Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar was a Castilian knight and warlord in medieval Spain. The Moors called him El Cid, which meant the Lord, the Christians, El Campeador, which means "The Champion" in modern Spanish, but is translated as "The Battlefielder" or "Battlefield Master" in Old Castilian, he was born in a village near the city of Burgos. Díaz de Vivar became well known for his service in the armies of both Christian and Muslim rulers, his exile, his temporary conquest of Valencia, which became independent for a brief period in the Reconquista. After his death, El Cid became Spain's celebrated national hero and the protagonist of the most significant medieval Spanish epic poem, El Cantar de Mio Cid. To this day, El Cid remains a Spanish popular folk-hero and national icon, with his life and deeds remembered in plays, folktales and video games. Born a member of the minor nobility, El Cid was brought up at the court of King Ferdinand the Great and served Ferdinand's son, Sancho II of León and Castile.
He rose to become the commander and royal standard-bearer of Castile upon Sancho's ascension in 1065. Rodrigo went on to lead the Castilian military campaigns against Sancho's brothers, Alfonso VI of León and García II of Galicia, as well as in the Muslim kingdoms in Al-Andalus, he became renowned for his military prowess in these campaigns, which helped expand the territory of the Crown of Castile at the expense of the Muslims and Sancho's brothers' kingdoms. When conspirators murdered Sancho in 1072, Rodrigo found himself in a difficult situation. Since Sancho was childless, the throne passed to his brother Alfonso, the same whom El Cid had helped remove from power. Although Rodrigo continued to serve the sovereign, he lost his ranking in the new court which treated him suspiciously and kept him at arm's length. In 1081, he was ordered into exile. El Cid found work fighting for the Muslim rulers of Zaragoza, whom he defended from its traditional enemy, Aragon. While in exile, he regained his reputation as formidable military leader.
He turned out victorious in battle against the Muslim rulers of Lérida and their Christian allies, as well as against a large Christian army under King Sancho Ramírez of Aragon. In 1086, an expeditionary army of North African Almoravids inflicted a severe defeat to Castile, compelling Alfonso to overcome the resentments he harboured against El Cid; the terms for the return to Christian service must have been attractive enough since Rodrigo soon found himself fighting for his former Lord. Over the next several years, however, El Cid set his sights on the kingdom-city of Valencia, operating more or less independently of Alfonso while politically supporting the Banu Hud and other Muslim dynasties opposed to the Almoravids, he increased his control over Valencia. When the Almoravids instigated an uprising that resulted in the death of al-Qadir, El Cid responded by laying siege to the city. Valencia fell in 1094, El Cid established an independent principality on the Mediterranean coast of Spain, he ruled over a pluralistic society with the popular support of Muslims alike.
El Cid's final years were spent fighting the Almoravid Berbers. He inflicted upon them their first major defeat in 1094, on the plains of Caurte, outside Valencia, continued resisting them until his death. Although Rodrigo remained undefeated in Valencia, his only son, heir, Diego Rodríguez died fighting against the Almoravids in the service of Alfonso in 1097. After El Cid's death in 1099, his wife, Jimena Díaz, succeeded him as ruler of Valencia, but she was forced to surrender the principality to the Almoravids in 1102; the name El Cid is a modern Spanish denomination composed of the article el meaning "the" and Cid, which derives from the Old Castilian loan word Çid borrowed from the dialectal Arabic word سيد sîdi or sayyid, which means "Lord" or "Master". The Mozarabs or the Arabs that served in his ranks may have addressed him in this way, which the Christians may have transliterated and adopted. Historians, have not yet found contemporary records referring to Rodrigo as Cid. Arab sources use instead Ludriq al-Kanbiyatur or al-Qanbiyatur.
The cognomen Campeador derives from Latin campi doctor, which means "battlefield master". He gained it during the campaigns of King Sancho II of Castile against his brothers King Alfonso VI of León and King García II of Galicia. While his contemporaries left no historical sources that would have addressed him as Cid, they left plenty of Christian and Arab records, some signed documents with his autograph, addressing him as Campeador, which prove that he used the Christian cognomen himself; the whole combination Cid Campeador is first documented ca. 1195 in the Navarro-Aragonese Linage de Rodric Díaz included in the Liber Regum under the formula mio Cid el Campeador. El Cid was born Rodrigo Díaz circa AD 1043 in Vivar known as Castillona de Bivar, a small town about six miles north of Burgos, the capital of Castile, his father, Diego Laínez, was a courtier and cavalryman who had fought in several battles. Despite the fact that El Cid's mother's family was aristocratic, in years the peasants would consider him one of their own.
However, his relatives were not major court officials. As a young man in 1057, Rodri
Mount Rae is a mountain located on the east side of Highway 40 between Elbow Pass and the Ptarmigan Cirque in the Canadian Rockies of Alberta. Mount Rae was named after John Rae, explorer of Northern Canada, in 1859. Due to its high summit and modest elevation gain from Highwood Pass, Mount Rae is a popular scrambling objective; the scramble starts at the Highwood Pass parking lot on Highway 40 and proceeds to the back of the Ptarmigan Cirque. Two options from this point are either ascending a steep snow field or climbing progressively steeper slabs to the col. Once on the col, the route ascends on the northern side to the narrow summit ridge. In snowy conditions, sticking close to the summit ridge and passing an upcoming massive gendarme is the standard route. In dry conditions, the gendarme can be bypassed on slopes beneath it. Peakware. Mount Rae Scrambling.ca. Mount Rae
"I Want a New Drug" is a song by American rock band Huey Lewis and the News from their third album Sports. It was released as the second single from the album, following the top-ten hit "Heart and Soul" in January 1984; the single reached number six on the U. S. Billboard topped the Dance Club Play chart; the song, a love song wherein the word "drug" is purposely left as an open-ended meaning to the listener, became one of the band's signature songs. According to Lewis, he wrote the song in only a few minutes. "I was on the way to my attorney's house, I thought of it in the car. I walked in. I said,'Bob, give me a piece of paper, I've got to write this down'." According to Lewis, the song is a love song, the meaning of the word "drug" in the song was purposely open ended. "It's a love song. It's not a pro-drug song; the word drug sort of gets your attention. But I think in love relationships there's more than'I want you' or'I need you' kind of thing." Lewis believed the definition of love was open to interpretation depending on the listener.
"I think real love contains humor and anger and confusion, all of those things."Three versions of the song were released. The album version had two extensive guitar solos both in the middle of the song and as a fade out, the single edit eliminated the first solo and brought the song to a cold-sustained end before the second; the single version is used in the music video and was the one spoofed by "Weird Al" Yankovic as "I Want a New Duck". In addition, there exists a special dance mix which strips down the instrumental, giving the song a more "electronic" feel; this version extends the song to 32 seconds. Lewis was influenced by "Purple Haze" by The Jimi Hendrix Experience with the recording of the song and called the guitar riff at the end of the song a "tip of the hat" to Hendrix; the video echoes the song's origin, with Lewis waking up late, remembering he has a concert that night, racing across San Francisco using his yellow convertible, The San Francisco ferry, a chartered helicopter to get to the concert on time, sighting a girl twice on his way, finding her in the front row at the concert.
The video features Lewis's most famous outfit, a red sport jacket and pants with a plain black T-shirt and matching sunglasses. The woman in the video is played by actress Signy Coleman, whose mom was friends with Lewis's mom. Coleman appears in the music video for "Heart and Soul". According to Lewis, one of the reasons the band agreed on doing the music video was to avoid a literal translation of the song and its lyrics. "The song is not about drugs. It's a love song; the only way to avoid, to sort of do'a day in the life', what is." When the theme song of the 1984 film Ghostbusters was released, Huey Lewis sued Ray Parker Jr. and Columbia Pictures for copyright infringement, claiming that Parker had stolen the melody from "I Want a New Drug". Lewis had been approached to compose the main theme song for the film, but had to decline because of his work on the soundtrack for Back to the Future; the three parties settled out of court. Details of the settlement were confidential until 2001, when Lewis commented on the payment in an episode of VH1's Behind the Music.
Parker subsequently sued Lewis for breaching confidentiality. 7" Chrysalis / CHS 2776 United Kingdom"I Want a New Drug" – 3:29 unlabelled 7" mix "Finally Found a Home" – 3:4812" Chrysalis / CHS 12 2776 United Kingdom"I Want a New Drug" – 5:32 "I Want a New Drug" – 3:29 "Heart and Soul" – 3:55 " Giving It All Up for Love" – 3:1112" Chrysalis / CS 42779 Canada"I Want a New Drug" – 5:32 "I Want a New Drug" – 4:307" Chrysalis / CHS 42766 Canada"I Want a New Drug" - 3:29 "Finally Found a Home" - 3:4212" Chrysalis / 601 194 Germany"I Want a New Drug" – 5:32 "Heart and Soul" – 6:42 "Tell Me a Little Lie" – 4:0812" Chrysalis / 601 343 Germany"I Want a New Drug" – 5:32 "I Want a New Drug" – 3:29 " Giving It All Up for Love" – 3:11 "Honky Tonk Blues" – 3:16 List of number-one dance singles of 1984 "I Want a New Drug" video on YouTube Full lyrics of this song