The Eisenhower dollar was a one-dollar coin issued by the United States Mint from 1971 to 1978. The coin depicts President Dwight D. Eisenhower on the obverse, a stylized image honoring the 1969 Apollo 11 Moon mission on the reverse, with both sides designed by Frank Gasparro, it is the only large-size U. S. dollar coin whose circulation strikes contained no silver. In 1965, because of rises in bullion prices, the Mint began to strike copper-nickel clad coins instead of silver. No dollar coins had been issued in thirty years, but beginning in 1969, legislators sought to reintroduce a dollar coin into commerce. After Eisenhower died that March, there were a number of proposals to honor him with the new coin. While these bills commanded wide support, enactment was delayed by a dispute over whether the new coin should be in base metal or 40% silver. In 1970, a compromise was reached to strike the Eisenhower dollar in base metal for circulation, in 40% silver as a collectible. President Richard Nixon, who had served as vice president under Eisenhower, signed legislation authorizing mintage of the new coin on December 31, 1970.
Although the collector's pieces sold well, the new dollars failed to circulate to any degree, except in and around Nevada casinos, where they took the place of issued tokens. There are no dollars dated 1975. Beginning in 1977, the Mint sought to replace the Eisenhower dollar with a smaller-sized piece. Congress authorized the Susan B. Anthony dollar, struck beginning in 1979, but that coin failed to circulate. Given their modest cost and the short length of the series, complete sets of Eisenhower dollars are inexpensive to assemble and are becoming more popular among coin collectors; the silver dollar had never been a popular coin, circulating little except in the West. The Peace dollar, the last circulating dollar made of silver, was not struck after 1935, in most years in the quarter century after that, the bullion value of a silver dollar did not exceed 70 cents. In the early 1960s, silver prices rose, the huge stocks of silver dollars in the hands of banks and the government were obtained by the public through the redemption of silver certificates.
This caused shortages of silver dollars in the western states where the pieces circulated, interests there sought the issuance of more dollars. On August 3, 1964, Congress passed legislation providing for the striking of 45 million silver dollars; this legislation was enacted when coins vanished from circulation as the price of silver rose past $1.29 per ounce, making silver dollars worth more as bullion than as currency. The new pieces were intended to be used at Nevada casinos and elsewhere in the West where "hard money" was popular. Numismatic periodicals complained; the law had been passed at the urging of the Senate Majority Leader, Mike Mansfield, who represented a state that used silver dollars. Despite the efforts of Mint Director Eva Adams and her staff to persuade him, Senator Mansfield refused to consider any cancellation or delay, on May 12, 1965 the Denver Mint began striking 1964-D Peace dollars—the Mint had obtained congressional authorization to continue striking 1964-dated coins into 1965.
A public announcement of the new pieces was made on May 15, 1965, only to be met with a storm of objections. Both the public and many congressmen saw the issue as a poor use of Mint resources at a time of severe coin shortages, which would only benefit coin dealers. On May 24, one day before a hastily called congressional hearing, Adams announced that the pieces were deemed trial strikes, never intended for circulation; the Mint stated that 316,076 pieces had been struck. To ensure that there would be no repetition, Congress inserted a provision in the Coinage Act of 1965 forbidding the coinage of silver dollars for five years; that act removed silver from the dime and quarter, reduced the silver content of the half dollar to 40%. In 1969, Nixon administration Mint Director Mary Brooks sought the reissuance of the dollar coin. By this time, rising bullion prices threatened the continued use of silver in the Kennedy half dollar, but Brooks hoped to maintain the dollar as a silver coin. Brooks' proposal for a new silver dollar was opposed by the chairman of the House Banking Committee, Wright Patman, persuaded, against his better judgment, by Nixon's predecessor, Lyndon Johnson, to support the continued use of silver in the half dollar.
On March 28, 1969, former president and World War II general Dwight D. Eisenhower died. Soon after, New Jersey Representative Florence Dwyer, like Eisenhower, a Republican, suggested that the proposed dollar coin bear his likeness, she spoke to Democratic Missouri Representative Leonor Sullivan, who agreed that the dollar should bear a portrait of Eisenhower as "equal time" to the half dollar, which bore the likeness of Democratic president John F. Kennedy. A bill was filed by Connecticut Congressman Robert N. Giaimo to authorize an Eisenhower dollar, to be struck without silver content; the Joint Commission on the Coinage, drawing members from the administration and from Congress, including Giaimo, recommended the dollar in spring 1969. It called for the elimination of silver from the half dollar, for the transfer from the Treasury to
Ingi Højsted is a retired Faroese football midfielder, who last played for B36 Tórshavn. He has been capped for the Faroe Islands at senior level. In the summer of 2002 he joined Arsenal in London as a trainee playing for B36 Tórshavn. On 22 November 2005 Birmingham City signed him until the end of the season. Højsted has since parted company with Birmingham City after playing only 45 minutes of reserve team football, his career's progression was curtailed by several short to long term injuries, of which fostered him retiring. Højsted made his debut for the Faroe Islands in an April 2003 friendly match against Kazakhstan, coming on as a substitute for Jákup á Borg, he has scored no goals. Ingi Højsted at National-Football-Teams.com
Deepak Nayyar is Professor of Economics at Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi and Chairperson of the Board of Governors of Centre for the Study of Developing Societies New Delhi. He has taught at the University of Oxford, the University of Sussex, the Indian Institute of Management Calcutta, the New School for Social Research, New York City, he was Vice Chancellor of the University of Delhi from 2000 to 2005. He graduated from St. Stephen's College, University of Delhi. Thereafter, as a Rhodes Scholar, he went on to study at Balliol College, University of Oxford, where he obtained a B. Phil. and a D. Phil in Economics, his 1974 doctoral thesis was titled "An Analysis of the Stagnation in India's Cotton Textile Exports" under the supervision of P. P. Streeten, his academic career has been interspersed with short periods in the government. He was in the Indian Administrative Service. For some time, he worked as Economic Adviser in the Ministry of Commerce, he was Chief Economic Adviser to the Government of India and Secretary in the Ministry of Finance.
Nayyar is an Honorary Fellow of Oxford. And he is Chairman of Sameeksha Trust, which publishes Political Weekly, he served as Chairman of the Board of Governors of the World Institute for Development Economics Research, UNU-WIDER, from 2001 to 2008 and Vice President of the International Association of Universities, from 2004 to 2008. He was on the Board of Directors of the Social Science Research Council in the United States from 2001 to 2007 and was Chairman of the Advisory Council for the Department of International Development, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford, from 2004 to 2007, he has received the VKRV Rao award for his contribution to research in Economics. He has been President of the Indian Economic Association, he is on the Editorial Board of several professional journals. He has served as a member of many commissions and boards: both national and international, he is a member of the National Knowledge Commission in India. He is a member of the Board of the South Geneva, he has been a Member of the World Commission on the Social Dimension of Globalization.
He has served as a Director on several corporate boards, including State Trading Corporation of India, State Bank of India, Export-Import Bank of India and Maruti Udyog. At present, he is a Director on the Boards of the SAIL and ICRA, his research interests are in the areas of international economics and development economics. He has published papers and books on a wide range of subjects, including trade policies, industrialization strategies, macroeconomic stabilization, structural adjustment, economic liberalization, trade theory, macro policies, international migration and the multilateral trading system. In addition, he has written extensively on economic development in India. Globalization and development is an area of focus in his present research. Nayyar has published more than 50 papers in academic journals, he is the author, co-author or editor of 12 books, which include: India’s Exports and Export Policies, Migration and Capital Flows, The Intelligent Person’s Guide to Liberalization and Industrialization, Governing Globalization: Issues and Institutions, Stability with Growth: Macroeconomics and Development Trade and Globalization Liberalization and Development