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Edwin of Northumbria

Edwin known as Eadwine or Æduinus, was the King of Deira and Bernicia – which became known as Northumbria – from about 616 until his death. He converted to Christianity and was baptised in 627. Edwin seems to have had two siblings, his sister Acha was married to king of neighbouring Bernicia. An otherwise unknown sibling fathered Hereric, who in turn fathered Abbess Hilda of Whitby and Hereswith, wife to Æthelric, the brother of king Anna of East Anglia; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reported. The exact identity of Æthelric is uncertain, he may have been a brother of Ælle, an elder brother of Edwin, an otherwise unknown Deiran noble, or the father of Æthelfrith. Æthelfrith himself appears to have been king of "Northumbria"—both Deira and Bernicia—by no than 604. During the reign of Æthelfrith, Edwin was an exile; the location of his early exile as a child is not known, but late traditions, reported by Reginald of Durham and Geoffrey of Monmouth, place Edwin in the kingdom of Gwynedd, fostered by king Cadfan ap Iago, so allowing biblical parallels to be drawn from the struggle between Edwin and his supposed foster-brother Cadwallon.

By the 610s he was in Mercia under the protection of king Cearl, whose daughter Cwenburg he married. By around 616, Edwin was in East Anglia under the protection of king Raedwald. Bede reports that Æthelfrith tried to have Raedwald murder his unwanted rival, that Raedwald intended to do so until his wife persuaded him otherwise with Divine prompting. Æthelfrith faced Raedwald in battle by the River Idle in 616, Æthelfrith was defeated. Raedwald's son Raegenhere may have been killed at this battle, but the exact date or manner of Raedwald's death are not known, he died between the years 616–627, the efficacy of Edwin's kingship ostensibly depended on his fealty to Raedwald. Edwin was installed as king of Northumbria confirming Raedwald as bretwalda: Æthelfrith's sons went into exile in Irish Dál Riata and Pictland; that Edwin was able to take power not only in his native Deira but in Bernicia may have been due to his support from Raedwald, to whom he may have remained subject during the early part of his reign.

Edwin's reign marks an interruption of the otherwise consistent domination of Northumbria by the Bernicians and has been seen as "contrary to the prevailing tendency". With the death of Æthelfrith, of the powerful Æthelberht of Kent the same year and his client Edwin were well placed to dominate England, indeed Raedwald did so until his death a decade later. Edwin expelled Ceretic from the minor British kingdom of Elmet in either 616 or 626. Elmet had been subject to Mercia and to Edwin; the larger kingdom of Lindsey appears to have been taken over c. 625, after the death of king Raedwald. Edwin and Eadbald of Kent were allies at this time, Edwin arranged to marry Eadbald's sister Æthelburg. Bede notes that Eadbald would agree to marry his sister to Edwin only if he converted to Christianity; the marriage of Eadbald's Merovingian mother Bertha had resulted in the conversion of Kent and Æthelburg's would do the same in Northumbria. Edwin's expansion to the west may have begun early in his reign.

There is firm evidence of a war waged in the early 620s between Edwin and Fiachnae mac Báetáin of the Dál nAraidi, king of the Ulaid in Ireland. A lost poem is known to have existed recounting Fiachnae's campaigns against the Saxons, the Irish annals report the siege, or the storming, of Bamburgh in Bernicia in 623–624; this should be placed in the context of Edwin's designs on the Isle of Man, a target of Ulaid ambitions. Fiachnae's death in 626, at the hands of his namesake, Fiachnae mac Demmáin of the Dál Fiatach, the second Fiachnae's death a year in battle against the Dál Riata eased the way for Edwin's conquests in the Irish sea province; the routine of kingship in Edwin's time involved regular annual, wars with neighbours to obtain tribute and slaves. By Edwin's death, it is that these annual wars, unreported in the main, had extended the Northumbrian kingdoms from the Humber and the Mersey north to the Southern Uplands and the Cheviots; the royal household moved from one royal vill to the next, consuming the food renders given in tribute and the produce of the royal estates, dispensing justice, ensuring that royal authority remained visible throughout the land.

The royal sites in Edwin's time included Yeavering in Bernicia, where traces of a timber amphitheatre have been found. This "Roman" feature makes Bede's claim that Edwin was preceded by a standard-bearer carrying a "tufa" appear to be more than antiquarian curiosity, although whether the model for this practice was Roman or Frankish is unknown. Other royal sites included Campodunum in Elmet, Sancton in Deira, Goodmanham, the site where the pagan high priest Coifi destroyed the idols according to Bede. Edwin's realm included the former Roman cities of York and Carlisle, both appear to have been of some importance in the 7th century, although it is not clear whether urban life continued in this period; the account of Edwin's conversion offered by Bede turns on two events. The first, during Edwin's exile, tells; the second, following his marriage to Æthelburg, was the attempted assassination at York, at Easter 626, by an agent of Cwichelm of Wessex. Edwin's decision to allow the baptism of his daughter Eanfled and his su

My Scene: Jammin' in Jamaica

My Scene: Jammin' in Jamaica is the first My Scene film, released on May 15, 2004 in the United States. It was sold together with the My Scene "Jammin' in Jamaica" dolls; when Madison and Urban Desire go to Jamaica for a contest, Barbie and Chelsea raise money to go there too and support their friends. The film was directed by Eric Fogel, who directed The Barbie Diaries. Madison is manager of a band called Urban Desire, made up of the four male characters; when the band wins a contest, they make a trip to Jamaica for the finals, but Barbie and Chelsea are left behind so they decide to raise the money to travel to Jamaica. After all the characters arrive in Jamaica, Barbie feels left out as her boyfriend, the lead guitarist, begins spending more time with Madison; this causes a rift between the friends but is resolved. Kelly Sheridan as Barbie and Lexi Nicole Bouma as Chelsea Tegan Moss as Nolee and Lucy Kathleen Barr as Madison and Forture Star Girl Meghan Black as Delancey Alessandro Juliani as River, Rhys and Treelo Shane Meier as Ellis and Baby Bear Mark Hildreth as Sutton, Hand and Rhys' Dad Kirby Morrow as Hudson and Alan Nell Innes as Tyson Urban Desire cover two songs: "Spontaneous Combustion" by The Fuzz, "Going Down In Flames" by Hidell.

Both songs were censored at times to make them more child appropriate for the film. There are two songs by Leslie Mills in the film, which are "Radiowave" and "Making My Way". "Making My Way" was in Barbie and the Three Musketeers, released in 2009. My Scene: Jammin' in Jamaica earned positive reviews from critics and viewers alike. On IMDb, the film has a score of 7.1 out of 10. My Scene: Jammin' in Jamaica on IMDb

Pensions in the Netherlands

The Netherlands' world-leading pension system is due to the diversity of its funding sources, the accuracy of cost measurement, the fairness of distribution, the strong supervision of the Dutch central bank and the Dutch financial market authority. Compared with other countries, the Netherlands is better at solving the problem of population aging, because it absorbs different pension fund models and implements consistent and risk-sharing policies. According to the Melbourne Mercer Global Pension Index, which measures each retirement income system against more than 40 indicators; the Netherlands takes first place with its pension system in 2018. The total score is 80.3/100 Adequacy: 75.9/100. Sustainability: 79.2/100. Integrity:88.8/100. Total:80.3/100In the Netherlands, people do not have to consider the problem of pension while retirement if they do not live in the Netherland. After retiring, can choose to be in any country to extend annuities can choose a fixed country to get annuities; the Dutch pension system combines a pay-as-you-go system, in which workers pay for retirees' benefits, an individual investment system.

In the individual investment system and individuals make high-risk and low-risk investments to make up for the amount they receive from the state pension. These different models can be seen as the three pillars of the Dutch pension system; the three pillars are: the state pension system as per the Algemene Ouderdomswet law, private pension system regulated by pension law, individual private pension. The state pension system is administered as a pay-as-you-go system, with government funds and payroll taxes providing the funding for it. Everyone who lived and/or worked in the Netherlands between the ages of 15 and 65 is entitled to an AOW pension. Everyone living in the Netherlands, with some exceptions, is insured, with every year people are insured, they build up rights to 2% of the full AOW pension; the full AOW pension is tied to the minimum wage, with married or cohabiting couples each receiving 50% of the minimum wage, while those who live alone are entitled to a pension worth more than 70% of the minimum wage.

The moment when a person receives AOW has changed since 2016. In this year the Dutch government announced that they will connect the data of receiving AOW to the national life expectancy; when a person reaches the age of 67 in or before 2021. That the age AOW payments will start. From 2020 the AOW age will be directly connected to the life expectancy; this means. If you have lived or worked outside the Netherlands, you are to receive a lower pension after retirement because you did not contribute to the insurance for a period of time and therefore accumulated less. There are a few people living in the Netherlands who are not insured under the AOW plan. If you were born on or after April 1, 1950, you will not receive an AOW pension if your insurance period is less than one year; the type of AOW pension you will get in a different situation as following: People who live on their own - 70% of the net minimum wage. People who are married or living with someone - 50% of the net minimum wage. If you have a partner who has reached the AOW pension age - together receive up to 100% of the net minimum wage.

If you have a partner who has not yet reached the AOW pension age - a supplementary allowance on top of your AOW pension. The supplementary allowance will be discontinued in 2015; the second pillar consists of collective pension schemes, linked to specific industries or companies. Such collective plans are managed by pension funds or insurance companies; the company pays its employees a monthly pension fund. The return on investment from capital investment pays for pension benefits for current and future retirees. Employees can choose the types of plans in their pension funds. You should update your pension data to your boss. Although pension funds are related to specific enterprises or industries, the law requires pension funds to maintain judicial and financial independence and operate in the form of non-profit institutions, which ensures the safety of pension funds. Once the financial situation of enterprises occurs, pension funds can be protected. Most pension money in the Netherlands is managed by pension funds.

There is a wide range of private pension funds regulated by the pension law which are intended as pension provisions for employed persons. There are three different types of pension funds: industry-wide pension funds, which cater to an entire sector of the economy such as the construction or retail industry, which can be mandated by the government, corporate pension funds, which are for employees of a single company or corporation, pension funds for independent professionals. Private pension funds in the Netherlands are non-profit organizations and operate as foundations, are considered independent legal entities not forming a part of any company under Dutch law. Therefore, if a company gets into financial difficulties, its pension fund will not be affected. More than 90% of Dutch employees belong to a private pension fund. Dutch law does not require membership in a pension fund, but if a company decides to provide a pension scheme for its employees, the government can enforce it. As a result, more than 90% of employees and employers have a pension scheme.

In this case, the employer is no longer free to decide whether to provide a pension plan for the employee. Mandatory means; this means that employees can change jobs within the industry more without affecting pensions. Companies that do