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Edward Pierson Ramsay

Edward Pierson Ramsay FRSEFLS LLD was an Australian zoologist who specialised in ornithology. Ramsay was born in Dobroyd Estate, Long Cove and educated at St Mark's Collegiate School, The King's School, Parramatta, he did not graduate. Although he never had had any formal scientific training in zoology, Ramsay had a keen interest in natural history and published many papers. In 1863 he was treasurer of the Entomological Society of New South Wales, he contributed a paper on the "Oology of Australia" to the Philosophical Society in July 1865, when this society was merged into the Royal Society of New South Wales, he was made a life member in recognition of the work he had done for the Philosophical Society. In 1868 Ramsay joined with his brothers in a sugar-growing plantation in Queensland which, was not successful. Ramsay was one of the foundation members of the Linnean Society of New South Wales when it was formed in 1874, a member of its council from the beginning until 1892, he became the first Australian-born Curator of the Australian Museum and built up a large variety of native weapons, dresses and ornaments illustrating the ethnology of Polynesia and Australia.

From 1876 until 1894, when he had to resign due to his declining health, he published a Catalogue of the Australian Birds in the Australian Museum at Sydney in four parts. In 1883 Ramsay traveled to London to attend the International Fisheries Exhibition. At that time he met Military Surgeon Francis Day who had collected fishes over several decades in India, Burma and other areas in southern Asia. Ramsay negotiated purchase a portion of Day's collection, including about 150 of Day's type specimens. During the same trip to Britain he visited Edinburgh, as he was elected an Ordinary Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in April 1884, his proposers were Sir John Murray, Sir William Turner, James Geikie and William Carmichael McIntosh. After his resignation as Curator, Ramsay served the Australian Museum as "consulting ornithologist" until 1909, he died on 16 December because of carcinoma. Among organisms Ramsay named are the northern death adder, the pig-nosed turtle, the giant bandicoot, the grey-headed robin, the Papuan king parrot.

Ramsay is commemorated in the scientific names of two species of Australian snakes, Aspidites ramsayi and Austrelaps ramsayi. Serle, Percival. "Ramsay, Edward Pierson". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson. Australian Museum Ramsay page

Engineering Campus (University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)

The Engineering Campus is the colloquial name for the portions of campus surrounding the Bardeen Quadrangle and the Beckman Quadrangle at the College of Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. It is an area of 30 square blocks bounded by Green Street on the south, Wright Street on the west, University Avenue on the north, Gregory Street on the east; the Bardeen Quadrangle, named for John Bardeen, is the central part of the Engineering Campus and home to most of the undergraduate facilities. As such, it is known as the Engineering Quadrangle; the Boneyard Creek runs through the middle of the quad. Starting at Engineering Hall going clockwise: Engineering Hall is the administrative center for the College of Engineering and prominently faces the Illini Union across Green Street. In addition to dozens of administrative offices and conference rooms, there are numerous classrooms and a pair of computer labs for student use. Many engineering-related student organizations are based in Engineering Hall as well, including the professional societies such as Engineering Council, SHPE, others.

The rear side of Engineering Hall includes a veranda overlooking the Boneyard Creek toward Grainger Library. Engineering Hall is the only building on campus to sport university colors with its recognizable orange brickwork. Everitt Lab was the former home of the Department of Computer Engineering; the building is named after the renowned ECE professor William L. Everitt; the 4th floor contains communications and silicon chip manufacturing labs, the Integrated Circuits Fabrication Lab is located in the lower levels. As the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering moved to the newly constructed Electrical and Computer Engineering Building in the summer of 2014, Everitt Lab is now being used as home of the Department of Bioengineering and additional engineering classroom space. Named for Arthur Newell Talbot, Talbot Laboratory holds classrooms and small lecture halls, as well as extensive structural mechanics and fluid mechanics laboratory equipment; the second floor houses the Nuclear and Radiological Engineering department, while the third floor is used for the Aerospace Engineering department, includes offices for most of the Aerospace faculty as well as the McDonnell Douglas Computer Lab, a windowless cell for Aerospace students to gather and collectively work and study.

In January 2012, the west-facing side of the AeroLab was expanded to include windows that give students a view of Campustown and downtown Champaign in the distance. Talbot Laboratory is known for containing one of largest tension and compression testing machines in the nation; the machine can apply 3 million pounds of force of either tension or compression, can be rented out to outside companies for testing. The Mechanical Engineering Lab is one of the buildings used by the Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering; the building was renovated in 2002 and contains the John Deere Pavilion, the Ford Design and Manufacturing Lab, McGinnis Studios, Rosenthal Galleries. The Materials Science and Engineering Building is home to the Department of Materials Science and Engineering; this building has been named a National Historic Physics Site by the American Physical Society. The Beckman Quadrangle is north of Springfield Avenue from the Bardeen Quad and is home to numerous undergraduate facilities as well as graduate facilities.

The quad gets its name from Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, which towers over the quad at its northernmost point. The Electrical and Computer Engineering Building is the new home of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering started August 2014. Plans were in place in 2008 to move the ECE department from Everitt Laboratory to a new building as class sizes grew and bigger demands were placed on research space and lab classes. Construction started in January 2012 and the building was opened with the ceremony in October 2014; the new ECE building is the largest building in the world to have a net-zero energy design with 230,000 square feet of labs and facilities, including a state-of-the-art nanofabrication lab. The Ven Te Chow Hydrosystems Laboratory is home of the Environmental Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering group of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, it is named after the venerable Dr. Ven Te Chow, it houses an 11,000 sq ft. research laboratory complete with, among others, flumes, a rainfall generator, a hydraulic model of the Chicago River.

The Digital Computer Laboratory was the original home of the Computer Science department. The two-story building was constructed in 1958 at what was the corner of Romine and Stoughton Streets, was expanded in 1967; the original building contained ILLIAC one of the first supercomputers. In 1989, another addition added a third floor and enclosed the old building on three sides, the building was re-addressed according to the location of its new main entrances near Springfield Avenue. In 2004, the Computer Science department offices moved to the Siebel Center upon its completion, most of the office space in DCL is now occupied by Technology Services at Illinois, the campus's central IT department, which had shared the building with Computer Science; the DCL is the home to the Engineering Career Services, was the former home to the Department of Bioengineering. Kenney Gym is a gymnasium on the corner of Springfield Avenue and Wright Street with a large selection of athletic equipment, it was home to the basketball team until the construction the Huff Hall and is used by the gymnastics team.

The Micro and Nanot

Mishkan T'filah

Mishkan T'filah—A Reform Siddur is a prayer book prepared for Reform Jewish congregations around the world by the Central Conference of American Rabbis. Mishkan T'filah is Hebrew for "Dwelling Place for Prayer" and the book serves as a successor to Gates of Prayer, the New Union Prayer Book, released in 1975. In 2015, CCAR released the complementary Mishkan HaNefesh machzor for the High Holy Days. CCAR produces a host of print and electronic materials to supplement the Mishkan T'filah book. Gates of Prayer was criticized as being a non-cohesive collection of prayers, resulting in a prayer book, too large, for its retention of masculine pronouns. To address these issues, some congregations prepared their own prayer materials or continued use of the Union Prayer Book. A project to address these concerns and increase the poeticism of a future prayerbook was initiated in 1981. Israeli poet T. Carmi was brought in to provide guidance on post-biblical Hebrew texts that could be incorporated into the Reform liturgy.

The "Carmi Project" generated hundreds of possibilities, many of which would be integrated into Mishkan T'filah. A three-year study called "Lay Involvement and Liturgical Change" started in 1985 as part of an effort to better understand the changing spiritual needs of Reform worshipers. Diverse groups of volunteers were asked to keep journals regarding their experiences in prayer services as part of gaining insights into what worked well in the existing GOP prayer book, to prepare standards for evaluating new options and to start preparations for creating a revised siddur; the research found that the themed services touted as a benefit of the GOP did not meet the needs of all worshipers in aiming too narrowly at one group within the congregation and that the traditional responsive readings were found to limit participation. Feedback showed that congregants wanted accurate and meaningful translations of prayers, accompanied by a transliteration and commentaries that would provide additional insights into the text without distracting from it.

The CCAR received 18 submissions in response to requests for proposals to meet the standards specified based on the input gathered. Two proposals were selected, with one from Rabbi Elyse Frishman of the Barnert Temple in Franklin Lakes, New Jersey, able to provide insight on Jewish texts on liturgy and worship, named to serve as editor of the new siddur. In Frishman's concept, each pair of pages would feature the Hebrew text with a translation and transliteration on the right page and additional readings on the left from such authors as Yehuda Amichai and Langston Hughes; this would allow those seeking a more traditional God-centric prayer service to stay on the right side of the book, while others could choose to focus on readings and meditative style poetry on the left. All would conclude with a one-line conclusion, before moving on to the next page. In an interview with the Times of Israel, Fishman noted changing religious and political feelings within Reform Jewish communities including an increased emphasis on Social Justice.

With the prayer book, one of the greatest challenges was finding "a balance between wanting to embrace anyone and everyone who walks through our doors and making our worship service distinctly Jewish." Judith Abrams, who submitted a second proposal and who provided expertise in rabbinic source materials, was named as consulting editor, Rabbi Peter Knobel chaired the editorial committee. Galley proof copies were sent to 300 congregations for three years of field testing, with thousands of recommendations made for improving the original work. By 2006, pre-sales of the new prayer book were over 75,000 copies. Following a trend amongst newer schoolbooks and many other designs, Mishkan T'Filah makes extensive use of white space; the book uses large and colored fonts to emphasize important information or the start of a prayer. In the top corner, a navigation guide uses bold to show what prayer one is turned to and how far along this is in the service; this appears in English transliteration on the left-hand pages.

While the increased use of Hebrew shows a trend toward the traditional content of the siddur, Mishkan T'filah's modifications include elimination of references to God in the masculine pronoun "He". Mentions of the Patriarchs, Abraham and Jacob are paired with the Matriarchs, Sarah and Rachel and Leah; as in traditional Hebrew texts, Mishkan T'filah reads from right cover to left, a format, available only as an option in Gates of Prayer. Musical changes included a shift away from certain traditional melodies and an increase in combined English and Hebrew tunes; the book includes many songs from the Jewish singer Debbie Friedman. Rabbi Lawrence A. Hoffman characterized Gates of Prayer as characteristic of a service economy, offering many different choices for individual theological preferences. By contrast, Mishkan T'filah, offers multiple options on the same page, allowing differing perspectives on prayer to be accommodated simultaneously. CCAR publishes the children’s edition of Mishkan T’fillah—aimed at the kindergarten through second grade demographic.

It includes many illustrations and prayers for Shabbat, the Torah, weekdays. The youth edition is intended for their families, it includes illustrations but the prayers and readings are more comprehensive. The youth edition contains all the major prayers for a Shabbos Bar/Bat Mitzvah service, it has sections for festival prayers, blessings for life, a Jewish song appendix. Notes are provid

Boulder River (southwestern Montana)

The Boulder River is a 77-mile tributary of the Jefferson River in southwestern Montana in the United States. It rises in the Rocky Mountains at the continental divide in the Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest in western Jefferson County, it flows east and southeast through the mountains past Boulder south to join the Jefferson near Cardwell. Game fish in the river include brook and rainbow trout, mountain whitefish. Brown trout are most prevalent in the last 2 miles, near the mouth, the other three species are more prevalent in the reach upstream of the town of Boulder; the lowermost 12 miles of the river is affected by irrigation withdrawals, the reach below the community of Basin is affected by seepage from old mines and tailings. List of rivers of Montana Montana Stream Access Law Southwestern Montana relief map Boulder River Pictures & Information U. S. Geological Survey stream gauge near Boulder

Copland Pass

The Copland Pass is an alpine pass in the Southern Alps of New Zealand. Known as Noti Hinetamatea by the indigenous Ngāi Tahu, the pass follows the route of the Makaawhio ancestor Hinetamatea and her sons Tātāwhākā and Marupeka; the Copland Pass is on a traditional tramping route connecting Mount Cook Village with the West Coast of New Zealand, 26 kilometres south of Fox Glacier. The Copland Pass is located on the Main Divide and is thus located on the boundary of Aoraki/Mount Cook and Westland Tai Poutini National Parks; the Copland River on the western side of the Main Divide may have been named by the surveyor J. G. Roberts for Dr James Copland, an early settler in Otago. Edward FitzGerald and Matthias Zurbriggen crossed the Main Divide just 500 metres further south in February 1895 and that pass, with an elevation of 2,109 metres, has been named FitzGerald Pass. A month the mountaineer Arthur Paul Harper was the first non-Māori man to cross the higher Copland Pass and he named it for the main river draining its western side.

Jane Thomson was the first non-Māori woman to cross the pass in 1903. Since the mid-1990s, the eastern climb towards the pass has experienced heavy erosion, the Copland Pass has become difficult to climb; the Department of Conservation advises that only parties with a "high level of mountaineering experience and appropriate mountaineering equipment" should attempt the crossing, that numerous fatalities have occurred over the years. Furthermore, crossings should only be attempted from east to west; the Hooker Hut on the eastern side of the pass, on the traditional route for the crossing, is no longer accessible, but is stranded on an eroding moraine. The climate of Copland Pass is considered as a tundra climate, due to its high altitude; the average high temperature in February is 13.5°C, while the average low temperature in July is -11.8°C. Most days in winter fail to reach freezing point, the average overnight summer temperatures are below 0°C. Due to the high altitude of Copland Pass, warmth from daylight hours can dissipate, contributing to the diurnal temperature variation.

The average annual temperature at Copland Shelter is 0.3°C

Upper middle class

In sociology, the upper middle class is the social group constituted by higher status members of the middle class. This is in contrast to the term lower middle class, used for the group at the opposite end of the middle-class stratum, to the broader term middle class. There is considerable debate as to. According to sociologist Max Weber, the upper middle class consists of well-educated professionals with postgraduate degrees and comfortable incomes; the American upper middle class is defined using income and occupation as the predominant indicators. In the United States, the upper middle class is defined as consisting of white-collar professionals who not only have above-average personal incomes and advanced educational degrees but a higher degree of autonomy in their work; the main occupational tasks of upper middle class individuals tend to center on conceptualizing and instruction. The American middle class is not a defined concept across disciplines, as economists and sociologists do not agree on defining the term.

In academic models, the term "upper middle class" applies to highly-educated, salaried professionals whose work is self-directed. Many have postgraduate degrees, with educational attainment serving as the main distinguishing feature of this class. Household incomes exceed $100,000. Typical professions for this class include lawyers, military officers, certified public accountants, optometrists, financial planners, engineers, professors, school principals, urban planners, civil service executives, civilian contractors; the upper middle class has grown... and its composition has changed. Salaried managers and professionals have replaced individual business owners and independent professionals; the key to the success of the upper middle class is the growing importance of educational certification... its lifestyles and opinions are becoming normative for the whole society. It is in fact a porous class, open to people.... In addition to having autonomy in their work, above-average incomes, advanced educations, the upper middle class tends to be influential, setting trends and shaping public opinion.

Overall, members of this class are secure from economic down-turns and, unlike their counterparts in the statistical middle class, do not need to fear downsizing, corporate cost-cutting, or outsourcing—an economic benefit attributable to their postgraduate degrees and comfortable incomes in the top income quintile or top third. While many Americans cite income as the prime determinant of class, occupational status, educational attainment, value systems are important variables. Income is in part determined by the scarcity of certain skill sets. An occupation that requires a scarce skill set, attained through higher educational degree, which involves higher autonomy and influence, will offer higher economic compensation. Qualifying for such higher income requires that individuals obtain the necessary skills and demonstrate the necessary competencies. There are differences between household and individual income. In 2005, 42% of US households had two or more income earners. To illustrate, two nurses each making $55,000 per year can out-earn, in a household sense, a single attorney who makes a median of $95,000 annually.

Sociologists Dennis Gilbert, William Thompson and Joseph Hickey estimate the upper middle class to constitute 15% of the population. Using the 15% figure one may conclude that the American upper middle class consists in an income sense, of professionals with personal incomes in excess of $62,500, who reside in households with six-figure incomes; the difference between personal and household income can be explained by considering that 76% of households with incomes exceeding $90,000 had two or more income earners. Note that the above income thresholds may vary based on region due to significant differences in average income based on region and urban, suburban, or rural development. In more expensive suburbs, the threshold for the top 15% of income earners may be much higher. For example, in 2006 the ten highest income counties had median household incomes of $85,000 compared to a national average of about $50,000; the top 15% of all US income earners nationally tend to be more concentrated in these richer suburban counties where the cost of living is higher.

If middle-class households earning between the 50th percentile and the 85th percentile tend to live in lower cost of living areas their difference in real income may be smaller than what the differences in nominal income suggest. Upper middle class people tend to value tertiary education for themselves and their children, favoring the pursuit of undergraduate and postgraduate degrees. Political ideology is not found to be correlated with social class. In terms of income, liberals tend to be tied with pro-business conservatives. Most mass affluent households tend to be more right-leaning on fiscal issues but more left-leaning on social issues; the majority, between 50% and 60%, of households with incomes above $50,000 overall, not all of whom are upper middle class, supported the Republican Party in the 2000, 2004, 2