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Ejido

An ejido is an area of communal land used for agriculture in which community members have usufruct rights rather than ownership rights to land, which in Mexico is held by the Mexican state. Peasants awarded ejidos in the modern era farm them individually in parcels and collectively maintain communal holdings with government oversight. Although the system of ejidos was based on an understanding of the preconquest Aztec calpulli and the medieval Spanish ejido, in the twentieth century ejidos are government controlled. After the Mexican Revolution, ejidos were created by the Mexican state to grant lands to peasant communities as a means to stem social unrest; the awarding of ejidos made peasants dependent on the government, with the creation of a bureaucracy to register and regulate them through the National Agrarian Registry. As Mexico prepared to enter the North American Free Trade Agreement in 1991, President Carlos Salinas de Gortari declared the end of awarding ejidos and allowed existing ejidos to be rented or sold, ending land reform in Mexico.

In central Mexico following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire, indigenous communities remained intact, including their system of land tenure. The Spanish crown guaranteed that indigenous communities had land under its control, the fundo legal, it set up the General Indian Court so that individual natives and indigenous communities could defend their rights against Spanish encroachment. Spaniards applied their own terminology to indigenous community lands, early in the colonial era began calling them ejidos. Mexico achieved its independence from Spain in 1821, following the Mexican War of Independence, the new sovereign nation abolished crown protections of natives and indigenous communities, making them equal before the law rather than vassals of the Spanish crown; the disappearance of the General Indian Court was one effect independence. With political instability and economic stagnation following independence, indigenous communities maintained their land holdings, since large landed estates were not expanding to increase production.

For nineteenth-century Mexican liberals, the continuing separateness of natives and indigenous villages from the Mexican nation was deemed "The Indian Problem," and the breakup of communal landholding identified as the key to integrating of Indians into the Mexican nation. When the Liberals came to power in 1855, they embarked on a major reform that included the expropriation and sale of corporate lands, that is, those held by indigenous communities and by the Roman Catholic Church; the Liberal Reform first put in place the Lerdo Law, calling for the end of corporate landholding and incorporated that law into the Constitution of 1857. Ejidos were thus abolished, although many continued to survive. Mexico was plunged into civil unrest, civil war, a foreign invasion by the French, so not until the expulsion of the French in 1867 and the restoration of the Mexican republic under liberal control did land reform begin to take effect. Under liberal general Porfirio Díaz, who came to power by coup in 1876, policies to promote political stability and economic prosperity, "order and progress", meant that large haciendas began expanding and many villages lost their lands leaving the peasantry landless.

Many peasants participated in the Mexican Revolution, with the expectation that their village lands could be restored. In particular, many peasants in the state of Morelos under the leadership of Emiliano Zapata waged war against the presidency of Francisco I. Madero, a wealthy landowner whose reformist political movement sought to oust the regime of Porfirio Díaz. In 1917, a new Constitution was drafted, which included empowerment of the government to expropriate held resources. Many peasants expected Article 27 of the Constitution to bring about the breakup of large haciendas and to return land to peasant communities. Carranza was resistant to the expropriation of haciendas, in fact returned many to their owners, seized by revolutionaries. Distribution of large amounts of land did not begin until Lázaro Cárdenas became president in 1934; the ejido system was introduced as an important component of the land reform in Mexico. Under Cárdenas, land reform was "sweeping, and, in some respectsÀ, structurally innovative...he promoted the collective ejido in order to justify the expropriation of large commercial estates."The typical procedure for the establishment of an ejido involved the following steps: landless farmers who leased lands from wealthy landlords would petition the federal government for the creation of an ejido in their general area.

Ejidatarios do not own the land but are allowed to use their allotted parcels indefinitely as long as they do not fail to use the land for more than two years. They can pass their rights on to their children. Opponents of the ejido system pointed to widespread corruption within the Banco Nacional de Crédito Rural —the primary institution responsible for providing loans to ejiditarios—illegal sales and transfers of ejido lands, ecological degradation, low productivity as evidence of the system's failure, but defendants countered these arguments by pointing out that e

2002 New York gubernatorial election

The New York gubernatorial election of 2002 was held on November 5, 2002. Governor George Pataki, the two-term Republican incumbent, ran for a third term. Governor Pataki was re-elected to a third term, defeating Democrat Carl McCall and Rochester billionaire Tom Golisano; as of 2020, this is the last time. In New York state politics, the proliferation of parties and ballot lines ensures that each candidate attempts to be listed under multiple ballot lines. Besides his standard Republican nomination, Governor Pataki sought the nominations of the Conservative and the Independence Party. Golisano, who sought the nomination of the Independence Party ran against the Governor in the Conservative primary, spending over $20 million during the primaries. Pataki secured the Republican and Conservative lines, while Golisano defended his hold on the Independence Party ticket. Comptroller Carl McCall defeated Andrew Cuomo at the Democratic State Convention, Cuomo withdrew from the race less than a week before the Democratic primary.

Since Liberal Party supporters could no longer support the Democratic candidate on their own party's line, Cuomo's defeat helped to destroy the Liberal Party. On Election Day, Pataki was re-elected, but fell short of receiving 50% of the vote. McCall received 33 % of the vote, nearly carrying Albany County. Golisano received 14 % of the vote. Governorship of George Pataki Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism coverage of election Gotham Gazette coverage of election Marist Poll coverage of election

Potosi Mountain (Nevada)

Potosi Mountain is a mountain about 30 miles southwest of Las Vegas in the Spring Mountains, in Clark County of southern Nevada. Potosi Mountain was the site of the TWA Flight 3 air crash that killed 22 passengers, most notably the actress Carole Lombard, on January 16, 1942; the Geographic Names Information System lists two variant names for the location: Double Up Mountain and Olcott Peak. Carobeth Laird described the giant cave of Potosi Mountain as a place used for vision quests by the great Chemehuevi shaman of the mid-19th century, O-omposi, for whom the mountain is named; the name, "Potosi," from the Quechua language, is the name of the mountain in the Bolivian Andes, the location of a world-famous silver mine. Early settlers in southern Nevada hoped that Mount Potosi in Nevada would yield as much silver as Mount Potosi in Bolivia. Potosi Mountain serves as a major FM broadcast transmitter site for Las Vegas, with 7 full power FM stations transmitting from the top of Potosi, along with 1 FM Translator.

The stations are KNPR 88.9, KCNV 89.7, KOMP 92.3, KYMT 93.1, KXPT 97.1 all licensed to Las Vegas, KFRH 104.3 licensed to North Las Vegas, KXTE 107.5, licensed to Pahrump, Nevada. A translator, K276BL operates from up here on 103.1, simulcasting KSOS 90.5 from Las Vegas. KXTE was the first tenant to broadcast from the top of the mountain and the first station in the United States to transmit in HD Digital. There is an amateur television repeater, with the call sign N7ZEV, located here. Along with FM transmitters, NOAA All Hazards Radio station WNG634 on 162.400 MHz, managed by the NWS Office in Las Vegas, NV, is located here as well. Potosi Mining District 9. Laird, Carobeth, "The Chemehuevis," Malki Museum Press, 1976. 10. Urioste, George, PhD, professor emeritus, Andean Anthropology, UNLV, Dec. 2019 "Potosi Mountain". SummitPost.org

The Caddy (Seinfeld)

"The Caddy" is the 122nd episode of NBC sitcom Seinfeld. This was the 12th episode for the seventh season, it aired on January 25, 1996. In this episode, George takes an unapproved vacation, leading to him being presumed dead, while Kramer and Jackie Chiles launch a lawsuit against Elaine's archenemy Sue Ellen Mischke because she was wearing a bra without a top in public. Kramer's caddie, helps him improve his golf game and offers other life advice. George locks his keys in his car at work and postpones moving it until he can get locksmith services free through a club membership, causing Mr. Wilhelm and George Steinbrenner to think he's working long hours and consider promoting him to assistant to the general manager. Despite this, George goes on an unapproved vacation, telling Jerry to remove any fliers attached to his windshield so Wilhelm and Steinbrenner will still think he's working. Elaine encounters Sue Ellen Mischke, a high school friend-turned-nemesis and heiress to the Oh Henry! candy bar fortune.

Disgusted that Sue Ellen never wears a bra despite her large breasts, Elaine gives her a bra as a birthday gift. Sue Ellen starts wearing it alone beneath an open blazer, she drops by Elaine's office to thank her. Peterman is inspired to create a bra as a top, assigning Elaine to write the ad copy. Finding George's car covered by bird droppings, Jerry has Kramer break into the car so they can take it to a car wash. On the drive back, they are distracted by crash. Finding the car in this state, with blood from the accident, Mr. Wilhelm thinks something happened to George; when they cannot find him, Steinbrenner declares him dead. He tells the news to George's parents. Jerry gets a phone message from the Costanzas about George's death, tells George what happened. George returns to work, with a story of being trapped in a ditch, his story is accepted, though the position of assistant to the general manager was given to someone else when he was thought dead. Kramer, under Elaine and Stan's advice, takes Sue Ellen to court for damages, with Jackie Chiles representing him.

Jerry is smitten with Sue Ellen, but testifies that she was wearing a bra with nothing over it at the time of the accident. Stan tells Kramer to get Sue Ellen to try on the bra. Kramer insists on following Stan's advice over Jackie's objections; the judge orders her to try it on, but the bra doesn't fit as she is wearing a leotard, costing Kramer the trial. Elaine's writeup makes the bra-as-a-top a hit among her female coworkers, to Elaine's revulsion; the character Tom Cosley was named after a high school boyfriend of Elaine actress Julia Louis-Dreyfus. Phil Morris was surprised that his character Jackie Chiles was being used in another episode commenting, "I mean, how can they bring an attorney into this mix?" Like the season six episode "The Big Salad", the Chiles plot thread satires the O. J. Simpson murder case, in particular the prosecution asking Simpson to try on the gloves used in the murder and the defense's argument that Simpson was not physically fit enough to have committed the murder.

Jerry Seinfeld said that Frank Costanza's phone message is one of his favorite lines in the entire series. "The Caddy" on IMDb "The Caddy" at TV.com

Institut national de physique nucléaire et de physique des particules

The French National Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics is the coordinating body for nuclear and particle physics in France. It was established in 1971 as a division of the French National Centre for Scientific Research, its purpose is "to promote and unite research activities in the various fields of physics". The Hubert Curien Multi-disciplinary Institute The Annecy Particle Physics Laboratory at the University of Savoy The Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lyon at Claude Bernard University Lyon 1 The IN2P3 Computing Centre The Advanced Materials Laboratory The Modane Underground Laboratory The Laboratory of Subatomic Physics and Cosmology at the Université Grenoble Alpes The Centre for Particle Physics of Marseille at Aix-Marseille University at the University of Montpellier The Clermont Physics Laboratory at the University of Clermont Auvergne Centre of Nuclear Studies of Bordeaux-Gradignan at the University of Bordeaux The Laboratory of Subatomic Physics and Associated Technologies at the University of Nantes The National Large Heavy Ion Accelerator The Caen Particle Physics Laboratory at ENSICAEN, associated with Normandy University and University of Caen Normandy.

The Astroparticle and Cosmology Laboratory at Paris Diderot University The Laboratory of Nuclear and High-Energy Physics at Pierre and Marie Curie University and Paris Diderot University The Institute of Nuclear Physics of Orsay at the University of Paris-Sud The Linear Accelerator Laboratory at the University of Paris-Sud The Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet Laboratory at École Polytechnique Official website

Luther Brooks House

The Luther Brooks House is a historic house located at 34 Kirkland Street in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The 2-1/2 story wood frame house was built in 1840 by Oliver Hastings, it retained a traditional entry centered on the long side of the house, while it was oriented with its gable to the street in the Greek Revival style. A two-story ell at the rear of the house is original, the house was further extended with a single story addition on its east side; the house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on September 12, 1986. Joseph Lovering House, 38 Kirkland Street a Hastings design Church of the New Jerusalem adjacent National Register of Historic Places listings in Cambridge, Massachusetts