He is known as Zhang Daoling, Celestial Master Zhang, Ancestral Celestial Master or Zhengyi Zhenren to Taoists. Zhang is sometimes pictured riding on a tiger, in some Taoist sects, along with Ge Xuan, Xu Xun and Sa Shoujian, are called the Four Celestial Masters. The details of the life of the historical figure Zhang Ling are obscure, most of the information about him comes from scripture, according to these, Zhang traced his ancestral home to Feng County and was said to be a descendant of Zhang Liang. He was born in the year of the Jianwu era during the reign of Emperor Guangwu of Han. He started reading the Tao Te Ching at a young age and he served as a magistrate in Jiangzhou, Ba Commandery during the reign of Emperor Ming of Han. Zhang retired and led a life at Mount Beimang. When invited to serve as a boshi in the Imperial Academy, Emperor He of Han summoned him thrice to serve as the Taifu but he refused again. Zhang endeavored to reform supposedly degenerate religious practices, a major change instituted by the new Covenant was the rejection of food and animal sacrifices.
Also, the teachings of Laozi as transmitted by Zhang included the first true Taoist religious pantheon as distinguished from the ancient religion of China. The Xianger, a commentary on the Tao Te Ching preserved today in a manuscript, is traditionally ascribed to Zhang Daolings authorship. Zhang is said to have died on Mount Qingcheng in 156 during the reign of Emperor Huan of Han at the age of 123, however, it is said that Zhang did not die but learned the arcana of Taoism to ascend in broad daylight. Instead, his body became like luminous ether, disappearing from eyesight and his descendants have held the title of Celestial Masters up to the present day. They held the title of 正一嗣教眞人, list of Celestial Masters Way of the Five Pecks of Rice Way of the Celestial Masters
Laozi was an ancient Chinese philosopher and writer. He is known as the author of the Tao Te Ching and the founder of philosophical Taoism. A central figure in Chinese culture, Laozi is claimed by both the emperors of the Tang dynasty and modern people of the Li surname as a founder of their lineage, Laozis work has been embraced by various anti-authoritarian movements as well as Chinese legalism. In traditional accounts, Laozis personal name is given as Li Er. A prominent posthumous name was Li Dan, Laozi itself is an honorific title, 老 and 子. It is usually pronounced /ˌlaʊˈdzʌ/ in English and it has been romanized numerous ways, sometimes leading to confusion. The most common present form is Laozi or Lǎozǐ, based on the Hanyu Pinyin system adopted by Mainland China in 1958, during the 20th century, Lao-tzu was more common, based on the formerly prevalent Wade–Giles system. In the 19th century, the title was romanized as Lao-tse. Other forms include the variants Lao-tze and Lao-tsu, as a religious figure, he is worshipped under the name Supreme Old Lord and as one of the Three Pure Ones.
During the Tang Dynasty, he was granted the title Supremely Mysterious, the earliest certain reference to the present figure of Laozi is found in the 1st-century BCE Records of the Grand Historian collected by the historian Sima Qian from earlier accounts. In one account, Laozi was said to be a contemporary of Confucius during the 6th or 5th century BCE and his surname was Li and his personal name was Er or Dan. He was an official in the archives and wrote a book in two parts before departing to the west. In another, Laozi was a different contemporary of Confucius titled Lao Laizi, in a third, he was the court astrologer Lao Dan who lived during the 4th century BCE reign of Duke Xian of the Qin Dynasty. The oldest text of the Tao Te Ching so far recovered was written on bamboo slips, according to traditional accounts, Laozi was a scholar who worked as the Keeper of the Archives for the royal court of Zhou. This reportedly allowed him access to the works of the Yellow Emperor. The stories assert that Laozi never opened a school but nonetheless attracted a large number of students.
There are many variations of a story retelling his encounter with Confucius and he was sometimes held to have come from the village of Chu Jen in Chu. In accounts where Laozi married, he was said to have had a son named Zong who became a celebrated soldier, many clans of the Li family trace their descent to Laozi, including the emperors of the Tang dynasty
Taoism, known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao. The Tao is an idea in most Chinese philosophical schools, in Taoism, however. Taoism differs from Confucianism by not emphasizing rigid rituals and social order, the Tao Te Ching, a compact book containing teachings attributed to Laozi, is widely considered the keystone work of the Taoist tradition, together with the writings of Zhuangzi. By the Han dynasty, the sources of Taoism had coalesced into a coherent tradition of religious organizations. In earlier ancient China, Taoists were thought of as hermits or recluses who did not participate in political life, Zhuangzi was the best known of these, and it is significant that he lived in the south, where he was part of local Chinese shamanic traditions. Women shamans played an important role in this tradition, which was strong in the southern state of Chu. Early Taoist movements developed their own institution in contrast to shamanism, shamans revealed basic texts of Taoism from early times down to at least the 20th century.
Institutional orders of Taoism evolved in various strains that in recent times are conventionally grouped into two main branches, Quanzhen Taoism and Zhengyi Taoism. After Laozi and Zhuangzi, the literature of Taoism grew steadily and was compiled in form of a canon—the Daozang—which was published at the behest of the emperor, throughout Chinese history, Taoism was nominated several times as a state religion. After the 17th century, however, it fell from favor, Chinese alchemy, Chinese astrology, Chan Buddhism, several martial arts, traditional Chinese medicine, feng shui, and many styles of qigong have been intertwined with Taoism throughout history. Beyond China, Taoism had influence on surrounding societies in Asia, Taoism has a presence in Hong Kong, and in Southeast Asia. English speakers continue to debate the preferred romanization of the words Daoism and Taoism, the root Chinese word 道 way, path is romanized tao in the older Wade–Giles system and dào in the modern Pinyin system. In linguistic terminology, English Taoism/Daoism is formed from the Chinese loanword tao/dao 道 way, route and the native suffix -ism.
The debate over Taoism vs. Daoism involves sinology, loanwords, Daoism is pronounced /ˈdaʊ. ɪzəm/, but English speakers disagree whether Taoism should be /ˈdaʊ. ɪzəm/ or /ˈtaʊ. ɪzəm/. In theory, both Wade–Giles tao and Pinyin dao are articulated identically, as are Taoism and Daoism, an investment book titled The Tao Jones Averages illustrates this /daʊ/ pronunciations widespread familiarity. In speech and Taoism are often pronounced /ˈtaʊ/ and ˈtaʊ. ɪzəm/, lexicography shows American and British English differences in pronouncing Taoism. Taoist philosophy or Taology, or the mystical aspect — The philosophical doctrines based on the texts of the I Ching, the Tao Te Ching and these texts were linked together as Taoist philosophy during the early Han Dynasty, but notably not before. It is unlikely that Zhuangzi was familiar with the text of the Daodejing, the discussed distinction is rejected by the majority of Western and Japanese scholars
Queen Mother of the West
The Queen Mother of the West, known by various local names, is a goddess in Chinese religion and mythology, worshipped in neighbouring Asian countries, and attested from ancient times. The first historical information on her can be traced back to oracle bone inscriptions of the fifteenth century BC that record sacrifices to a Western Mother, even though these inscriptions illustrate that she predates organized Taoism, she is most often associated with Taoism. From her name alone some of her most important characteristics are revealed, she is royal, Queen Mother of the West is the literal translation of Xiwangmu in Chinese sources, Seiōbo in Japan, and Seowangmo in Korea, and Tây Vương Mẫu in Vietnam. She has numerous titles, one of the most popular being the Golden Mother of the Nacre Lake and she is known in contemporary sources as the Lady Queen Mother. In the Maternist current of Chinese salvationist religions she is the deity and is called upon as the Eternal Venerable Mother. Commoners and poets of the era referred to her simply as the Queen Mother.
The first mentions of the Queen Mother date back to the oracle bone inscriptions of the Shang dynasty, one inscription reads, Crack-making on day IX,9 day, we divined. If we make offering to the mother and the western mother. Western Mother refers to an archaic divinity residing in the west, the exact nature of the Mother divinities in the Shang dynasty is unclear, but they were seen as powerful forces deserving of ritual by the people of the Shang dynasty. After she was adopted into the Taoist pantheon, she was transformed into the goddess of life and immortality. One of the earliest written references to the Queen Mother comes from the writings of the Taoist writer Zhuangzi, no one knows her beginning, no one knows her end. Zhuangzi describes the Queen Mother as one of the highest of the deities, meaning she had gained immortality, Zhuangzi states that Xiwangmu is seated upon a spiritual western mountain range, suggesting she is connected to not only the heavens, but to the west. During the Tang dynasty poetry flourished throughout China and it was during this period that the Queen Mother became an extremely popular figure in poetry.
Her mythology was recorded in the poems of the Quan Tangshi a collection of surviving poems from the Tang dynasty and this account represents the most complete source of information about Tang societys perceptions of Xīwángmǔ. The Queen Mother of the West usually is depicted holding court within her palace on the mythological Mount Kunlun, usually supposed to be in western China. Her palace is believed to be a perfect and complete paradise, where it was used as a place for the deities. At her palace she was surrounded by a retinue of prominent goddesses. No matter where the peaches were located, the Queen Mother of the West is widely known for serving peaches to her guests and she normally wears a distinctive headdress with the Peaches of Immortality suspended from it
Zhengyi Dao or the Way of Orthodox Unity is a Chinese Daoist movement that emerged during the Tang dynasty as a transformation of the earlier Tianshi Dao movement. Like Tianshi Dao, the leader of Zhengyi Daoism was known as the Celestial Master, Emperor Xuanzong canonized the first Celestial Master Zhang Daoling during his reign. This did not benefit the original territory of his followers in Sichuan and this temple, located at Mount Longhu, claimed to be the spot where Zhang Daoling had obtained the Tao, and where his descendants still lived. Recognized by the emperor as the descendants of Zhang Daoling. The importance of the Zhengyi school grew during the Song dynasty, in 1239, the Southern Song dynastys Emperor Lizong commanded the 35th Celestial Master Zhang Keda to the united Lingbao School, the Shangqing School and Zhengyi Dao. The new school was to retain the Zhengyi name and remain based at Mount Longhu, shortly after the schools were united, the Mongols under Kublai Khan conquered the Southern Song dynasty and established the Yuan dynasty in China.
He accepted the claim that the Celestial Master of Mount Longhu was descended from Zhang Daoling, the founding of the Ming dynasty in 1368 marked the beginning of a long decline in the power of the Zhengyi Daoism. By the Daoguang period of the Qing dynasty, relations between the court and the Celestial Masters came to an end, the schools activities became localized to regions in which the school was particularly important. Despite ending association with the court, the Celestial Master himself still retained a great deal of prestige and this prestige, which arose from the belief that he was descended from Zhang Daoling, was evident when the Celestial Master traveled and attracted crowds of people wherever he went. Unlike prior incarnations of the Celestial Masters, like the school based at Louguan, instead, he was viewed as the ancestor of the schools teaching. During the Tang dynasty, the activity of Zhengyi Daoists was to sell protective talismans. Local cults developed around the sale of these talismans, and around guilds, one of the fundamental practices of the school was conferring registers upon people entering Daoism.
A register was a way to allow that the Daoist tradition passed on to future generations by ensuring those who received them had a knowledge of the schools teachings. Registers had the names of deities written on them who could be called upon by the bearer to assist in times of need, once one received a register, they were considered to be part of the priesthood. There were different grades of registers for laypeople with differing levels of religious knowledge, the Celestial Masters adopted the Thunder Rites during the last two decades of the Northern Song dynasty. The Five Thunders variety appeared earlier and was linked with the Celestial Masters, there are two main types of rituals performed by the Zhengyi Daoists the jiao and zhai rituals. The zhai ritual is performed as a way to gain benefits through purification and abstinence, in performing a ritual, an adherent must first recite a litany of repentance, notify the deities of the merits gained though repentance by submitting a document to heaven.
Upon completion of the ritual, the jiao ritual begins in which deities are given offerings
Yao folk religion
Yao folk religion is the ethnic religion of the Yao people, a non-Sinitic ethnic group who reside in the Guangxi and surrounding provinces of China. Their religion is profoundly intermingled with Taoism since the 13th century, in the 1980s it was found that the Yao clearly identified with the Chinese-language Taoist theological literature, seen as a prestigious statute of culture. Yao folk religion was described by a Chinese scholar of the half of the 20th century as an example of deep Taoisation, a shared sense of Yao identity is based additionally on tracing their descent from the mythical ancestor Panhu. Although the Yao are speakers of non-Sinitic Mienic languages, their Taoist liturgical tradition is in Chinese language, in Yao religion all adult males are initiated to some degree into the Taoist clergy. The tsow say ong are high priests who perform rites for the gods of the pantheon. The Yao folk religion otherwise retains a class of priests or shamans, the sip mien. The Sai nzung sou is the book of ceremonies for inviting the mienv zoux ziouv, the mienv morh are instead angry spirits who cause sickness and tragedy.
The mienv baaih is the Yao household altar of the gods and its aim is welcoming the spirits. The mienv kuv is a tablet with the names of the ancestors of the family placed upon the altar, after the death of a person, the priests perform the zoux caeqv, a ceremony to deliver the persons body from sin. Then the priest perform a ritual, the zoux sin. Subsequently the priest performs the doh dangh caeqv jaiv, a ceremony to purify the soul of the person from the influence of evil spirits. The zoux sin-seix is a ritual to give the spirit a peaceful after-life and happiness in the new generation to come. Other practices involve spirit money and sacrifice, Chinese folk religion Confucianism Laotian folk religion Miao folk religion Edward L. Davis. A History of Daoism and the Yao People of South China, other Chinas, The Yao and the Politics of National Belonging
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty. The classic account of the Shang comes from such as the Book of Documents, Bamboo Annals. The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project dated them from c.1600 to 1046 BC, the Shang dynasty is the earliest dynasty of traditional Chinese history supported by archaeological evidence. Tens of thousands of bronze, stone, the Anyang site has yielded the earliest known body of Chinese writing, mostly divinations inscribed on oracle bones – turtle shells, ox scapulae, or other bones. More than 20,000 were discovered in the scientific excavations during the 1920s and 1930s. The inscriptions provide critical insight into many topics from the politics, many events concerning the Shang dynasty are mentioned in various Chinese classics, including the Book of Documents, the Mencius and the Zuo Zhuan. Working from all the documents, the Han dynasty historian Sima Qian assembled a sequential account of the Shang dynasty as part of his Records of the Grand Historian.
His history describes some events in detail, while in other cases only the name of a king is given, a closely related, but slightly different, account is given by the Bamboo Annals. The Annals were interred in 296 BC, but the text has a complex history, the name Yīn is used by Sima Qian for the dynasty, and in the current text version of the Bamboo Annals for both the dynasty and its final capital. It has been a name for the Shang throughout history. Since the Records of Emperors and Kings by Huangfu Mi, it has often used specifically to describe the half of the Shang dynasty. In Japan and Korea, the Shang are still referred to almost exclusively as the Yin dynasty, however it seems to have been a Zhou name for the earlier dynasty. The word does not appear in the bones, which refer to the state as Shāng. It does not appear in securely-dated Western Zhou bronze inscriptions, xie is said to have helped Yu the Great to control the Great Flood and for his service to have been granted a place called Shang as a fief.
Sima Qian relates that the dynasty itself was founded 13 generations later, when Xies descendant Tang overthrew the impious and cruel final Xia ruler in the Battle of Mingtiao. The Records recount events from the reigns of Tang, Tai Jia, Tai Wu, Pan Geng, Wu Ding, Wu Yi and the final king Di Xin. According to the Records, the Shang moved their capital five times, Di Xin, the last Shang king, is said to have committed suicide after his army was defeated by Wu of Zhou. Legends say that his army and his equipped slaves betrayed him by joining the Zhou rebels in the decisive Battle of Muye, according to the Yi Zhou Shu and Mencius the battle was very bloody
It is believed the Xiuzhen Tu is such a cultivation map. In China, it is an important form of practice for most schools of Taoism, the Chinese compound nèidān combines the common word nèi 內 meaning inside, internal with dān 丹 cinnabar, elixir, alchemy. The antonym of nèi is wài 外 outside, external, Chinese alchemical texts and sources ordinarily call neidan the jīndān dào 金丹道 or Way of the Golden Elixir. In Modern Standard Chinese usage, the term nèidān shù 內丹術 refers generally to internal alchemical practices, the date for the earliest use of the term neidan is uncertain. I pray that all the saints and sages will come to my help, so that I may get some good magic mushrooms, in this way I shall be able to practice continually the way of the Sutras and to engage in the several forms of meditations. I shall hope to find a peaceful dwelling in the depths of the mountains, with enough numinous elixirs, thus by the aids of external elixirs I shall be able to cultivate the elixir within. Others believed that neidan first occurred in the biographies of Deng Yuzhi鄧郁之, the authenticity of the relevant passages in these pseudo-historical sources is doubtful.
Tang texts described internal alchemical practices with the words fúyào 服藥 take drug/medicine and chángshēng 長生 long life, liu Xiyues 劉希岳988 Taixuan langranzi jindao shi 太玄朗然子進道詩 has the earliest dateable mention of the terms neidan and waidan. The c.1019 Yunji Qiqian Daoist anthology mentions the term neidan, Neidan is part of the Chinese alchemical meditative tradition that is said to have been separated into internal and external at some point during the Tang dynasty. The Cantong qi is the earliest known book on alchemy in China. This text influenced the formation of Neidan, whose earliest existing texts date from the first half of the 8th century, the authors of several Neidan articles refer to their teachings as the Way of the Golden Elixir. The majority of Chinese alchemical sources is found in the Daozang, Neidan shares a significant portion of its notions and methods with classical Chinese medicine and with other bodies of practices, such as meditation and the methods for nourishing life.
To do so, first keep the body at ease, thereby energy can be made complete. Making ones energy complete, one can nurture the mind, to do so, first keep the mind pure, and make sure there are no thoughts. Thereby spirit can be made complete, making ones spirit complete, one can recover emptiness. To do so, first keep the will sincere, and make sure body, thereby spirit can be returned to emptiness. To attain immortality, there is nothing else but the refinement of these three treasures, energy, spirit. When the three treasures are maintained, along with a balance of yin and yang, it is possible to achieve a healthy body and longevity
In traditional Chinese culture, qì or chi is an active principle forming part of any living thing. Qi literally translates as breath, air, or gas, and figuratively as material energy, life force, Qi is the central underlying principle in traditional Chinese medicine and martial arts. Some elements of the concept of qi can be found in the energy when used in the context of various esoteric forms of spirituality. Notions in the West of energeia, élan vital, or vitalism are purported to be similar, despite widespread belief in the reality of qi, it is a non-scientific, unverifiable concept. The logograph 氣 is read with two Chinese pronunciations, the usual qì 氣 air, vital energy and the rare archaic xì 氣 to present food, pronunciations of 氣 in Sino-Xenic borrowings include, Japanese language ki, Korean language gi, and Vietnamese language khi. Reconstructions of the Middle Chinese pronunciation of 氣, standardized to IPA transcription, include, /kʰe̯iH/, /kʰĭəiH/, /kʰiəiH/, /kʰɨjH/, reconstructions of the Old Chinese pronunciation of 氣, standardized to IPA transcription, include, /*kʰɯds/, and /*C. qʰəp-s/.
In addition, qì 炁 is an uncommon character especially used in writing Daoist talismans, the word qì was generally written as 气 until the Han dynasty, when it was replaced by the 氣 graph clarified with mǐ 米 rice indicating steam. These oracle and seal scripts graphs for qì 气 air, etc. were anciently used as a loan character to write qǐ 乞 plead for, ask. The regular script character qì 氣 is unusual because qì 气 is both the air radical and the phonetic, with mǐ 米 rice semantically indicating steam, vapor. This qì 气 air/gas radical, which was used in a few native Chinese characters like yīnyūn 氤氲 thick mist/smoke, was used to create new scientific characters for gaseous chemical elements. Some examples are based on pronunciations in European languages, fú 氟 fluorine and nǎi 氖 neon, others are based on semantics, qīng 氫 hydrogen and lǜ 氯 chlorine. Qi was an early Chinese loanword in English, romanized as, ki in Church Romanization in the century, chi in Wade–Giles in the mid-19th century. An early form of the idea comes from the writings of the Chinese philosopher Mencius, the Huangdi Neijing/The Yellow Emperors Classic of Medicine is credited with first establishing the pathways through which qi circulates in the human body.
The ancient Chinese described it as life force and they believed qi permeated everything and linked their surroundings together. They likened it to the flow of energy around and through the body, forming a cohesive, by understanding its rhythm and flow they believed they could guide exercises and treatments to provide stability and longevity. Although the concept of qi has been important within many Chinese philosophies, until China came into contact with Western scientific and philosophical ideas, they had not categorized all things in terms of matter and energy. Qi and li were fundamental categories similar to matter and energy, yuán qì is a notion of innate or pre-natal qi to distinguish it from acquired qi that a person may develop over the course of their lifetime. The earliest texts that speak of qi give some indications of how the concept developed, the philosopher Mo Di used the word qi to refer to noxious vapors that would in due time arise from a corpse were it not buried at a sufficient depth
Penglai is a legendary land of Chinese mythology. It is known in Japanese mythology as Hōrai, various theories have been offered over the years as to the real location of these places, including Japan, Jejudo south of the Korean Peninsula, and Taiwan. Penglai, Shandong exists, but its connection is as the site of departures for those leaving for the island rather than the island itself. In Chinese mythology, the mountain is said to be the base for the Eight Immortals, or at least where they travel to have a banquet. Supposedly, everything on the mountain seems white, while its palaces are made from gold and platinum, Qin Shi Huang, in search of the elixir of life, made several attempts to find the island where the mountain is located, to no avail. Legends tell that Xu Fu, one servant sent to find the island, found Japan instead, the presentation of Mt. Hōrai in Lafcadio Hearns Kwaidan and Studies of Strange Things, is somewhat different from the earlier idyllic Chinese myth. This version, which does not truly represent the Japanese views of Horai in the Meiji and preceding Tokugawa periods, rejects much of the fantastic, in this version of the myth, Hōrai is not free from sorrow or death, and the winters are bitterly cold.
Hearns conception of Hōrai holds that there are no magical fruits that cure disease, grant eternal youth or raise the dead, and no rice bowls or wine glasses that never become empty. Hearns incarnation of the myth of Hōrai focuses more on the atmosphere of the place, breathing in these souls is said to grant one all of the perceptions and knowledge of these ancient souls. The Japanese version holds that the people of Hōrai are small fairies, and they have no knowledge of great evil, in the Kwaidan, there is some indication that the Japanese hold such a place to be merely a fantasy. It is pointed out that Hōrai is called Shinkiro, which signifies Mirage—the Vision of the Intangible, yet uses of Mount Hōrai in Japanese literature and art of the Tokugawa period reveal a very different view than Hearns Victorian-influenced interpretation. Avalon Luggnagg, the island of the immortal struldbrugs in Jonathan Swifts Gullivers Travels Shangri-La Dilmun, Kwaidan and Studies of Strange Things
Chinese de 德 is an ancient and linguistically complex word. The following analyzes it in terms of semantics, the Hanyu Da Zidian, defines twenty meanings for de 德, translatable as Rise, go up, ascend. Morals, virtue, personal conduct, moral integrity, denoting a wise/enlightened person with moral character. Benevolent rule, good government, good instruction, nature, basic character, attribute. For example, Be of one heart and mind, in Five Phases theory, a reference to seasonally productive energy/air. First growth, initial stage, beginning of something, good fortune, resulting from benevolent actions. Used for zhí to plant, establish, used for get, result in. An abbreviation for the Republic of Germany during World War II, another name for the Yellow River. This dictionary provides early usage examples, and all of these de meanings occur in Han or pre-Han Chinese classic texts, translating de into English is problematic and controversial. Arthur Waley believed that de was better translated power than virtue and it is usually translated virtue, and this often seems to work quite well, though where the word occurs in early, pre-moralistic texts such a translation is in reality quite false.
But if we study the usage of the word carefully we find that de can be bad as well as good, clearly virtue is not a satisfactory equivalent. Te is anything that happens to one or that one does of a kind indicating that, as a consequence and it means, so to speak, the stock of credit that at any given moment a man has at the bank of fortune. Such a stock is of course built up partly by the carrying out of ritual. Based on the relation between de and zhi to plant, Waley further noted the early Chinese regarded planting seeds as a de, hence it means a latent power. The linguist Peter A. Boodberg investigated the semantics and etymology of de 德 and they find, therefore, no quarrel with rendering tê, almost invariably, as virtue. Philologists are, troubled by the absence in the Chinese term of any connotations reminiscent of the Latin etymon vir, such as manliness, other recommended translation, such as energy and essential quality, seem inadequate from the etymological point of view. Of these, the last is by far the most frequently encountered, unfortunately, it is probably the least appropriate of all to serve as an accurate translation of te in the Tao Te Ching.
De power, virtue is written with the Chinese character 德 in both Traditional Chinese and Simplified Chinese and this character 德 combines the chi 彳 footstep, go radical with zhi 直 straight and xin 心 heart, mind