Texas State Highway 55
State Highway 55 is a state highway in the U. S. state of Texas. It runs from Uvalde northwestward through the western Hill Country onto the Edwards Plateau, ending south of Sonora. SH 55 was designated from Rocksprings to La Pryor on August 21, 1923, replacing SH 3E and a portion of SH 4. On March 16, 1925, it extended south to SH 2 near Cactus. On October 26, 1926, it was rerouted to Bart. On October 10, 1927, it extended south through Catarina and east to Artesia Wells. On August 6, 1929, SH 55 was truncated to Uvalde, with everything south of there being transferred to SH 4, the section from Catarina to Artesia Wells was cancelled in exchange for the extension of SH 4. On October 25, 1932, SH 55 extended north to its current terminus.. On November 30, 1932, SH 55 was extended south through Dilley to San Diego. On July 15, 1935, SH 55 was shortened to a route from Rocksprings to Uvalde. On November 19, 1935, SH 55 extended back north to SH 30. On January 18, 1937, SH 55 extended to Dilley again.
The portion from Uvalde to 4.8 miles southeast of Batesville and from Divot to Dilley were to be constructed starting on March 26, 1942, but upon completion, these sections of SH 55 were to be cancelled and changed to Farm to Market Roads. The section south of Uvalde was cancelled on January 11, 1945, the portion from Uvalde to 4.8 miles south of Batesville was transferred to FM 117. The section from Dilley to Divot was still under construction, but changed to FM 471 on July 9, 1945
Bexar County, Texas
Bexar County is a county of the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,714,773, a 2017 estimate put the population at 1,958,578, it is the fourth-most populated in Texas. Its county seat is San Antonio, the second-most populous city in Texas and the seventh-largest city in the United States. Bexar County is included in TX metropolitan statistical area. Bexar County includes Government Canyon State Natural Area in the northwestern part of the county. Bexar County was created on December 20, 1836, encompassed the entire western portion of the Republic of Texas; this included the disputed areas of western New Mexico northward to Wyoming. After statehood, 128 counties were carved out of its area; the county was named for San Antonio de Béxar, one of the 23 Mexican municipalities of Texas at the time of its independence. San Antonio de Béxar—originally Villa de San Fernando de Béxar—was the first civil government established by the Spanish in the province of Texas; the municipality was created in 1731 when 55 Canary Islanders settled near the system of missions, established around the source of the San Antonio River.
The new settlement was named after the Presidio San Antonio de Béjar, the Spanish military outpost that protected the missions. The presidio, located at the San Pedro Springs, was founded in 1718 and named for Viceroy Balthasar Manuel de Zúñiga y Guzmán Sotomayor y Sarmiento, second son of the Duke of Béjar; the modern city of San Antonio in the U. S. state of Texas derived its name from San Antonio de Béjar. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,256 square miles, of which 1,240 sq mi is land and 16 sq mi is water. Bexar County is in south-central Texas, about 190 miles west of Houston and 140 mi from both the US-Mexican border to the southwest and the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast; the Balcones Escarpment bisects the county from west to northeast. South of the escarpment are the South Texas plains; the San Antonio River rises from springs north of Downtown San Antonio, flows southward and southeastward through the county. Bexar County has a comprehensive "wagon wheel" freeway system, with radial freeways and beltways that encircle Downtown San Antonio, allowing for simplified countywide freeway access, in a manner much like the freeways around Houston or Dallas.
San Antonio is unique, however, in that unlike Houston or Dallas, none of these highways is tolled. Kendall County Comal County Guadalupe County Wilson County Atascosa County Medina County Bandera County San Antonio Missions National Historical Park As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 1,714,773 people residing in the county. Of those, 72.9% were White, 7.5% Black or African American, 2.4% Asian, 0.8% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 12.7% of some other race and 3.5% of two or more races. 58.7% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, 1,392,931 people, 488,942 households, 345,681 families were residing in the county; the population density was 1,117 inhabitants per square mile. There were 521,359 housing units at an average density of 418 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 68.86% White, 7.18% Black or African American, 0.80% Native American, 1.61% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 17.80% from other races, 3.64% from two or more races. About 54.35 % of the population were Latino of any race.
Of 488,942 households, 36.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.50% were married couples living together, 15.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.30% were not families. About 24.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 3.33. A Williams Institute analysis of 2010 census data found there were about 6.2 same-sex couples per 1,000 households in the county. In the county, the population was distributed as 28.50% under the age of 18, 10.70% from 18 to 24, 30.60% from 25 to 44, 19.90% from 45 to 64, 10.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.20 males. The median income for a household was $38,328, for a family was $43,724. Males had a median income of $30,756 versus $24,920 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,363.
About 12.70% of families and 15.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.40% of those under age 18 and 12.20% of those age 65 or over. The Bexar County jail facilities are at 200 North Comal in downtown San Antonio, operated by the Bexar County Sheriff's Office. In late 2012, press reports noted an increase in the number of suicides at the facility; the issue was a topic of debate in the election for sheriff that year. The jail holds an average of about 3,800 prisoners in 2012, with a total capacity of 4,596, making it the fourth-largest in the state; the Texas Department of Criminal Justice operates the Dominguez Unit, a state jail for men, in an unincorporated section of Bexar County. In the fall of 2013, Bexar County opened BiblioTech - Bexar County's Digital Library, the nation's first bookless library. In 2016, for the third consecutive year, Bexar County increased the appraised value of businesses and residences. Most will hence find their prop
A windmill is a structure that converts the energy of wind into rotational energy by means of vanes called sails or blades. Centuries ago, windmills were used to mill grain, pump water, or both. There are windmills; the majority of modern windmills take the form of wind turbines used to generate electricity, or windpumps used to pump water, either for land drainage or to extract groundwater. Windmills first appeared in Persia in the 9th century AD, were independently invented in Europe; the windwheel of the Greek engineer Hero of Alexandria in the first century is the earliest known instance of using a wind-driven wheel to power a machine. Another early example of a wind-driven wheel was the prayer wheel, used in Tibet and China since the fourth century; the first practical windmills had sails. According to Ahmad Y. al-Hassan, these panemone windmills were invented in eastern Persia, or Khorasan, as recorded by the Persian geographer Estakhri in the ninth century. The authenticity of an earlier anecdote of a windmill involving the second caliph Umar is questioned on the grounds that it appears in a tenth-century document.
Made of six to 12 sails covered in reed matting or cloth material, these windmills were used to grind grain or draw up water, were quite different from the European vertical windmills. Windmills were in widespread use across the Middle East and Central Asia, spread to China and India from there. A similar type of horizontal windmill with rectangular blades, used for irrigation, can be found in thirteenth-century China, introduced by the travels of Yelü Chucai to Turkestan in 1219. Horizontal windmills were built, in small numbers, in Europe during the 18th and nineteenth centuries, for example Fowler's Mill at Battersea in London, Hooper's Mill at Margate in Kent; these early modern examples seem not to have been directly influenced by the horizontal windmills of the Middle and Far East, but to have been independent inventions by engineers influenced by the Industrial Revolution. Due to a lack of evidence, debate occurs among historians as to whether or not Middle Eastern horizontal windmills triggered the original development of European windmills.
In northwestern Europe, the horizontal-axis or vertical windmill is believed to date from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries in the triangle of northern France, eastern England and Flanders. The earliest certain reference to a windmill in Europe dates from 1185, in the former village of Weedley in Yorkshire, located at the southern tip of the Wold overlooking the Humber Estuary. A number of earlier, but less dated, twelfth-century European sources referring to windmills have been found; these earliest mills were used to grind cereals. The evidence at present is that the earliest type of European windmill was the post mill, so named because of the large upright post on which the mill's main structure is balanced. By mounting the body this way, the mill is able to rotate to face the wind direction; the body contains all the milling machinery. The first post mills were of the sunken type, where the post was buried in an earth mound to support it. A wooden support was developed called the trestle.
This was covered over or surrounded by a roundhouse to protect the trestle from the weather and to provide storage space. This type of windmill was the most common in Europe until the nineteenth century, when more powerful tower and smock mills replaced them. In a hollow-post mill, the post on which the body is mounted is hollowed out, to accommodate the drive shaft; this makes it possible to drive machinery below or outside the body while still being able to rotate the body into the wind. Hollow-post mills driving scoop wheels were used in the Netherlands to drain wetlands from the fourteenth century onwards. By the end of the thirteenth century, the masonry tower mill, on which only the cap is rotated rather than the whole body of the mill, had been introduced; the spread of tower mills came with a growing economy that called for larger and more stable sources of power, though they were more expensive to build. In contrast to the post mill, only the cap of the tower mill needs to be turned into the wind, so the main structure can be made much taller, allowing the sails to be made longer, which enables them to provide useful work in low winds.
The cap can be turned into the wind either by winches or gearing inside the cap or from a winch on the tail pole outside the mill. A method of keeping the cap and sails into the wind automatically is by using a fantail, a small windmill mounted at right angles to the sails, at the rear of the windmill; these are fitted to tail poles of post mills and are common in Great Britain and English-speaking countries of the former British Empire and Germany but rare in other places. Around some parts of the Mediterranean Sea, tower mills with fixed caps were built because the wind's direction varied little most of the time; the smock mill is a development of the tower mill, where the masonry tower is replaced by a wooden framework, called the "smock", thatched, boarded or covered by other materials, such as slate, sheet metal, or tar paper. The smock is of octagonal plan, though there are examples with different numbers of sides; the lighter weight than tower mills make smock mills practical as drainage mills, which had t
Texas's 23rd congressional district
Texas's 23rd congressional district stretches across the southwestern portion of Texas. It is a predominantly Hispanic district and its current Representative is Republican Will Hurd; the district runs along the majority of Texas's border with Mexico, just north of the Rio Grande. While it encompasses numerous county seats and a few towns of regional economic importance, the district is predominantly rural, it stretches from western San Antonio to just outside El Paso. Its large size is due to its low population density—one of the lowest in the country, it encompasses all of Big Bend Ranch State Park. Major economic activities in the district include farming, ranching and mineral extraction, recreation and tourism; as of the 2000 census, the district contained 651,620 people. Of these, 41% are non-Hispanic white, 55.1% Hispanic regardless of race, 2% non-Hispanic black, 2.2% other. The district's population is 74.6% urban. Per capita Income for the district is $18,692; the district has a 6.5% unemployment rate.
Of the employed, 71.8% is private, 19.4% government, 8.4% self-employed. Major industries include Retail trade, Education services, Health Care, Manufacturing. 222,012 households are with an average of 2.8 persons per household. This district was created in 1967, following passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. In addition, it followed the case of Wesberry v. Sanders, resulting in Texas' previous congressional map being tossed out. Democrats held the district until 1993. Following the 1990 census, in 1992, the Texas Legislature created the new 28th District from the eastern portion of the 23rd. In the process, the legislature left a Republican section of western San Antonio in the 23rd. Republican Henry Bonilla beat 4-term incumbent Albert Bustamante to take the seat in 1992. Although the 23rd leaned Democratic on paper, Bonilla had a conservative voting record; because of his popularity in San Antonio, he didn't face a credible challenger until 2002, when the former Democratic Texas Secretary of State, Henry Cuellar, came within 2 points of unseating him.
During the 2003 Texas redistricting, the Republican-controlled Texas Legislature shifted most of Laredo, one of the bases of the 23rd from the beginning, into the 28th district. Several Republican suburbs in the Texas Hill Country north of San Antonio were shifted into the 23rd district, all but ensuring Bonilla of a seventh term. On June 28, 2006, the U. S. Supreme Court, in League of United Latin American Citizens v. Perry ruled that the 23rd District violated the Voting Rights Act of 1965; the case turned on the fact. If the 23rd were redrawn to put Hispanics in a minority, a new majority-Hispanic district had to be created. Although Hispanics made up 55 percent of the new 23rd's population, they comprised only 46 percent of the new 23rd's voting-age U. S. citizen population. Therefore, the Court said, the new 23rd was not a true majority-minority district; the Court found that the new Austin-to-McAllen 25th District was not compact enough to be an acceptable replacement. The Court ruled; as a result, on August 4, 2006, a three-judge panel announced replacement district boundaries for the 2006 election in the 23rd district.
Due to the 23rd's size, nearly every district along the El Paso-San Antonio corridor had to be redrawn as well. In the change, the new 23rd lost many of the Republican areas given to it in 2003, as well as the rest of Laredo, it received a large portion of south San Antonio, Democratic. Four other districts were affected: the 28th, 25th, 15th and 21st; as a result, on November 7, 2006, these five districts held open primaries, called a "jungle primary." If no candidate were to receive as much as 50% of the vote, a runoff election in December would decide the seat. In the 23rd, the incumbent Bonilla had two significant opponents, both Democrats: the Vietnam War veteran Rick Bolanos and Ciro Rodriguez, the former Congressman of the 28th district. In the Spring, Bolanos won the now moot 23rd district Democratic primary. Rodriguez lost a primary challenge to Cuellar in the 28th district, vacated; the redrawing placed Rodriguez' home, along with most of his old base, into the 23rd district. Other candidates in the special election were: Albert Uresti, the retired San Antonio Fire Department district chief and brother of the state Senator Carlos Uresti.
Craig T. Stephens, an independent candidate filed to run. Rick Bolanos dropped out of the race on October 19, 2006 and endorsed fellow Democrat Lukin Gilliland. On November 7, 2006, Henry Bonilla received more votes than any of his challengers, but did not receive 50% of the votes cast. Though none of the Democratic candidates came close to Bonilla individually, as a whole the six Democratic candidates received more votes than Bonilla, the only Republican candidate. However, neither party received more than 50% of the vote because of a third party candidate. A runoff election was held on December 12, 2006 between Bonilla and Rodriguez, Rodriguez won; the National Republican Congressional Committee targeted Texas' 23rd Congressional District to try to regain it, supported the Republican campaign financially. Francisco "Quico" Canseco, a San Antonio businessman, became the Republican nominee for the
The Edwards Aquifer is one of the most prolific artesian aquifers in the world. Located on the eastern edge of the Edwards Plateau in the U. S. state of Texas, it is the source of drinking water for two million people, is the primary water supply for agriculture and industry in the aquifer’s region. In addition, the Edwards Aquifer feeds the Comal and San Marcos springs, provides springflow for recreational and downstream uses in the Nueces, San Antonio and San Marcos river basins, is home to several unique and endangered species. Although between 25 and 55 million acre-feet of water may be present in the Edwards aquifer, only a small portion of this water is or available for use. Storage is the difference between discharge from the Edwards Aquifer. Annual storage can be negative during dry years with high water use and positive during wet years with low water use. A long-term negative imbalance between recharge and discharge in an aquifer may lead to the depletion of the available water in the aquifer.
Annual storage between 1955 and 2012 estimated from data provided by a continuing program between the U. S. Geologic Survey and the Edwards Aquifer Authority ranged from -633,000 to +1,653,000 acre-feet per year; the average storage during this period was 37,000 acre-feet per year. Water enters the Edwards Aquifer in two ways: it either falls as precipitation and percolates directly into the aquifer, or it enters as streamflow flowing through the Recharge Zone; the Recharge Zone occurs along the Balcones Fault Zone where the Edwards Plateau drops steeply and meets the Gulf Coastal Plain. Here fractured limestones are exposed at the Earth's surface, which allow rain and streamflow to infiltrate directly into the aquifer; the Contributing Zone, which occurs on 5,400 mi2 of the Edwards Plateau, collects precipitation and streamflow that drain to the Recharge Zone. Major streams draining the Contributing Zone include Cibolo Creek, Helotes Creek, Barton Creek, Onion Creek. Water is unable to percolate into the aquifer in the Contributing Zone because much of the underlying geology is impermeable.
Average precipitation in the region is around 30 inches per year. Only precipitation that falls on the contributing area is available for infiltration. With a contributing and recharge area of over 6,650 mi2, the mean annual volume of preciptiation, available for recharge is 10,660,000 acre-feet, or the equivalent of 5.3 million Olympic sized swimming pools. The average annual recharge rate between 1934 and 2013 is estimated to be 699,000 acre-feet, or only 6% of the total inputs to the system. Water from the Edwards Aquifer is discharged in two ways: it is either pumped from wells or it leaves as stream outflow; the Edwards Aquifer Authority and the United States Geological Survey have monitored annual well and spring discharges since 1934. Annual well discharge - the sum of all well discharges in a year - ranged from 219,300 acre-feet to 542,500 acre-feet between 1955 and 2012; the average well discharge for this period was 371,667 acre-feet, equivalent to 183 thousand Olympic-sized swimming pools.
Annual spring discharge ranged from 69,800 acre-feet to 802,800 acre-feet between 1955 and 2012. The average spring discharge for this period was 392,991 acre-feet. During dry years, more water is discharged from wells while during wet years, more water is discharged from springs. Annual total groundwater discharge from pumping and springs ranged from 388,800 acre-feet to 1,130,000 acre-feet, the average total groundwater discharge for 1955 to 2012 period was 764,431 acre-feet. Scientists with the United States Geologic Survey have developed numerical groundwater flow models for the San Antonio and Barton Springs aquifer segments to determine the amount of water in the aquifer, the direction it is flowing, its velocity; these are used to estimate the sustainable levels of groundwater withdrawal throughout the aquifer. Given ample data is needed for numerical simulations, yet lacking, regional modeling of large aquifers is difficult, but modeling segments within an aquifer is common and provides useful information for water users throughout the aquifer.
Aquifer storage is correlated with water levels recorded in the J-17 Bexar index well which serves as the sole official monitoring well in the Edwards Aquifer. The J-17 well, is located in the artisanal confined Edwards Aquifer at a location AY-68-37-203 based on the latitude and longitude. Water levels have been recorded in the J-17 well since the 1910s, is used to generalize the entire aquifer system. Changes in aquifer storage are used to estimate recharge rates. In the Edwards aquifer, groundwater flow models have been developed for the San Antonio and Barton Springs aquifer segments in the San Antonio region of Texas. Two model simulations were conducted: steady state and transient. A steady-state groundwater flow model requires magnitude and direction of flow remain constant, whereas a transient model simulation allows for a change in water storage over time. Steady-state results suggest water leaving the aquifer occurs through springs, water well pumping, to the Colorado River. Inflow of water to the aquifer occurs through natural recharge and water delivered through the aquifer’s regional boundaries.
The transient simulation model suggests discharge occurs through springs, followed by water well pumping. Located in South
Stephen F. Austin
Stephen Fuller Austin was an American empresario. Known as the "Father of Texas", the founder of Texas, he led the second, the successful colonization of the region by bringing 300 families from the United States to the region in 1825. Born in Virginia and raised in southeastern Missouri, Austin served in the Missouri territorial legislature before moving to Arkansas Territory and Louisiana, his father, Moses Austin, received an empresario grant from Spain to settle Texas. After Moses Austin's death in 1821, Stephen Austin won recognition of the empresario grant from the newly independent state of Mexico. Austin convinced numerous American settlers to move to Texas, by 1825 Austin had brought the first 300 American families into the territory. Throughout the 1820s, Austin sought to maintain good relations with the Mexican government, he helped suppress the Fredonian Rebellion, he helped ensure the introduction of slavery into Texas despite the attempts of the Mexican government to ban the institution.
He led the initial actions against the Karankawa people in this area. As Texas settlers became dissatisfied with the Mexican government, Austin advocated conciliation, but the dissent against Mexico escalated into the Texas Revolution. Austin led Texas forces at the successful Siege of Béxar before serving as a commissioner to the United States. Austin was defeated by Sam Houston. Houston appointed Austin as secretary of state for the new republic, Austin held that position until his death in December 1836. Numerous places and institutions are named in his honor, including the capital of Texas, Austin in Travis County, Austin County, Austin Bayou, Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches, Austin College in Sherman, a number of K-12 schools. Stephen F. Austin was born in the mining region of southwestern Virginia in what is known as Austinville today, some 256 miles southwest of Richmond, Virginia, he was the second child of Mary Brown Moses Austin. On June 8, 1798, when Stephen was four years old, his family moved west to the lead-mining region of present-day Potosi, Missouri, 40 miles west of the Mississippi River.
His father Moses Austin received a sitio from the Spanish government for the mining site of Mine à Breton, established by French colonists. His great-great-grandfather, Anthony Austin, was the son of Richard Austin, he and his wife Esther were original settlers of Suffield, which became Connecticut in 1749; when Austin was eleven years old, his family sent him back east to be educated, first at the preparatory school of Bacon Academy in Colchester, Connecticut. He studied at Transylvania University in Lexington, from which he graduated in 1810. After graduation, Austin began reading the law with an established firm. At age 21, he was served in the legislature of the Missouri Territory; as a member of the territorial legislature, he was "influential in obtaining a charter for the struggling Bank of St. Louis."Left penniless after the Panic of 1819, Austin decided to move south to the new Arkansas Territory. He acquired property on the south bank of the Arkansas River, in the area that would become Little Rock.
After purchasing the property, he learned the area was being considered as the location for the new territorial capital, which could make his land worth a great deal more. He made his home in Arkansas. Two weeks before the first Arkansas territorial elections in 1820, Austin declared his candidacy for Congress, his late entrance meant his name did not appear on the ballot in two of the five counties, but he still placed second in the field of six candidates. He was appointed as a judge for the First Circuit Court. Over the next few months, Little Rock did become the territorial capital, but Austin's claim to land in the area was contested, the courts ruled against him. The Territorial Assembly abolished Austin's judgeship. Austin left the territory, he reached New Orleans in November 1820, where he met and stayed with Joseph H. Hawkins, a New Orleans lawyer and former Kentucky congressman, he made arrangements to study law with him. During Austin's time in Arkansas, his father traveled to Spanish Texas and received an empresarial grant that would allow him to bring 300 American families to Texas, they would be called "The Old 300."
Moses Austin caught pneumonia soon after returning to Missouri. He directed. Although Austin was reluctant to carry on his father's Texas venture, he was persuaded to pursue the colonization of Texas by a letter from his mother, Mary Brown Austin, written two days before Moses Austin would die. Austin boarded the steamer and departed to New Orleans to meet Spanish officials led by Erasmo Seguín, he was on June 31, 1821, when he learned of his father's death. "This news has effected me much, he was one of the most feeling and affectionate Fathers that lived. His faults I now say, always have, were not of the heart."Austin led his party to travel 300 miles in four weeks to San Antonio with the intent of reauthorizing his father's grant, arriving on August 12. While in transit, they learned Mexico had declared its independence from Spain, Texas had become a Mexican province, rather than a Spanish territory. José Antonio Navarro, a San Antonio native with ambitious visions of the future of Texas, befriended Stephen F. Austin, the two developed a lasting association.
Navarro, proficient in Spanis
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western