dentistry in that particular state. However, because the dental act was enforced, some dentists did not obey the act. From 1846–1855 new dental techniques were being invented such as the use of ester anesthesia for surgery, the cohesive gold foil method which enabled gold to be applied to a cavity; the American Dental Association was established in 1859 after a meeting with 26 dentists. Around 1867, the first university associated dental school was established, Harvard Dental School. Lucy Hobbs Taylor was the first woman to earn a dental degree. In the 1880s, tube toothpaste was created which replaced the original forms of powder or liquid toothpaste.
New dental boards, such as the National Association of Dental Examiners, were created to establish standards and uniformity among dentists. In 1887 the first dental laboratory was established. In 1895 the dental X-ray was discovered by Wilhelm Röntgen. In the 20th century new dental techniques and technology were invented such as: the porcelain crowns, Novocain 1905, precision cast fillings, nylon toothbrushes, water fluoridation, fluoride toothpaste, air driven dental tools, electric toothbrushes, home tooth bleaching kits were invented. Inventions such as the air driven dental tools ushered in a new high-speed dentistry. By nature of their general training, a licensed dentist can carry out most dental treatments such as restorative, prosthodontic, endodontic therapy, periodontal therapy, oral surgery, as well as performing examinations, taking radiographs and diagnosis. Additionally, dentists can further engage in oral surgery procedures such as dental implant placement. Dentists can prescribe medications such as antibiotics, pain killers, local anesthetics, sedatives/hypnotics and any other medications that serve in the treatment of the various conditions that arise in the head and neck.
All DDS and DMD degree holders are qualified to perform a number of more complex procedures such as gingival grafts, bone grafting, sinus lifts, implants, as well as a range of more invasive oral and maxillofacial surgery procedures, though many choose to pursue residencies or other post-doctoral education to augment their abilities. A few select procedures, such as the administration of General anesthesia require postdoctoral training in the US. While many oral diseases are unique and self-limiting, poor conditions in the oral cavity can lead to poor general health and vice versa. Conditions in the oral cavity may be indicative of other systemic diseases such as osteoporosis, diabetes, AIDS, various blood diseases, including malignancies and lymphoma. Several studies have suggested that dental students are at high risk of burnout. During burnout, dentists alienate from work and perform less efficiently. A systemic study iden
Ráth Fearnáin. It is south of Terenure, east of Templeogue, is in the postal districts of Dublin 14 and 16, it is within the administrative areas of both Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown and South Dublin County Councils. Beyond Rathfarnham village itself, the broad area of Rathfarnham includes Whitechurch, Nutgrove and Ballyroan. Historical sites in the Rathfarnham townlands include: Scholarstown, Mount Venus and Taylors Grange. Rathfarnham is home to several notable historic buildings, including Rathfarnham Castle and Loreto Abbey, four parks: Marlay Park, Dodder Park, St Enda's and Bushy Park, several pubs including The Eden, Buglers and the landmark Yellow House. Padraig Pearse established St Enda's School for Boys, now a museum in his honour situated in Saint Enda's Park; the name Rathfarnham suggests an earlier habitation but no remains of prehistoric fortifications, burial places, early churches or old records have been found. The written history of Rathfarnham begins after the Norman invasion of Ireland.
Terenurr and Kimmage, both described as being in Rathfranham parish Dublin, are mentioned in an 1175 grant by Henry II to Walter the goldsmith held at Canterbury Cathedral Archives. In 1199 these lands were granted to Milo le Bret. In 1199 he adapted an existing ridge to build a motte and bailey fort at what is now the start of the Braemor Road, it was still in evidence up to the early 20th century. In the following century no events of great importance are recorded as Rathfarnham as it was protected on its south side by the Royal Forest of Glencree. Rathfarnham became more exposed to attack when this deer park was overrun by the Clan O'Toole from the Wicklow Mountains in the 14th century. Rathfarnham Castle was erected in part to protect the area from such attacks. In addition, part of the Pale's defences ran through the townland of Rathfarnham; some traces of this are still extant. The castle and much of the land around Rathfarnham belonged to the Eustace family of Baltinglass. However, their property was confiscated for their part in the Second Desmond Rebellion of 1579-83.
The castle and its lands were granted to the Loftus family. In the 1640s, the Loftus family was at the centre of the Irish Confederate Wars arising out of the Irish Rebellion of 1641. In 1649, the castle was seized by the Earl of Ormonde's Catholic and Royalist forces before the battle of Rathmines; however they were granted it back by the English parliamentarians after their victory in that battle. Reputedly, Oliver Cromwell stayed in Rathfarnham Castle on his way south to the Siege of Wexford. Economic activity in Rathfarnham was stepped up in the 17th century and in the early 18th century many gentlemen's residences were erected. Two key examples were Ashfield. Rathfarnham Castle itself was re-modelled from a defensive stronghold into a stately home. Lower Dodder Road is still marked by a triumphal arch, from this era, which led to the castle; the erection of this gateway is attributed to Henry Loftus, Earl of Ely from 1769 to 1783, responsible for the classical work on the castle itself. The arch is named the new gate on Frizell's map of 1779.
After the division of the estate in 1913 the arch became the entrance to the Castle Golf Club but was abandoned in favour of the more direct Woodside Drive entrance. The area around the arch is a haven for wildlife, with the nearby River Dodder home to brown trout and many water-birds including kingfisher and grey heron. Woodside Estate is home to red fox and grey squirrels. Ashfield, the next house on the same side, was occupied during the 18th century by Protestant clergy. In the early part of the 19th century it became the home of Sir William Cusac Smith, Baron of the Exchequer and from 1841 of the Tottenham family who continued in residence until 1913. After this the Brooks of Brooks Thomas Ltd. occupied it until about twenty years ago when the estate was divided up and houses built along the main road. A new road was built along the side of the house and named Brookvale after the last occupants. An industrial revolution in the production of paper, began on the Owendoher and Dodder rivers and many mills were erected.
In the beginning of the 19th century most of them switched to cotton and wool and were converted to flour mills. The introduction of steam engines replaced the need for mills. Many of the old buildings fell into disrepair and were demolished, their millraces filled in. A millpond and extensive mill buildings occupied the low-lying fields on the west side of the main Rathfarnham road, just beside the bridge. On a map by Frizell dated 1779 it is called the Widow Clifford's mill and mill holding and in 1843 it is named the Ely Cloth Factory. A Mr. Murray owned it but in 1850, it passed into the hands of Mr. Nickson who converted it into a flour mill, his family continued in occupation until 1875. In 1880 this mill closed down, the buildings were demolished and not a trace now remains. See main article: R115 road Rathfarnham is the start of the Military Road; this road through the Wicklow Mountains was built at the beginning of the 19th century to open up the Wicklow Mountains to the British Army to assist them in putting down the insurgents who were hiding there following the Irish Rebellion of 1798.
Rathfarnham itself was the scene of some skirmishes in the early days of the Rising which extended to the final battle in "Raheen" in County Wexford. Construction commenced on 12
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC