Cork Butter Museum
The Cork Butter Museum is a museum that documents the history of butter production and sale in County Cork, is housed in the former Cork Butter Market. The Cork Butter Market building is situated in the Shandon area of the city, with the building dating from 1849. Shandon was the largest Shambles in Ireland, the Exchange was located within this commercial area. During the Exchange's peak in the 19th-century, Cork was the largest exporter of butter in the world, with butter exported as far as Australia and India; the museum documents the role of the butter trade to Ireland over the course of history. The museum has displays covering the international Butter Exchange in the 19th-century, the domestic production of butter, the operations of Kerrygold in more recent times; the displays document elements of Irish commercial and domestic history. The exhibitions are intended to bring the visitor through various elements of butter production, from dairy cattle farming, to the documents and artifacts relating to the commercial butter trade.
The Museum's collections include dairy paraphernalia, including a container of thousand year old medieval bog butter
James Joyce Centre
The James Joyce Centre is a museum in Dublin, dedicated to promoting an understanding of the life and works of James Joyce. The Centre is situated in a restored 18th-century Georgian townhouse at 35 North Great George's Street, dating from a time when north inner city Dublin was at the height of its grandeur. On permanent exhibit is furniture from Paul Leon's apartment in Paris, where Joyce wrote much of Finnegans Wake, the door to the home of Leopold Bloom and his wife, number 7 Eccles Street one of the more famous addresses in literature, rescued from demolition by John Ryan. Temporary exhibitions work. There is another Joycean display at the James Joyce Tower in Sandycove. Official Website
Dublin Bus is a bus operator providing services in Dublin. It is a subsidiary of Córas Iompair Éireann; the company carried 139.4 million passengers in 2017. Dublin Bus was established on 2 February 1987. In September 2011, Dublin Bus received a significant technological upgrade with its introduction of real time passenger information. Dublin Bus operates an extensive network of 110 radial, cross-city and peripheral routes and 18 night routes in the city of Dublin and the Greater Dublin Area; the company carries around 325,000 people each day. The main radial routes are focused upon Dublin's sixteen Quality Bus Corridors which provide buses with daytime access to the city centre. Express buses operate on similar routes, but have a limited number of stops and a higher minimum fare; these services do not operate on public holidays. Dublin Bus operates a "Nitelink" service of 18 routes overnight which up until January 2009 ran between Monday and Saturday, with the greatest service frequency being on Friday and Saturday nights.
Due to cutbacks necessitated by the economic downturn in Ireland, the midweek schedule was scrapped causing consternation with commuters. Special fares apply on Nitelink buses. Dublin Bus runs a Ghost Bus Tour through some of the haunted places in the city including St Kevin's Church and St Audoen's Church; the tour runs in the evening time and includes two stops where passengers leave the bus behind and visit locations where ghosts have been seen. In April 2010, Dublin Bus announced it would be simplifying many of its routes around the city in order to create better efficiency; this programme is called Network Direct. However, as part of these measures, the company announced that 150 jobs would be lost. During the 2010's, Dublin Bus began to roll out an RTPI system at certain stops, which show the amount of time before a bus arrives directly to the user. In 2016, the company carried 125 million passengers, a reduction of 14% compared to 2005 numbers. From September 2018, 24 Dublin Bus routes and 125 buses will progressively be taken over by Go-Ahead Ireland after the National Transport Authority put their operation out to tender.
Uniquely for a capital city's primary transit network, no full system-wide street map is available online. Dublin Bus cites high licensing fees from fellow state owned company, Ordnance Survey Ireland, which published a printed street map every two to five years and included bus routes. However, the latest edition, published June 2011 omits these for the first time. Dublin Bus"Core Route Map' does, provide some visual information about key routes in the city. See Also List of Dublin Bus Routes. Dublin Bus fares are calculated on a stage system based on distance travelled. There are several different levels of fares. Certain routes use a different fare system. Dublin Bus operate an'exact fare' policy. Passengers place the exact fare in coins in the fare box. In the case of overpayment, no change is given and the system of issuing'refund due' receipt has ended. City busses do not accept Euro notes -- only coins are acceptable. Routes 747 and 757, the express routes to and from Dublin Airport have a minimum fare of €7.
There are several types of prepaid tickets available, including the following: Single day and multi-day tickets Tickets corresponding to cash fares Travel 90 minute tickets which allow unlimited travel for 90 minutes Tickets valid on Dublin Bus and Iarnród Éireann or Luas or all three, but tickets valid for all three systems are issued only by Iarnród Éireann. Leap card, a prepaid smartcard which can be used for pay as you go travel in the Dublin area, it offers discounts over standard on bus cash fares and can be used on Iarnród Éireann and Luas services. All of these tickets have migrated to the Leap card; this process was completed in May 2014 when all Rambler tickets, all Travel 90 and some in the Bus/Rail and Bus/Luas range were no longer available to purchase as separate smartcards. Instead, they are now loaded into the Leap card. Prepaid tickets must be validated in a machine by the door of the bus at the start of each journey, although the validation process for leap cards differs depending on the distance being travelled.
Old age pensioners and children five and under are allowed to travel free of charge. Minimum fares are payable on some services to discourage passengers wishing to travel short distances from using seats that could be used by those who wish to travel longer distances; as of May 2018, the fleet consisted of 1016 buses. As the vehicles of the Dublin Bus fleet come of age, they are withdrawn to make way for newer technology. Types of significance such as the GAC Ireland have been preserved by the National Transport Museum of Ireland who house R1. Many ex-CIÉ types have been acquired by private preservationists, some of whom associated with the Transport Enthusiasts Club; the vehicles are garaged and run by the owners without state funds and take part in films, television programs and in
A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, historical, or scientific importance. Many public museums make these items available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary; the largest museums are located in major cities throughout the world, while thousands of local museums exist in smaller cities and rural areas. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public; the goal of serving researchers is shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, children's museums. Amongst the world's largest and most visited museums are the Louvre in Paris, the National Museum of China in Beijing, the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. the British Museum and National Gallery in London, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and Vatican Museums in Vatican City.
According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries. The English "museum" comes from the Latin word, is pluralized as "museums", it is from the Ancient Greek Μουσεῖον, which denotes a place or temple dedicated to the Muses, hence a building set apart for study and the arts the Musaeum for philosophy and research at Alexandria by Ptolemy I Soter about 280 BC. The purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public. From a visitor or community perspective, the purpose can depend on one's point of view. A trip to a local history museum or large city art museum can be an entertaining and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the economic health of a city, a way to increase the sophistication of its inhabitants. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museum's mission, such as civil rights or environmentalism.
Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithson's bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge."Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of each classification of a field of knowledge for research and for display was the purpose; as American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students. By the last quarter of the 19th century, the scientific research in the universities was shifting toward biological research on a cellular level, cutting edge research moved from museums to university laboratories. While many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums. While there is an ongoing debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museum's collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect and preserve artifacts for future generations.
Much care and expense is invested in preservation efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artifacts and buildings. All museums display objects; as historian Steven Conn writes, "To see the thing itself, with one's own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting."Museum purposes vary from institution to institution. Some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects, they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a historic printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia; some seek to reach a wide audience, such as a national or state museum, while some museums have specific audiences, like the LDS Church History Museum or local history organizations. Speaking, museums collect objects of significance that comply with their mission statement for conservation and display.
Although most museums do not allow physical contact with the associated artifacts, there are some that are interactive and encourage a more hands-on approach. In 2009, Hampton Court Palace, palace of Henry VIII, opened the council room to the general public to create an interactive environment for visitors. Rather than allowing visitors to handle 500-year-old objects, the museum created replicas, as well as replica costumes; the daily activities, historic clothing, temperature changes immerse the visitor in a slice of what Tudor life may have been. This section lists the 20 most visited museums in 2015 as compiled by AECOM and the Themed Entertainment Association's annual report on the world's most visited attractions. For 2016 figures see List of most visited museums; the cities of London and Washington, D. C. contain more of the 20 most visited museums in the world than any others, with six museums and four museums, respectively. Early museums began as the private collections of wealthy individuals, families or institutions of art and rare or curious natural objects and artifacts.
These were displayed in so-called wonder rooms or cabinets of curiosities. One of the oldest museums known is Ennigaldi-Nanna's museum, built by Princess Ennigaldi at the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire; the site dates from c. 530 BCE, contained artifacts from earlier M
James Joyce Tower and Museum
The James Joyce Tower and Museum is a Martello tower in Sandycove, where James Joyce spent six nights in 1904. The opening scenes of his novel Ulysses take place here, the tower is a place of pilgrimage for Joyce enthusiasts on Bloomsday. Admission is free; the tower was leased from the British War Office by Joyce's university friend Oliver St. John Gogarty, with the purpose of "Hellenising" Ireland. Joyce stayed there for six days, from September 9 to 14 in 1904. Gogarty attributed Joyce's abrupt departure to a midnight incident with a loaded revolver; the opening scenes of Ulysses are set the morning after this incident. Gogarty is immortalised as "Stately, plump Buck Mulligan"; the tower now contains a museum dedicated to Joyce and displays some of his possessions and other ephemera associated with Ulysses. The living space is set up to resemble its 1904 appearance, contains a ceramic panther to represent one seen in a dream by a resident, it is a place of pilgrimage for Joyce enthusiasts on Bloomsday.
The Tower became a museum opening on 16 June 1962 through the efforts of Dublin artist John Ryan. Ryan rescued the front door to 7 Eccles Street from demolition and organised, with Brian O'Nolan, the first Bloomsday Celebration in 1954; the James Joyce Tower is open 365 days a year, 10am-6pm. Admission is free; the museum is run by the Friends of Joyce Tower Society on a voluntary basis. Ryan, Susan. "Joyce Tower set to reopen thanks to volunteer support". TheJournal.ie. Official website
Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. It is on the east coast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster, at the mouth of the River Liffey, is bordered on the south by the Wicklow Mountains, it has an urban area population of 1,173,179, while the population of the Dublin Region, as of 2016, was 1,347,359, the population of the Greater Dublin area was 1,904,806. There is archaeological debate regarding where Dublin was established by the Gaels in or before the 7th century AD. Expanded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin, the city became Ireland's principal settlement following the Norman invasion; the city expanded from the 17th century and was the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800. Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State renamed Ireland. Dublin is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts and industry; as of 2018 the city was listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a global city, with a ranking of "Alpha −", which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world.
The name Dublin comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, from dubh meaning "black, dark", lind "pool", referring to a dark tidal pool. This tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, Irish rhymes from County Dublin show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn; the original pronunciation is preserved in the names for the city in other languages such as Old English Difelin, Old Norse Dyflin, modern Icelandic Dyflinn and modern Manx Divlyn as well as Welsh Dulyn. Other localities in Ireland bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin and Difflin. Scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b, rendering Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn; those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot. Variations on the name are found in traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland, such as An Linne Dhubh, part of Loch Linnhe.
It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements; the Viking settlement of about 841, a Gaelic settlement, Áth Cliath further up river, at the present day Father Mathew Bridge, at the bottom of Church Street. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning "town of the hurdled ford", is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Áth Cliath is a place name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street occupied by Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church. There are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, Anglicised as Hurlford; the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, but the writings of Ptolemy in about AD 140 provide the earliest reference to a settlement there.
He called it Eblana polis. Dublin celebrated its'official' millennium in 1988, meaning the Irish government recognised 988 as the year in which the city was settled and that this first settlement would become the city of Dublin, it is now thought the Viking settlement of about 841 was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements which became the modern Dublin; the subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay. The Dubhlinn was a pool on the lowest stretch of the Poddle, used to moor ships; this pool was fully infilled during the early 18th century, as the city grew. The Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library within Dublin Castle. Táin Bó Cuailgne refers to Dublind rissa ratter Áth Cliath, meaning "Dublin, called Ath Cliath". Dublin was established as a Viking settlement in the 10th century and, despite a number of attacks by the native Irish, it remained under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in 1169.
It was upon the death of Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in early 1166 that Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht, proceeded to Dublin and was inaugurated King of Ireland without opposition. According to some historians, part of the city's early economic growth is attributed to a trade in slaves. Slavery in Ireland and Dublin reached its pinnacle in the 10th centuries. Prisoners from slave raids and kidnappings, which captured men and children, brought revenue to the Gaelic Irish Sea raiders, as well as to the Vikings who had initiated the practice; the victims came from Wales, England and beyond. The King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada, after his exile by Ruaidhrí, enlisted the help of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, to conquer Dublin. Following Mac Murrough's death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster after gaining control of the city. In response to Strongbow's successful invasion, King Henry II of England affirmed his ultimate sovereignty by mou