Edward Teller was a Hungarian-American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as "the father of the hydrogen bomb", although he did not care for the title, was only part of a team who developed the technology. Throughout his life, Teller was known both for his scientific ability and for his difficult interpersonal relations and volatile personality. Teller was born in Hungary in 1908, emigrated to the United States in the 1930s, one of the many so-called "Martians", a group of prominent Hungarian scientist emigrés, he made numerous contributions to nuclear and molecular physics and surface physics. His extension of Enrico Fermi's theory of beta decay, in the form of Gamow–Teller transitions, provided an important stepping stone in its application, while the Jahn–Teller effect and the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller theory have retained their original formulation and are still mainstays in physics and chemistry. Teller made contributions to Thomas–Fermi theory, the precursor of density functional theory, a standard modern tool in the quantum mechanical treatment of complex molecules.
In 1953, along with Nicholas Metropolis, Arianna Rosenbluth, Marshall Rosenbluth, his wife Augusta Teller, Teller co-authored a paper, a standard starting point for the applications of the Monte Carlo method to statistical mechanics. Teller was an early member of the Manhattan Project, charged with developing the first atomic bomb, proposed the solid pit implosion design, successful, he made a serious push to develop the first fusion-based weapons as well, but these were deferred until after World War II. He did not sign the Szilard petition, which sought to have the bombs detonated as a demonstration, but not on a city, but agreed that Szilard was right, the bombs should not have been dropped on a defenceless civilian population, he was a co-founder of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, was both its director and associate director for many years. After his controversial negative testimony in the Oppenheimer security hearing convened against his former Los Alamos Laboratory superior, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Teller was ostracized by much of the scientific community.
He continued, however, to find support from the U. S. government and military research establishment for his advocacy for nuclear energy development, a strong nuclear arsenal, a vigorous nuclear testing program. In his years, Teller became known for his advocacy of controversial technological solutions to both military and civilian problems, including a plan to excavate an artificial harbor in Alaska using thermonuclear explosive in what was called Project Chariot, Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. Teller's contributions to science garnered him numerous awards, including the Enrico Fermi Award and Albert Einstein Award, he died on September 9, 2003, in Stanford, California, at 95. Ede Teller was born on January 1908, in Budapest, Austria-Hungary, into a Jewish family, his parents were Ilona, a pianist, Max Teller, an attorney. He was educated at the Fasori Lutheran Gymnasium in the Minta Gymnasium in Budapest. Jewish of origin in life Teller became an agnostic Jew. "Religion was not an issue in my family", he wrote, "indeed, it was never discussed.
My only religious training came because the Minta required that all students take classes in their respective religions. My family celebrated the Day of Atonement, when we all fasted, yet my father said prayers for his parents on all the Jewish holidays. The idea of God that I absorbed was that it would be wonderful if He existed: We needed Him but had not seen Him in many thousands of years." Like Einstein and Feynman, Teller was a late talker. He developed the ability to speak than most children, but became interested in numbers, would calculate large numbers in his head for fun. Teller left Hungary for Germany in 1926 due to the discriminatory numerus clausus rule under Miklós Horthy's regime; the political climate and revolutions in Hungary during his youth instilled a lingering animosity for both Communism and Fascism in Teller. From 1926 to 1928, Teller studied mathematics and chemistry at the University of Karlsruhe, where he graduated with a degree in chemical engineering, he has stated that the person, responsible for him becoming a physicist is Herman Mark, a visiting professor, after hearing lectures on molecular spectroscopy where Mark made it clear to him that it was new ideas in physics that were radically changing the frontier of chemistry.
Mark was an expert in polymer chemistry, a field, essential to understanding biochemistry, Mark taught him about the leading breakthroughs in quantum physics made by Louis de Broglie, among others. It was this exposure which he had gotten from Mark's lectures, what motivated Teller to switch to physics. After informing his father of his intent to switch, his father was so concerned that he traveled to visit him and speak with his professors at the school. While a degree in chemical engineering was a sure path to a well-paying job at chemical companies, there was not such a clear-cut route for a career with a degree in physics, he was not privvy to the discussions his father had with his professors, but the result was that he got his father's permission to become a physicist. Teller attended the University of Munich where he studied physics under Arnold Sommerfeld. On July 14, 1928, while still a young student in Munich, he was taking a streetcar to catch a train for a hike in the nearby Alps and decided to jump off while it was still moving
George Murnu was a Romanian university professor, historian and poet of Aromanian origin. After attending the courses of the Romanian primary and secondary schools in Macedonia at Bitola, he attended the University of Bucharest. In 1893, at age 25, Murnu was appointed professor at the University of Iaşi and shortly afterwards was awarded a scholarship by the Romanian State in order to complete his postgraduate studies in Munich, after several years he returned to Romania after completing a doctorate in philology. A fruitful scholarly activity followed, culminating in Murnu becoming a chairman professor of archaeology at the University of Bucharest. In 1909, he was appointed head of the National Archaeological Museum in Bucharest by the Ministry of Public Instruction and Religious Confessions, he has translated an accomplished version of the Iliad into Romanian. He wrote his own works of poetry, both in Romanian and in his native Aromanian language. Murnu was a sympathizer of the far right Iron Guard, was an intimate friend of the Aromanian secessionist politician, Alcibiades Diamandi who in 1917 participated in a failed effort to form an independent Principality of Pindus under the protection of Italy.
After the end of World War II, Murnu was not subject to legal investigation - due to his age and prestige. He was elected a full member of the Romanian Academy. Nowadays, a street in the Romanian Black Sea port of Mangalia bears his name. Românii din Bulgaria medievală Studiu asupra elementului grec ante-fanariot în limba română Cântecul plaiurilor noastre Din bură de codri răsună chemare Din glasuri de păsări, de frunze, de crengi De şoapte lungi, de fântâni, de izvoare Cu lacrimi de umbră, cu zâmbet de soare. Lavã di cãshare, boatse di cãlivã Suflã vindicare-a ta dultse livã. Adiljat di moscu, duh di primuverã Bana nj-u cutreamburã ca unã fluiarã Tsi di dor pitrunde noaptea tu pundie Inima-nj ti-cãntã, mãna-nj tut ti-scrie. Stãu, tsi-ascultu plãngu, jalea shi niholu, Ved ãncrutsiljatã Soia-nj ca Hristolu Shi mizie li-si-avde zborlu-a tal dit gurã. Scumpa-a mea fãntãnã tsi anarga curã, Mãne, poate mãne, di dushmanj biutã, Va s-armãne tu etã pondã shi tãcutã. Nicolae-Şerban Tanaşoca, Realism şi idealism în "Chestiunea aromâneascã".
Un episod diplomatic din viaţa lui George Murnu în lumina corespondenţei sale inedite, in Revista de Istorie, 1997, 8, nr. 11-12, pp. 719–738. George Murnu - Autobiographical fragment in German The Folklore Association of Aromanians in Veria Vlahoi.net
May Road is an intermediate station on the Peak Tram funicular railway line. It is located on May Road at Mid-levels and Western District, Hong Kong, 180 m above sea level and is named after Francis Henry May, the 15th Governor of Hong Kong; the station comprises a single platform on the western side of the single track. May Road passes over the tramway on a bridge at the downhill end of the station, with a passing loop at the Victoria Peak end allowing uphill and downhill trams to pass each other; because the station is located in a high-income residential area, where most residents have their own private cars, patronage of the station is low. The station is a request stop at which tram cars will stop only if passengers have pressed the request button inside the tramcar or at the station. No ticketing equipment is provided on the platform. Media related to May Road at Wikimedia Commons