History painting is a genre in painting defined by its subject matter rather than artistic style. History paintings depict a moment in a narrative story, rather than a specific and static subject, as in a portrait; the term is derived from the wider senses of the word historia in Latin and Italian, meaning "story" or "narrative", means "story painting". Most history paintings are not of scenes from history paintings from before about 1850. In modern English, historical painting is sometimes used to describe the painting of scenes from history in its narrower sense for 19th-century art, excluding religious and allegorical subjects, which are included in the broader term history painting, before the 19th century were the most common subjects for history paintings. History paintings always contain a number of figures a large number, show some type of action, a moment in a narrative; the genre includes depictions of moments in religious narratives, above all the Life of Christ, as well as narrative scenes from mythology, allegorical scenes.
These groups were for long the most painted. The term covers large paintings in oil on canvas or fresco produced between the Renaissance and the late 19th century, after which the term is not used for the many works that still meet the basic definition. History painting may be used interchangeably with historical painting, was so used before the 20th century. Where a distinction is made "historical painting" is the painting of scenes from secular history, whether specific episodes or generalized scenes. In the 19th century historical painting in this sense became a distinct genre. In phrases such as "historical painting materials", "historical" means in use before about 1900, or some earlier date. History paintings were traditionally regarded as the highest form of Western painting, occupying the most prestigious place in the hierarchy of genres, considered the equivalent to the epic in literature. In his De Pictura of 1436, Leon Battista Alberti had argued that multi-figure history painting was the noblest form of art, as being the most difficult, which required mastery of all the others, because it was a visual form of history, because it had the greatest potential to move the viewer.
He placed emphasis on the ability to depict the interactions between the figures by gesture and expression. This view remained general until the 19th century, when artistic movements began to struggle against the establishment institutions of academic art, which continued to adhere to it. At the same time there was from the latter part of the 18th century an increased interest in depicting in the form of history painting moments of drama from recent or contemporary history, which had long been confined to battle-scenes and scenes of formal surrenders and the like. Scenes from ancient history had been popular in the early Renaissance, once again became common in the Baroque and Rococo periods, still more so with the rise of Neoclassicism. In some 19th or 20th century contexts, the term may refer to paintings of scenes from secular history, rather than those from religious narratives, literature or mythology; the term is not used in art history in speaking of medieval painting, although the Western tradition was developing in large altarpieces, fresco cycles, other works, as well as miniatures in illuminated manuscripts.
It comes to the fore in Italian Renaissance painting, where a series of ambitious works were produced, many still religious, but several in Florence, which did feature near-contemporary historical scenes such as the set of three huge canvases on The Battle of San Romano by Paolo Uccello, the abortive Battle of Cascina by Michelangelo and the Battle of Anghiari by Leonardo da Vinci, neither of which were completed. Scenes from ancient history and mythology were popular. Writers such as Alberti and the following century Giorgio Vasari in his Lives of the Artists, followed public and artistic opinion in judging the best painters above all on their production of large works of history painting. Artists continued for centuries to strive to make their reputation by producing such works neglecting genres to which their talents were better suited. There was some objection to the term, as many writers preferred terms such as "poetic painting", or wanted to make a distinction between the "true" istoria, covering history including biblical and religious scenes, the fabula, covering pagan myth and scenes from fiction, which could not be regarded as true.
The large works of Raphael were long considered, with those of Michelangelo, as the finest models for the genre. In the Raphael Rooms in the Vatican Palace and historical scenes are mixed together, the Raphael Cartoons show scenes from the Gospels, all in the Grand Manner that from the High Renaissance became associated with, expected in, history painting. In the Late Renaissance and Baroque the painting of actual history tended to degenerate into panoramic battle-scenes with the victorious monarch or general perched on a horse accompanied with his retinue, or formal scenes of ceremonies, although some artists managed to make a masterpiece from such unpromising material, as Velázquez did with his The Surrender of Breda. An influential formulation of the hierarchy of genres, confirming the history painting at the top, was made in 1667 by André Félibien, a historiographer
The polar bear is a hypercarnivorous bear whose native range lies within the Arctic Circle, encompassing the Arctic Ocean, its surrounding seas and surrounding land masses. It is a large bear the same size as the omnivorous Kodiak bear. A boar weighs around 350 -- 700 kg. Although it is the sister species of the brown bear, it has evolved to occupy a narrower ecological niche, with many body characteristics adapted for cold temperatures, for moving across snow and open water, for hunting seals, which make up most of its diet. Although most polar bears are born on land, they spend most of their time on the sea ice, their scientific name derives from this fact. Polar bears hunt their preferred food of seals from the edge of sea ice living off fat reserves when no sea ice is present; because of their dependence on the sea ice, polar bears are classified as marine mammals. Because of expected habitat loss caused by climate change, the polar bear is classified as a vulnerable species. For decades, large-scale hunting raised international concern for the future of the species, but populations rebounded after controls and quotas began to take effect.
For thousands of years, the polar bear has been a key figure in the material and cultural life of circumpolar peoples, polar bears remain important in their cultures. The polar bear has been known as the white bear. Constantine John Phipps was the first to describe the polar bear as a distinct species in 1774, he chose the scientific name Ursus maritimus, the Latin for'maritime bear', due to the animal's native habitat. The Inuit refer to the animal as nanook; the Yupik refer to the bear as nanuuk in Siberian Yupik. The bear is umka in the Chukchi language. In Russian, it is called бе́лый медве́дь, though an older word still in use is ошку́й. In Quebec, the polar bear is referred to as ours polaire. In the Norwegian-administered Svalbard archipelago, the polar bear is referred to as Isbjørn; the polar bear was considered to be in its own genus, Thalarctos. However, evidence of hybrids between polar bears and brown bears, of the recent evolutionary divergence of the two species, does not support the establishment of this separate genus, the accepted scientific name is now therefore Ursus maritimus, as Phipps proposed.
The bear family, Ursidae, is thought to have split from other carnivorans about 38 million years ago. The subfamily Ursinae originated 4.2 million years ago. The oldest known polar bear fossil is a 130,000 to 110,000-year-old jaw bone, found on Prince Charles Foreland in 2004. Fossils show that between 10,000 and 20,000 years ago, the polar bear's molar teeth changed from those of the brown bear. Polar bears are thought to have diverged from a population of brown bears that became isolated during a period of glaciation in the Pleistocene from the eastern part of Siberia; the evidence from DNA analysis is more complex. The mitochondrial DNA of the polar bear diverged from the brown bear, Ursus arctos 150,000 years ago. Further, some clades of brown bear, as assessed by their mtDNA, are more related to polar bears than to other brown bears, meaning that the polar bear might not be considered a species under some species concepts; the mtDNA of extinct Irish brown bears is close to polar bears. A comparison of the nuclear genome of polar bears with that of brown bears revealed a different pattern, the two forming genetically distinct clades that diverged 603,000 years ago, although the latest research is based on analysis of the complete genomes of polar and brown bears, establishes the divergence of polar and brown bears at 400,000 years ago.
However, the two species have mated intermittently for all that time, most coming into contact with each other during warming periods, when polar bears were driven onto land and brown bears migrated northward. Most brown bears have about 2 percent genetic material from polar bears, but one population, the ABC Islands bears has between 5 percent and 10 percent polar bear genes, indicating more frequent and recent mating. Polar bears can breed with brown bears to produce fertile grizzly–polar bear hybrids. However, because neither species can survive long in the other's ecological niche, because they have different morphology, metabolism and feeding behaviours, other phenotypic characteristics, the two bears are classified as separate species; when the polar bear was documented, two subspecies were identified: the American polar bear by Constantine J. Phipps in 1774, the Siberian polar bear by Peter Simon Pallas in 1776; this distinction has since been invalidated. One alleged fossil subspecies has been identified: Ursus maritimus tyrannus, which became extinct during the Pleistocene.
U.m. tyrannus was larger than the living subspecies. However, recent reanalysis of the fossil suggests that it was a brown bear; the polar bear is found in the Arctic Circle and adjacent land masses as far south as Newfoundland. Due to the absence of human development in i
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. The era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period, its half overlaps with the first part of the Belle Époque era of Continental Europe. In terms of moral sensibilities and political reforms, this period began with the passage of the Reform Act 1832. There was a strong religious drive for higher moral standards led by the nonconformist churches, such as the Methodist, the Evangelical wing of the established Church of England. Britain's relations with the other Great Powers were driven by the colonial antagonism of the Great Game with Russia, climaxing during the Crimean War. Britain embarked on global imperial expansion in Asia and Africa, which made the British Empire the largest empire in history. National self-confidence peaked. Ideologically, the Victorian era witnessed resistance to the rationalism that defined the Georgian period and an increasing turn towards romanticism and mysticism with regard to religion, social values, arts.
Domestically, the political agenda was liberal, with a number of shifts in the direction of gradual political reform, industrial reform, the widening of the franchise. There were unprecedented demographic changes: the population of England and Wales doubled from 16.8 million in 1851 to 30.5 million in 1901, Scotland's population rose from 2.8 million in 1851 to 4.4 million in 1901. However, Ireland's population decreased from 8.2 million in 1841 to less than 4.5 million in 1901 due to emigration and the Great Famine. Between 1837 and 1901 about 15 million emigrated from Great Britain to the United States, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia; the two main political parties during the era remained the Conservatives. These parties were led by such prominent statesmen as Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, Benjamin Disraeli, William Gladstone, Lord Salisbury; the unsolved problems relating to Irish Home Rule played a great part in politics in the Victorian era in view of Gladstone's determination to achieve a political settlement in Ireland.
In the strictest sense, the Victorian era covers the duration of Victoria's reign as Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, from her accession on 20 June 1837—after the death of her uncle, William IV—until her death on 22 January 1901, after which she was succeeded by her eldest son, Edward VII. Her reign lasted for seven months, a longer period than any of her predecessors; the term'Victorian' was in contemporaneous usage to describe the era. The era has been understood in a more extensive sense as a period that possessed sensibilities and characteristics distinct from the periods adjacent to it, in which case it is sometimes dated to begin before Victoria's accession—typically from the passage of or agitation for the Reform Act 1832, which introduced a wide-ranging change to the electoral system of England and Wales. Definitions that purport a distinct sensibility or politics to the era have created scepticism about the worth of the label "Victorian", though there have been defences of it.
Michael Sadleir was insistent that "in truth the Victorian period is three periods, not one". He distinguished early Victorianism – the and politically unsettled period from 1837 to 1850 – and late Victorianism, with its new waves of aestheticism and imperialism, from the Victorian heyday: mid-Victorianism, 1851 to 1879, he saw the latter period as characterised by a distinctive mixture of prosperity, domestic prudery, complacency – what G. M. Trevelyan called the "mid-Victorian decades of quiet politics and roaring prosperity". In 1832, after much political agitation, the Reform Act was passed on the third attempt; the Act abolished many borough seats and created others in their place, as well as expanding the franchise in England and Wales. Minor reforms followed in 1835 and 1836. On 20 June 1837, Victoria became Queen of the United Kingdom on the death of her uncle, William IV, her government was led by the Whig prime minister Lord Melbourne, but within two years he had resigned, the Tory politician Sir Robert Peel attempted to form a new ministry.
In the same year, a seizure of British opium exports to China prompted the First Opium War against the Qing dynasty, British imperial India initiated the First Anglo-Afghan War—one of the first major conflicts of the Great Game between Britain and Russia. In 1840, Queen Victoria married her German cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield, it proved a happy marriage, whose children were much sought after by royal families across Europe. In 1840 the Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand; the signing of the Treaty of Nanking in 1842 ended the First Opium War and gave Britain control over Hong Kong Island. However, a disastrous retreat from Kabul in the same year led to the annihilation of a British army column in Afghanistan. In 1845, the Great Famine began to cause mass starvation and death in Ireland, sparking large-scale emigration. Peel was replaced by the Whig ministry of Lord John Russell. In 1853, Britain fought alongside France in the Crimean War against Russia.
The goal was to ensure that Russia could not benefit from the declining status
Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities. It is considered to be an innate tendency of human psychology. Personification is the related attribution of human form and characteristics to abstract concepts such as nations and natural forces, such as seasons and weather. Both have ancient roots as storytelling and artistic devices, most cultures have traditional fables with anthropomorphized animals as characters. People have routinely attributed human emotions and behavioral traits to wild as well as domesticated animals. Anthropomorphism derives from its verb form anthropomorphize, itself derived from the Greek ánthrōpos and morphē, it is first attested in 1753 in reference to the heresy of applying a human form to the Christian God. From the beginnings of human behavioral modernity in the Upper Paleolithic, about 40,000 years ago, examples of zoomorphic works of art occur that may represent the earliest evidence we have of anthropomorphism.
One of the oldest known is an ivory sculpture, the Löwenmensch figurine, Germany, a human-shaped figurine with the head of a lioness or lion, determined to be about 32,000 years old. It is not possible to say. A more recent example is The Sorcerer, an enigmatic cave painting from the Trois-Frères Cave, Ariège, France: the figure's significance is unknown, but it is interpreted as some kind of great spirit or master of the animals. In either case there is an element of anthropomorphism; this anthropomorphic art has been linked by archaeologist Steven Mithen with the emergence of more systematic hunting practices in the Upper Palaeolithic. He proposes that these are the product of a change in the architecture of the human mind, an increasing fluidity between the natural history and social intelligences, where anthropomorphism allowed hunters to identify empathetically with hunted animals and better predict their movements. In religion and mythology, anthropomorphism is the perception of a divine being or beings in human form, or the recognition of human qualities in these beings.
Ancient mythologies represented the divine as deities with human forms and qualities. They resemble human beings not only in personality; the deities fell in love, had children, fought battles, wielded weapons, rode horses and chariots. They feasted on special foods, sometimes required sacrifices of food and sacred objects to be made by human beings; some anthropomorphic deities represented specific human concepts, such as love, fertility, beauty, or the seasons. Anthropomorphic deities exhibited human qualities such as beauty and power, sometimes human weaknesses such as greed, hatred and uncontrollable anger. Greek deities such as Zeus and Apollo were depicted in human form exhibiting both commendable and despicable human traits. Anthropomorphism in this case is, more anthropotheism. From the perspective of adherents to religions in which humans were created in the form of the divine, the phenomenon may be considered theomorphism, or the giving of divine qualities to humans. Anthropomorphism has cropped up as a Christian heresy prominently with the Audians in third century Syria, but in fourth century Egypt and tenth century Italy.
This was based on a literal interpretation of Genesis 1:27: "So God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him. Some religions and philosophers objected to anthropomorphic deities; the earliest known criticism was that of the Greek philosopher Xenophanes who observed that people model their gods after themselves. He argued against the conception of deities as fundamentally anthropomorphic: But if cattle and horses and lions had handsor could paint with their hands and create works such as men do,horses like horses and cattle like cattlealso would depict the gods' shapes and make their bodiesof such a sort as the form they themselves have.... Ethiopians say that their gods are snub -- blackThracians that they are pale and red-haired. Xenophanes said that "the greatest god" resembles man "neither in form nor in mind". Both Judaism and Islam reject an anthropomorphic deity, believing that God is beyond human comprehension. Judaism's rejection of an anthropomorphic deity grew during the Hasmonean period, when Jewish belief incorporated some Greek philosophy.
Judaism's rejection grew further after the Islamic Golden Age in the tenth century, which Maimonides codified in the twelfth century, in his thirteen principles of Jewish faith. Hindus do not reject the concept of a deity in the abstract unmanifested, but note practical problems. Lord Krishna said in the Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 12, Verse 5, that it is much more difficult for people to focus on a deity as the unmanifested than one with form, using anthropomorphic icons, because people need to perceive with their senses. In Faces in the Clouds, anthropologist Stewart Guthrie proposes that all religions are anthropomorphisms that originate in the brain's tendency to detect the presence or vestiges of other humans in natural phenomena. In secular thought, one of the most notable criticisms began in 1600 with Francis Bacon, who argued against Aristotle's teleology, which declared that everything behaves as it does in order to achieve some end, in order to fulfill itself. Bacon pointed out that achieving ends is a human activity and to attribute it to nature misconstrues it as humanlike.
Modern criticisms followed Bacon's ideas such as critiques
The Newfoundland dog is a large working dog. They can be either brown, or white-and-black. However, in the Dominion of Newfoundland, before it became part of the confederation of Canada, only black and Landseer coloured dogs were considered to be proper members of the breed, they were bred and used as working dogs for fishermen in Newfoundland. Newfoundland dogs are known for their giant size, tremendous strength, calm dispositions, loyalty, they excel at water rescue/lifesaving because of their muscular build, thick double coat, webbed feet, swimming abilities. The Newfoundlands have webbed a water-resistant coat. Males weigh 65–80 kg, females 55–65 kg, placing them in the "Giant" weight range, they may grow up to 56–76 cm tall at the shoulder. The American Kennel Club standard colours of the Newfoundland dogs are black, brown and white-and-black. Other colours are not considered rare or more valuable; the Kennel Club permits only black and white/black. The "Landseer" pattern is named after the artist, Sir Edwin Henry Landseer, who featured them in many of his paintings.
Fédération Cynologique Internationale consider the ECT Landseer to be a separate breed. It is a taller, more narrow white dog with black markings not bred with a Newfoundland; the Newfoundland's large bones give it mass, while its large musculature gives it the power it needs to take on rough ocean waves and powerful tides. These dogs have huge lung capacity for swimming long distances and a thick and waterproof double coat which protects them from the chill of icy waters; the double coat makes the dog hard to groom, causes a lot of shedding to occur. The droopy lips and jowls make the dog drool in high heat. In the water, the dog's massive webbed paws give it maximum propulsion; the swimming stroke is not an ordinary dog paddle. Unlike other dogs, the Newfoundland moves its limbs in a down-and-out motion giving more power to every stroke; the Newfoundland dog is known for its strength. They are loyal and make ideal working dogs, it is for this reason that this breed is known as "the gentle giant".
International kennel clubs describe the breed as having a sweet temper. It has a deep bark and is easy to train if started young, they are wonderfully good with children, but small children can get accidentally leaned on and knocked down. Newfoundlands are ideal companions in the world of therapy and are referred to as the nanny dog; the breed was memorialized in "Nana", the beloved guardian dog in J. M. Barrie's Peter Pan; the Newfoundland, in general, is good with other animals, but its size can cause problems if it is not trained. A Newfoundland's good, sweet nature is so important, it is listed in the Breed Standards of many countries; the breed standard in the United States reads that "Sweetness of temperament is the hallmark of the Newfoundland. There are several health problems associated with Newfoundlands. Newfoundlands are prone to hip dysplasia, they get Elbow dysplasia, cystinuria. Another genetic problem is subvalvular aortic stenosis; this is a common heart defect in Newfoundlands involving defective heart valves.
SAS can cause sudden death at an early age. It is similar to having a heart attack, it is common. But, Newfoundlands can live up to 15 years old; the Newfoundland shares many physical traits with Mastiffs and Molosser type dogs, such as the St. Bernard and English Mastiff, including stout legs, massive heads with broad snouts, a thick bull neck, a sturdy bone structure. In fact, many St. Bernard Dogs have Newfoundland Dog ancestry. Newfoundlands were brought and introduced to the St. Bernard breed in the 18th century when the population was threatened by an epidemic of distemper, they share many characteristics of many mountain dog breeds such as the Great Pyrenees. The Newfoundland breed originated on Newfoundland, is descended from a breed indigenous to the island known as the lesser Newfoundland, or St. John's dog. DNA analysis confirms that Newfoundlands are related to other Canadian retrievers, including the Labrador, Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever, Golden Retrievers, Flat Coated Retrievers.
The Molosser-like appearance of the Newfoundland are a result of an introduction of Mastiff blood from breeding with Portuguese Mastiffs brought to the island by Portuguese fishermen beginning in the 16th century. By the time colonization was permitted in Newfoundland in 1610, the distinct physical characteristics and mental attributes had been established in the Newfoundland breed. In the early 1880s, fishermen and explorers from Ireland and England traveled to the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, where they described two main types of working dog. One was built, large with a longish coat, the other medium-sized in build – an active, smooth-coated water dog; the heavier breed was known as Newfoundland. T
The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom. The flag has official status in Canada, by parliamentary resolution, where it is known as the Royal Union Flag. Additionally, it is used as an official flag in some of the smaller British overseas territories; the Union Flag appears in the canton of the flags of several nations and territories that are former British possessions or dominions, as well as the state flag of Hawaii. The claim that the term Union Jack properly refers only to naval usage has been disputed, following historical investigations by the Flag Institute in 2013; the origins of the earlier flag of Great Britain date back to 1606. James VI of Scotland had inherited the English and Irish thrones in 1603 as James I, thereby uniting the crowns of England and Ireland in a personal union, although the three kingdoms remained separate states. On 12 April 1606, a new flag to represent this regal union between England and Scotland was specified in a royal decree, according to which the flag of England, the flag of Scotland, would be joined together, forming the flag of England and Scotland for maritime purposes.
King James began to refer to a "Kingdom of Great Britaine", although the union remained a personal one. The present design of the Union Flag dates from a Royal proclamation following the union of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801; the flag combines aspects of three older national flags: the red cross of St George for the Kingdom of England, the white saltire of St Andrew for Scotland, the red saltire of St Patrick to represent Ireland. Notably, the home country of Wales is not represented separately in the Union Flag, as the flag was designed after the invasion of Wales in 1282. Hence Wales as a home country today has no representation on the flag; the terms Union Jack and Union Flag are both used for describing the national flag of the United Kingdom. Whether the term Union Jack applies only when used as a jack flag on a ship is a matter of debate. According to the Parliament of the United Kingdom: "Until the early 17th century England and Scotland were two independent kingdoms; this changed in 1603 on the death of Elizabeth I of England.
Because the Queen died unmarried and childless, the English crown passed to the next available heir, her cousin James VI, King of Scotland. England and Scotland now shared the same monarch under what was known as a union of the crowns." In 1606, James VI gave orders for a British flag to be created which bore the combined crosses of St George and of St Andrew. The result was the Union Jack. According to the Flag Institute, a membership-run vexillological charity, "the national flag of the United Kingdom, the Crown Dependencies and Overseas Territories is the Union Flag, which may be called the Union Jack." The institute notes: it is stated that the Union Flag should only be described as the Union Jack when flown in the bows of a warship, but this is a recent idea. From early in its life the Admiralty itself referred to the flag as the Union Jack, whatever its use, in 1902 an Admiralty circular announced that Their Lordships had decided that either name could be used officially. In 1908, a government minister stated, in response to a parliamentary question, that "the Union Jack should be regarded as the National flag".
Notwithstanding Their Lordships' circular of 1902, by 1913 the Admiralty described the "Union Flag" and added in a foot note that'A Jack is a Flag to be flown only on the "Jack" Staff'. However, the authoritative A Complete Guide to Heraldry published in 1909 by Arthur Charles Fox-Davies uses the term "Union Jack"; the term "Union Flag" is used in King Charles I's 1634 proclamation:... none of Our Subjects, of any of Our Nations and Kingdoms shall from henceforth presume to carry the Union Flag in the Main top, or other part of any of their Ships St Georges cross and St Andrew's Cross joined together upon pain of Our high displeasure, but that the same Union Flag be still reserved as an ornament proper for Our own Ships and Ships in our immediate Service and Pay, none other." And in King George III's proclamation of 1 January 1801 concerning the arms and flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland: And that the Union Flag shall be Azure, the Crosses Saltires of St. Andrew and St. Patrick Quarterly per Saltire, counterchanged Argent and Gules.
When the first flag representing Britain was introduced on the proclamation of King James I in 1606, it became known as the "British flag" or the "flag of Britain". The royal proclamation gave no distinctive name to the new flag; the word "jack" was in use before 1600 to describe the maritime bow flag. By 1627 a small Union Jack was flown in this position. One theory goes that for some years it would have been called just the "Jack", or "Jack flag", or the "King's Jack", but by 1674, while formally referred to as "His Majesty's Jack", it was called the "Union Jack", this was acknowledged. Amongst the proclamations issued by King George III at the time of the Union of 1801 was a proclamation concerning flags at sea, which referred to "Ensigns, Flags and Pendants" and forbade merchant vessels from wearing "Our Jack called the Union Jack" nor any pendants or colours used by the King's ships. Reinforcing the d
Kenwood House is a former stately home, in Hampstead, London, on the northern boundary of Hampstead Heath. The house was constructed in the 17th century and served as a residence for the Earls of Mansfield through the 18th and 19th centuries. Part of the estate was bought by the Guinness family in the early 20th century, the whole property and grounds came under ownership of the London County Council and was open to the public by the end of the 1920s, it remains a popular local tourist attraction. The house is to the south of Hampstead Lane, it is in the London Borough of Camden, just south of its boundary with the London Borough of Haringey. The original house was presumed to have been built by the King's Printer, John Bill in 1616, was known as Caen Wood House, it was acquired by the Surveyor-General of the Ordnance, William Bridges in 1694, who demolished the property and rebuilt it. The orangery was added in about 1700. Bridges sold the house in 1704, it went under several owners until 1754, when it was bought by the future Earl of Mansfield, William Murray.
In 1764, Murray commissioned Robert Adam to remodel the house, given complete freedom to design it how he wished. Adam added the library to balance the orangery, accommodate Lord Mansfield's extensive book collection, he designed the Ionic portico at the entrance. In 1780, the house became a permanent residence. Following the earl's death in 1793, ownership passed to his nephew David Murray, 2nd Earl of Mansfield, he commissioned an extension of the property by Robert Nasmith by George Saunders. Saunders added two wings on the north side, the offices and kitchen buildings and brewery to the side. A dairy was added at this time to supply Kenwood House with cheese; the main Hampstead - Highgate road was moved to the north between 1793 and 1796 so it did not run directly alongside the property. The 2nd Earl died in 1796, ownership passed to his son, David William Murray, 3rd Earl of Mansfield. William Atkinson made several alterations to the property between 1803 and 1839; the property remained part of the Mansfield estate throughout the rest of the century.
After two years of negotiations, the 6th Earl of Mansfield leased the house to the exiled Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich of Russia and his wife Countess Sophie of Merenberg in 1910. Part of the grounds were bought by the Kenwood Preservation Council in 1922, after there had been threats that it would be sold to a building syndicate; this land came under control of the London County Council in 1924 and was opened to the public the following year by King George V. Lord Iveagh, a rich Anglo-Irish businessman and philanthropist of the Guinness family, bought the house and the remaining 74 acres not under public ownership from the Mansfield family in 1925 and left it to the nation upon his death in 1927; the furnishings had been sold by but some furniture has since been bought back. The paintings are from Iveagh's collection. Kenwood House was closed at the start of World War II. Following the war, the house came under ownership of the London Council Council, it re-opened in 1950; the late 18th century extensions by Saunders were restored from 1955-59.
Ownership transferred to the Greater London Council in 1965. The house was closed for major renovations from 2012 until late 2013, part funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund; this included repairing the Westmorland slate roof, redisplaying the Iveagh Bequest paintings in the south of the house, redecorating the structure to closer resemble Adam's original design. In 2017, 143,490 people visited the house. There are two drives leading to the house from Hampstead Lane; each has a gated white-brick lodge. The north, or main entrance front of the house was designed by Robert Adam and is set in Stucco with a central portico; the south front is constructed out of a single Stucco block. It was restored to its original design in 1975. To the east of the house is the service wing, constructed from London stock brick. Opposite this is the brick house, designed as a cold-plunge bath; the estate has a designed landscape with gardens near the house originally designed by Humphry Repton, contrasting with some surrounding woodland, the naturalistic Hampstead Heath to the south.
There is a new garden by Arabella Lennox-Boyd. The estate is Grade II* listed on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens. One third of the estate is a Site of Special Scientific Interest the ancient woodlands; these are home to the largest Pipistrelle bat roost in London. There are sculptures by Barbara Hepworth, Henry Moore and Eugène Dodeigne in the gardens near the house. Music concerts classical but in more recent years predominantly pop concerts, were held by the lake on Saturday evenings every summer from 1951 until 2006, attracting thousands of people to picnic and enjoy the music and spectacular fireworks. In February 2007, English Heritage decided to abandon these concerts owing to restrictions placed on them after protests from some local residents. On 19 March 2008, it was announced that the concerts would return to a new location on the Pasture Ground within the Kenwood Estate, with the number of concerts limited to eight per season; the house was the subject of a Margaret Calkin James poster in the 1930s, seen by many commuters on the London Underground.
The 1999 British feature film Notting Hill had a scene filmed