The Royal Prussian Army served as the army of the Kingdom of Prussia. It became vital to the development of Brandenburg-Prussia as a European power; the Prussian Army had its roots in the core mercenary forces of Brandenburg during the Thirty Years' War of 1618–1648. Elector Frederick William developed it into a viable standing army, while King Frederick William I of Prussia increased its size and improved its doctrines. King Frederick the Great, a formidable battle commander, led the disciplined Prussian troops to victory during the 18th-century Silesian Wars and increased the prestige of the Kingdom of Prussia; the army had become outdated by the beginning of the Napoleonic Wars, France defeated Prussia in the War of the Fourth Coalition. However, under the leadership of Gerhard von Scharnhorst, Prussian reformers began modernizing the Prussian Army, which contributed to the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte during the War of the Sixth Coalition. Conservatives halted some of the reforms and the Prussian Army subsequently became a bulwark of the conservative Prussian government.
In the 19th century the Prussian Army fought successful wars against Denmark and France, allowing Prussia to unify Germany and to establish the German Empire in 1871. The Prussian Army formed the core of the Imperial German Army, replaced by the Reichswehr after World War I; the army of Prussia grew out of the united armed forces created during the reign of Elector Frederick William of Brandenburg. Hohenzollern Brandenburg-Prussia had relied upon Landsknecht mercenaries during the Thirty Years' War, in which Brandenburg was devastated. Swedish and Imperial forces occupied the country. In the spring of 1644, Frederick William started building a standing army through conscription to better defend his state. By 1643–44, the developing army numbered only 5,500 troops, including 500 musketeers in Frederick William's bodyguard; the elector's confidant Johann von Norprath recruited forces in the Duchy of Cleves and organized an army of 3,000 Dutch and German soldiers in the Rhineland by 1646. Garrisons were slowly augmented in Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia.
Frederick William sought assistance from France, the traditional rival of Habsburg Austria, began receiving French subsidies. He based his reforms on those of the War Minister of King Louis XIV of France; the growth of his army allowed Frederick William to achieve considerable territorial acquisitions in the 1648 Treaty of Westphalia, despite Brandenburg's relative lack of success during the war. The provincial estates desired a reduction in the army's size during peacetime, but the elector avoided their demands through political concessions and economy. In the 1653 Brandenburg Recess between Frederick William and the estates of Brandenburg, the nobility provided the sovereign with 530,000 thalers in return for affirmation of their privileges; the Junkers thus cemented their political power at the expense of the peasantry. Once the elector and his army were strong enough, Frederick William was able to suppress the estates of Cleves and Prussia. Frederick William attempted to professionalize his soldiers during a time when mercenaries were the norm.
In addition to individually creating regiments and appointing colonels, the elector imposed harsh punishments for transgressions, such as punishing by hanging for looting, running the gauntlet for desertion. Acts of violence by officers against civilians resulted in decommission for a year, he developed a cadet institution for the nobility. Field Marshals of Brandenburg-Prussia included John George II, Spaen and Sparr; the elector's troops traditionally were organized into disconnected provincial forces. In 1655, Frederick William began the unification of the various detachments by placing them under the overall command of Sparr. Unification increased through the appointment of Generalkriegskommissar Platen as head of supplies; these measures decreased the authority of the mercenary colonels, so prominent during the Thirty Years' War. Brandenburg-Prussia's new army survived its trial by fire through victory in the 1656 Battle of Warsaw, during the Northern Wars. Observers were impressed with the discipline of the Brandenburger troops, as well as their treatment of civilians, considered more humane than that of their allies, the Swedish Army.
Hohenzollern success enabled Frederick William to assume sovereignty over the Duchy of Prussia in the 1657 Treaty of Wehlau, by which Brandenburg-Prussia allied itself with the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Despite having expelled Swedish forces from the territory, the elector did not acquire Vorpommern in the 1660 Treaty of Oliva, as the balance of power had been restored. In the early 1670s, Frederick William supported Imperial attempts to reclaim Alsace and counter the expansion of Louis XIV of France. Swedish troops invaded Brandenburg in 1674 while the bulk of the elector's troops were in winter quarters in Franconia. In 1675 Frederick William surrounded Wrangel's troops; the elector achieved his greatest victory in the Battle of Fehrbellin. After Sweden invaded Prussia in late 1678, Frederick William's forces expelled the Swedish invaders during "the Great Sleigh Drive" of 1678–79. Frederick William built the Hohenzollern army up to a peacet
University of Würzburg
The Julius Maximilian University of Würzburg is a public research university in Würzburg, Germany. The University of Würzburg is one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in Germany, having been founded in 1402; the university had a brief run and was closed in 1415. It was reopened in 1582 on the initiative of Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn. Today, the university is named for Julius Echter von Maximilian Joseph; the University of Würzburg is part of the U15 group of research-intensive German universities. The university is a member of the Coimbra Group. Adolf-Wuerth-Center for the History of Psychology is a scientific institution of the University Its official name is Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg but it is referred to as the University of Würzburg; this name is taken from Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn, Prince-Bishop of Würzburg, who reestablished the university in 1582, Prince Elector Maximilian Joseph, the prince under whom secularization occurred at the start of the 19th century.
The university’s central administration, foreign student office, several research institutes are located within the area of the old town, while the new liberal arts campus, with its modern library, overlooks the city from the east. The university today enrolls 29,000 students, out of which more than 1,000 come from other countries. Although the university was first founded in 1402, it was short-lived; this was attributed to the instability of the age. Johannes Trithemius, well-known humanist and learned abbot of the Scottish monastery of St. Jacob, held the dissolute student lifestyle responsible for the premature decline of the city's first university. In the Annales Hirsaugiensis Chronologia Mystica of 1506 he cites bathing, brawling, inebriation and general pandemonium as "greatly impeding the academic achievement in Würzburg". Evidence of this is provided by the fatal stabbing of the university's first chancellor, Johann Zantfurt, in 1413, by a scholar's unruly assistant, or famulus, evidently the result of these influences.
Despite Egloffstein's thwarted first attempt at founding a university, the city still boasts one of the oldest universities in the German-speaking world on a par with Prague, Heidelberg and Erfurt. A university in Würzburg was refounded more than 150 years later. A "second founding" by Prince Bishop Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn in 1582 offered the institution guaranteed autonomous self-government; the university was fiercely Roman Catholic and considered a "bastion of Catholicism in the face of Protestantism", words used in the university charter which prevented all non-Catholics from graduating from or receiving tenure at the Alma Julia. Echter intended it as a tool of Counter-Reformation. Over a century would pass before the university opened its doors to non-Catholics, in keeping with the spirit of Enlightenment encouraged by Prince Bishop Friedrich Karl von Schönborn's newly formulated students' charter of 1734; the resultant increase in religious tolerance enabled the summoning and subsequent appointment of the famous physician, Karl Kaspar von Siebold, under Schönborn's successor, Adam Friedrich von Seinsheim.
Shortly after his arrival in 1769, Protestant medical students were permitted to study for their doctorates at the university. Würzburg's increasing secularisation as a bishopric and its eventual surrender to Bavarian rule at the beginning of the 19th century resulted in the loss of the university's Roman Catholic character; the end of the city's status as a Grand Duchy under Ferdinand of Toscana in 1814 heralded the Alma Julia's ideological transition to the non-denominational establishment which endures to this day. This new inclusiveness towards professors and students alike was instrumental in the resultant upturn in all areas of research and education in the 19th century. Since the university has borne the name of its second and most influential founder known as the Julius-Maximilians-Universität of Bavaria; the many medical accomplishments associated with the university from the mid- to late-19th century were inextricably linked with achievements in the affiliated field of natural science, notably by Schwab, the eminent botanist, the zoologist, the celebrated chemist and Boveri, the biologist.
Their progress culminated in the discovery of x-rays by physicist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, first winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics, in 1895. Röntgen's discovery, which he dubbed a "new kind of ray", is regarded as the university's greatest intellectual achievement, a scientific development of huge global import. Röntgen's successors, namely Wilhelm Wien, Johannes Stark and the chemists Emil Fischer and Eduard Buchner number among the succession of Nobel Prize winners to lecture at the university, a tradition which endures in the modern-day example of Klaus von Klitzing. After World War II, the free state of Bavaria invested a fortune in the rebuilding and renovation of the university buildings, damaged by Allied bombing. Restoration of Echter's "Old University", current home to the faculty of law, continues today; the eventual rebuilding of the Neubaukirche affiliated to the legal faculty and razed to the ground in 1945, marked the end of the city's extensive reconstruction process. In 1970 it was decided that the church, one of the most important examples of 16th century vaulted architecture in southern Germany, should fulfill a dual function as a place of worship and
Louis Pasteur was a French biologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization. He is remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of diseases, his discoveries have saved many lives since, he reduced mortality from puerperal fever, created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax. His medical discoveries provided direct support for the germ theory of disease and its application in clinical medicine, he is best known to the general public for his invention of the technique of treating milk and wine to stop bacterial contamination, a process now called pasteurization. He is regarded as one of the three main founders of bacteriology, together with Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch, is popularly known as the "father of microbiology". Pasteur was responsible for disproving the doctrine of spontaneous generation, he performed experiments. Under the auspices of the French Academy of Sciences, he demonstrated that in sterilized and sealed flasks nothing developed, in sterilized but open flasks microorganisms could grow.
Although Pasteur was not the first to propose the germ theory, his experiments indicated its correctness and convinced most of Europe that it was true. Today, he is regarded as one of the fathers of germ theory. Pasteur made significant discoveries in chemistry, most notably on the molecular basis for the asymmetry of certain crystals and racemization. Early in his career, his investigation of tartaric acid resulted in the first resolution of what is now called optical isomers, his work led the way to the current understanding of a fundamental principle in the structure of organic compounds. He was the director of the Pasteur Institute, established in 1887, until his death, his body was interred in a vault beneath the institute. Although Pasteur made groundbreaking experiments, his reputation became associated with various controversies. Historical reassessment of his notebook revealed. Louis Pasteur was born on December 27, 1822, in Dole, France, to a Catholic family of a poor tanner, he was the third child of Jeanne-Etiennette Roqui.
The family moved to Marnoz in 1826 and to Arbois in 1827. Pasteur entered primary school in 1831, he was an average student in his early years, not academic, as his interests were fishing and sketching. He drew many pastels and portraits of his parents and neighbors. Pasteur attended secondary school at the Collège d'Arbois. In October 1838, he left for Paris to join the Pension Barbet, but became homesick and returned in November. In 1839, he entered the Collège Royal at Besançon to study philosophy and earned his Bachelor of Letters degree in 1840, he was appointed a tutor at the Besançon college while continuing a degree science course with special mathematics. He failed his first examination in 1841, he managed to pass the baccalauréat scientifique degree in 1842 from Dijon but with a mediocre grade in chemistry. In 1842, Pasteur took the entrance test for the École Normale Supérieure, he passed the first set of tests, but because his ranking was low, Pasteur decided not to continue and try again next year.
He went back to the Pension Barbet to prepare for the test. He attended classes at the Lycée Saint-Louis and lectures of Jean-Baptiste Dumas at the Sorbonne. In 1843, he entered the École Normale Supérieure. In 1845 he received the licencié ès sciences degree. In 1846, he was appointed professor of physics at the Collège de Tournon in Ardèche, but the chemist Antoine Jérôme Balard wanted him back at the École Normale Supérieure as a graduate laboratory assistant, he joined Balard and started his research in crystallography and in 1847, he submitted his two theses, one in chemistry and the other in physics. After serving as professor of physics at the Dijon Lycée in 1848, he became professor of chemistry at the University of Strasbourg, where he met and courted Marie Laurent, daughter of the university's rector in 1849, they were married on May 29, 1849, together had five children, only two of whom survived to adulthood. Pasteur was appointed professor of chemistry at the University of Strasbourg in 1848, became the chair of chemistry in 1852.
In 1854, he was named dean of the new faculty of sciences at University of Lille, where he began his studies on fermentation. It was on this occasion that Pasteur uttered his oft-quoted remark: "dans les champs de l'observation, le hasard ne favorise que les esprits préparés". In 1857, he moved to Paris as the director of scientific studies at the École Normale Supérieure where he took control from 1858 to 1867 and introduced a series of reforms to improve the standard of scientific work; the examinations became more rigid, which led to better results, greater competition, increased prestige. Many of his decrees, were rigid and authoritarian, leading to two serious student revolts. During "the bean revolt" he decreed that a mutton stew, which students had refused to eat, would be served and eaten every Monday. On another occasion he threatened to expel any student caught smoking, 73 of the 80 students in the school resigned. In 1863, he was appointed professor of geology and chemistry at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, a position he held until his resignation in 1867.
In 1867, he became the chair of or
Pierre Marie was a French neurologist, a native of Paris. After finishing medical school, he served as an interne, working as an assistant to neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot at the Salpêtrière and Bicêtre Hospitals in Paris. In 1883 he received his medical doctorate with a graduate thesis on Basedow’s disease, being promoted to médecin des hôpitaux several years later. In 1907 he attained the chair of pathological anatomy at the Faculty of Medicine, in 1917 was appointed to the chair of neurology, a position he held until 1925. In 1911 Marie became a member of the Académie de Médecine. One of Marie's earlier contributions was a description of a disorder of the pituitary gland known as acromegaly, his analysis of the disease was an important contribution in the emerging field of endocrinology. Marie is credited as the first to describe pulmonary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, cleidocranial dysostosis and rhizomelic spondylosis. In his extensive research of aphasia, his views concerning language disorders contrasted the accepted views of Paul Broca.
In 1907, he was the first person to describe the speech production disorder of foreign accent syndrome. Marie was the first general secretary of the Société Française de Neurologie, with Édouard Brissaud, he was co-founder of the journal Revue neurologique, his name is associated with the eponymous Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, being named along with Jean-Martin Charcot and Howard Henry Tooth. This disease is characterized by gradual progressive loss of distal muscle tissue in the arms and feet, it is considered the most common disease within a group of conditions known as "hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies". "Marie's ataxia": an hereditary disease of the nervous system, with cerebellar ataxia. "Marie-Foix-Alajouanine syndrome": cerebellar ataxia of the cerebellum in the elderly. Named along with neurologists Théophile Alajouanine and Charles Foix. "Marie's anarthria": inability to articulate words due to cerebral lesions. "Marie–Strümpel Disease": known as ankylosing spondylitis. Named along with German neurologist Adolph Strümpell.
The disease is sometimes referred to as "Bekhterev Disease". "Marie-Léri syndrome": hand deformity caused by osteolysis of the articular surfaces of the fingers. Named with neurologist André Léri. "Bamberger-Marie disease": known as hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy. Named with Austrian internist Eugen von Bamberger. Des formes frustes de la maladie de Basedow, doctoral thesis, Paris, 1883. Sur deux cas d’acromégalie, 1886. Sur une form particulière d'atrophie musculaire progressive. 1886 "Essays on Acromegaly", with bibliography and appendix of cases by other authors. London, 1891. Leçons sur les maladies de la moëlle épinière, Paris, 1892. English translation by M. Lubbock as "Lectures on Diseases of the Spinal Cord", London, 1895. Sur l'hérédo-ataxie cérébelleuse, Semaine médicale, Paris, 1893, 13: 444. L’évolution du langage considéré au point de vue de l’étude de l’Aphasie, 1897. Dysostose cléido-crânienne héréditaire, with Paul Sainton. Spondylose rhizomélique, 1898. Neurologie, two volumes.
A Clinical Lesson at the Salpêtrière Pierre Marie @ Who Named It David G. Andrewes. Neuropsychology. Psychology Press. ISBN 1-84169-103-8
Karlsruhe is the second-largest city of the German federal state of Baden-Württemberg after its capital of Stuttgart, its 309,999 inhabitants make it the 21st largest city of Germany. On the right bank of the Rhine, the city lies near the French-German border, between the Mannheim/Ludwigshafen conurbation to the north, the Strasbourg/Kehl conurbation to the south, it is the largest city of a region named after Hohenbaden Castle in the city of Baden-Baden. Karlsruhe is the largest city in the South Franconian dialect area, the only other larger city in that area being Heilbronn; the city is the seat of the Federal Constitutional Court, as well as of the Federal Court of Justice and the Public Prosecutor General of the Federal Court of Justice. Karlsruhe was the capital of the Margraviate of Baden-Durlach, the Margraviate of Baden, the Electorate of Baden, the Grand Duchy of Baden, the Republic of Baden, its most remarkable building is Karlsruhe Palace, built in 1715. There are nine institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden Airport is the second-busiest airport of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart Airport, the 17th-busiest airport of Germany. Karlsruhe lies to the east of the Rhine, completely on the Upper Rhine Plain, it contains the Turmberg in the east, lies on the borders of the Kraichgau leading to the Northern Black Forest. The Rhine, one of the world's most important shipping routes, forms the western limits of the city, beyond which lie the towns of Maximiliansau and Wörth am Rhein in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate; the city centre is about 7.5 km from the river. Two tributaries of the Rhine, the Alb and the Pfinz, flow through the city from the Kraichgau to join the Rhine; the city lies at an altitude between 100 and 322 m. Its geographical coordinates are 49°00′N 8°24′E, its course is marked by a stone and painted line in the Stadtgarten. The total area of the city is 173.46 km2, hence it is the 30th largest city in Germany measured by land area. The longest north-south distance is 19.3 km in the east-west direction.
Karlsruhe is part of the urban area of Karlsruhe/Pforzheim, to which certain other towns in the district of Karlsruhe such as Bruchsal, Ettlingen and Rheinstetten, as well as the city of Pforzheim, belong. The city was planned with the palace tower at the center and 32 streets radiating out from it like the spokes of a wheel, or the ribs of a folding fan, so that one nickname for Karlsruhe in German is the "fan city". All of these streets survive to this day; because of this city layout, in metric geometry, Karlsruhe metric refers to a measure of distance that assumes travel is only possible along radial streets and along circular avenues around the centre. The city centre is the oldest part of town and lies south of the palace in the quadrant defined by nine of the radial streets; the central part of the palace runs east-west, with two wings, each at a 45° angle, directed southeast and southwest. The market square lies on the street running south from the palace to Ettlingen; the market square has the town hall to the west, the main Lutheran church to the east, the tomb of Margrave Charles III William in a pyramid in the buildings, resulting in Karlsruhe being one of only three large cities in Germany where buildings are laid out in the neoclassical style.
The area north of the palace is a forest. The area to the east of the palace consisted of gardens and forests, some of which remain, but the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Wildparkstadion football stadium, residential areas have been built there; the area west of the palace is now residential. Karlsruhe experiences an oceanic climate and its winter climate is milder, compared to most other German cities, except for the Rhine-Ruhr area. Summers are hotter than elsewhere in the country and it is one of the sunniest cities in Germany, like the Rhine-Palatinate area. Precipitation is evenly spread throughout the year. In 2008, the weather station in Karlsruhe, operating since 1876, was closed. According to legend, the name Karlsruhe, which translates as "Charles’ repose" or "Charles' peace", was given to the new city after a hunting trip when Margrave Charles III William of Baden-Durlach, woke from a dream in which he dreamt of founding his new city. A variation of this story claims. Charles William founded the city on June 17, 1715, after a dispute with the citizens of his previous capital, Durlach.
The founding of the city is linked to the construction of the palace. Karlsruhe became the capital of Baden-Durlach, in 1771, of the united Baden until 1945. Built in 18
Pierre Paul Émile Roux
Pierre Paul Émile Roux FRS was a French physician and immunologist. Roux was one of the closest collaborators of Louis Pasteur, a co-founder of the Pasteur Institute, responsible for the Institute's production of the anti-diphtheria serum, the first effective therapy for this disease. Roux received his baccalaureate in sciences in 1871 and started his studies in 1872 at the Medical School of Clermont-Ferrand, he worked as a student assistant in chemistry at the Faculty of Sciences, under Émile Duclaux. From 1874 to 1878, he continued his studies in Paris and was admitted as clinical assistant at Hôtel-Dieu. Between 1874 and 1877, Roux received a fellowship for the Military School at Val-de-Grâce, but quit it after failing to present his dissertation in due time. In 1878, he started to work as an assistant to the course on fermentation given by his patron Duclaux at the Sorbonne University. Duclaux recommended Roux to Louis Pasteur, looking for assistants, Roux joined Pasteur’s laboratory as a research assistant from 1878 to 1883 at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris.
Roux began his research on the microbiological causation of diseases, in this capacity worked with Pasteur on avian cholera and anthrax, was involved in the famous experiment on anthrax vaccination of animals at Pouilly-le-Fort. In 1883, he presented a doctoral dissertation in medicine titled Des Nouvelles Acquisitions sur la Rage, in which he described his research on rabies with Pasteur since 1881, which led to the development of the first vaccination against this fearsome disease. Roux was now recognized as an expert in the nascent sciences of medical immunology. With Pasteur’s other assistants, Roux traveled in 1883 to Egypt to study a human cholera outbreak there, but they were unable to find the pathogen for the disease, discovered in Alexandria by the German physician Robert Koch. In 1883 and for the following 40 years, Émile Roux became involved with the creation of what was to become the Pasteur Institute, he divided his time between administrative duties. In 1888, an important year in his career, he accepted the position of Director of Services, joined the editorial board of the Annales de l’Institut Pasteur, established the first regular course on microbiological technique, which would become influential in the training of many important French and foreign researchers and physicians in infectious diseases.
In 1883, Roux published, with Alexandre Yersin, the first of his classical works on the causation of diphtheria by the Klebs-Loeffler bacillus an prevalent and lethal disease among children. He studied its toxin and its properties, began in 1891 to develop an effective serum to treat the disease, following the demonstration, by Emil Adolf von Behring and Kitasato Shibasaburō that antibodies against the diphtheric toxin could be produced in animals, he demonstrated the use of this antitoxin with Auguste Chaillou in a study with 300 diseased children in the Hôpital des Enfants-Malades and was henceforth hailed as a scientific hero in medical congresses throughout Europe. In the following years, Roux dedicated himself indefatigably to many investigations on the microbiology and practical immunology of tetanus, tuberculosis and pneumonia, he was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1900. In 1904, he was nominated to the Pasteur’s former position as General Director of the Pasteur Institute.
In 1916, he moved to a small apartment in the Pasteur Hospital, where he died on November 3, 1933. English biography of Pierre Paul Émile Roux. Pasteur Brewing Pierre Paul Émile Roux. Biographie. Institut Pasteur, Paris. Bibliography of P. P. E. Roux. Pasteur Institute
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi