An effects unit or effects pedal is an electronic device that alters the sound of a musical instrument or other audio source. Common effects include distortion/overdrive used with electric guitar in electric blues and rock music. Most modern effects use solid-state electronics or computer chips; some effects older ones such as Leslie speakers and spring reverbs, use mechanical components or vacuum tubes. Effects are used as stompboxes placed on the floor and controlled with footswitches, they are built into amplifiers, tabletop units designed for DJs and record producers, rackmounts, are used as software plugins in such common formats as VST, AAX, AU. Musicians, audio engineers and record producers use effects units during live performances or in the studio with electric guitar, bass guitar, electronic keyboard or electric piano. While effects are most used with electric or electronic instruments, effects can be used with acoustic instruments and vocals. An effects unit is called an "effect box", "effects device", "effects processor" or "effects".
In audio engineer parlance, a signal without effects is "dry" and an effect-processed signal is "wet". The abbreviation "F/X" or "FX" is sometimes used. A pedal-style unit may be called a "stomp box", "stompbox", "effects pedal" or "pedal". A musician bringing many pedals to a live show or recording session mounts the pedals on a guitar pedalboard, to reduce set-up and tear-down time and, for pedalboards with lids, protect the pedals during transportation; when a musician has multiple effects in a rack mounted road case, this case may be called an "effects rack" or "rig". When rackmounted effects are mounted in a roadcase, this speeds up a musician's set-up and tear-down time, because all of the effects can be connected together inside the rack case and all of the units can be plugged into a powerbar. Effects units are available in a variety of formats or form factors. Stompboxes are used in both studio recording. Rackmount devices saw a heavy usage during the 20th century, due to their advanced processing power and desirable tones.
However, by the 21st century, with the advent of digital plugins and more powerful stompboxes for live usage, the need and practicality of rackmount effects units went down, as such, prices of rack effects have diminished due to lower usage. An effects unit can consist of a combination of the two. During a live performance, the effect is plugged into the electrical "signal" path of the instrument. In the studio, an instrument or another sound source — an auxiliary output of a mixer or a DAW — is patched into the effect. Whatever the form factor, effects units are part of musician's outboard gear. Stompboxes are small plastic or metal chassis which lie on the floor or in a pedalboard to be operated by the user's feet. Pedals are rectangle-shaped, but there are a range of other shapes. Typical simple stompboxes have a single footswitch, one to three potentiometers for controlling the effect, a single LED that indicates if the effect is on. A typical distortion or overdrive pedal's three potentiometers, for example, control the level or intensity of the distortion effect, the tone of the effected signal and the volume of the effected signal.
Depending on the type of pedal, the potentiometers may control different parameters of the effect. For a chorus effect, for example, the knobs may control the speed of the effect. Complex stompboxes may have multiple footswitches, many knobs, additional switches or buttons that are operated with the fingers, an alphanumeric LED display that indicates the status of the effect with short acronyms; some pedals have two knobs stacked on top of each other, enabling the unit to provide two knobs per single knob space. An "effects chain" or "signal chain" is formed by connecting two or more stompboxes. Effect chains are created between the guitar and the amp or between the preamplifier and the power amp; when a pedal is off or inactive, the electric audio signal coming into the pedal diverts onto a bypass, an unaltered "dry" signal that continues on to other effects down the chain. In this way, a musician can combine effects within a chain in a variety of ways without having to reconnect boxes during a performance.
A "controller" or "effects management system" lets the musician create multiple effect chains, so they can select one or several chains by tapping a single switch. The switches are organized in a row or a simple grid. To preserve the clarity of the tone, it is most common to put compression and overdrive pedals at the start of the chain; when using many effects, unwanted noise and hum can be introduced into the sound. Some performers use a noise gate pedal at the end of a chain to reduce unwanted noise and hum introduced by overdrive units or vintage gear. Rackmounted effects are built in a thin metal chassis with metal "ears" designed to be screwed into a 19-inch rack, standard to the telecommunication and music technology industries. Rackmounted effects may be two or three rack spaces high; when purchased fro
Antony Cyprian "Tony" Bridge was a British artist who became an Anglican priest. He was Dean of Guildford for 18 years, from 1968 to 1986, wrote several books on the history of Constantinople and the Crusades. Bridge's father was Royal Navy Commander Cyprian Dunscomb Charles Bridge. Bridge and his younger brother, were educated at Marlborough College, his brother became a barrister and a judge, serving as a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary from 1980-92. After school, where his artistic talent had been recognised, Bridge studied at the Royal Academy School of Art, where he was influenced by Post-Impressionism. Living on a small private income, he became an artist in the 1930s. For a period, he shared a studio with Dylan Thomas and spent the summers from 1934 to 1937 in Sark, Channel Islands, in the colony of artists which included Mervyn Peake and Peter Scott. Bridge enlisted as a private in the British Army on the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, he was commissioned in the Buffs in 1940, served in Egypt and North Africa, interpreting aerial photographs.
He joined the staff at the School of Military Intelligence at Matlock in Derbyshire in 1943. He was demobilised in 1945 in the rank of major, he returned to painting after the war, exhibited in London, but his wartime experiences had affected him profoundly: he found his earlier atheism dissolving, being replaced by a strong Christian belief. He described his conversion in his book, One Man's Advent, published in 1985. Bridge decided to seek ordination and, in an interview with the Archbishop of Canterbury, Geoffrey Fisher, said that he did not want to become a priest but could see little alternative, he studied at Lincoln Theological College from 1953 and was ordained as a priest in the Church of England in 1955. He moved to Romney Marsh to become curate of Hythe in Kent, he was appointed as vicar of Christ Church at Lancaster Gate in Paddington in 1958. Prostitution was prevalent in his parish, but it contained many young professionals living in bedsits, he preached on intellectual themes, such as the theological purpose of Picasso and Iris Murdoch, brought in large congregations.
Bridge was appointed as Dean of Guildford Cathedral in 1968, only seven years after the new cathedral was consecrated, serving in that post for 18 years until 1986. He continued to enjoy preaching, he was a member of the advisory council of the Victoria and Albert Museum from 1976 to 1979, lectured on Greek and Turkish art on cruises in the Mediterranean. He wrote several books, including Theodora: Portrait in a Byzantine Landscape, The Crusades, Suleiman the Magnificent and Richard the Lionheart. Upon his retirement in 1986, became a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. Bridge married twice, he married artist Brenda Lois Streatfeild in 1937. They had two daughters together, she was active in the work of the Samaritans until her death in 1995. Bridge married a second time to Diana Joyce Redhead, he was survived by the three children from his first marriage. Obituary, The Times, 26 April 2007 Obituary, The Daily Telegraph, 2 May 2007 http://www.theveryreverendantonybridge.com/ Site produced by Diana Bridge, wife to the late Antony Bridge, in memorial of his life and works
The 57th annual Venice International Film Festival was held between 30 August to 9 September 2000. The Golden Lion was awarded to Dayereh directed by Jafar Panahi; the following people comprised the 2000 jury: Miloš Forman Jennifer Jason Leigh Samira Makhmalbaf Tahar Ben Jelloun Giuseppe Bertolucci Claude Chabrol Andreas Kilb The following feature films were selected to be screened as In Competition for this section: Merry Christmas by Lucho Bender Poetical Refugee by Abdellatif Kechiche Pictures Deep in One's Eyes by Giuseppe Rocca Nights by Cláudia Tomaz The Day I Became a Woman by Marzieh Meshkini Scoutman by Masato Ishioka You Can Count On Me by Kenneth Lonergan Golden Lion: Dayereh Grand Special Jury Prize: Before Night Falls Silver Lion: A Telephone Call for Genevieve Snow Golden Osella: Outstanding Technical Contribution: Claudio Fava, Marco Tullio Giordana and Monica Zapelli I cento passi Volpi Cup: Best Actor: Javier Bardem Before Night Falls Best Actress: Rose Byrne The Goddess of 1967 Special Mention Best Short Film: Faouzi Bensaïdi The Rain Line Special Mention Best Short Film: Sandro Aguilar Sem Movimento The President of the Italian Senate's Gold Medal: La virgen de los sicarios Marcello Mastroianni Award: Liam Luigi De Laurentiis Award: Poetical Refugee Career Golden Lion: Clint Eastwood FIPRESCI Prize: Best First Feature: Thomas in Love Best Feature: Dayereh OCIC Award: Liam Honorable Mention: Before Night Falls Honorable Mention: Dayereh Netpac Award: Zhantai Special Mention: Seom Don Quixote Award: Protagonisti, i diritti del'900 UNICEF Award: Dayereh UNESCO Award: Roozi ke zan shodam Pasinetti Award: Best Film: I cento passi Best Actor: Holy Tongue Best Actress: Dayereh Pietro Bianchi Award: Gillo Pontecorvo Isvema Award: Roozi ke zan shodam FEDIC Award: Placido Rizzotto Little Golden Lion: I cento passi Cult Network Italia Prize: Noites FilmCritica "Bastone Bianco" Award: Word and Utopia Future Film Festival Digital Award: Time and Tide Special Mention: Denti Laterna Magica Prize: Thomas in Love Sergio Trasatti Award: Dayereh CinemAvvenire Award: Best Film on the Relationship Man-Nature: Freedom Best Film: I cento passi Best First Film: Roozi ke zan shodam Cinema for Peace Award: Poetical Refugee Children and Cinema Award: Johnny the Partisan Rota Soundtrack Award: Before Night Falls Special Director's Award: The Wrestlers Official website Venice Film Festival 2000 Awards on IMDb