Los Angeles Railway
The Los Angeles Railway was a system of streetcars that operated in Central Los Angeles and surrounding neighborhoods between 1901 and 1963. It operated on 3 ft 6 in narrow gauge tracks; the company carried many more passengers than the Pacific Electric Railway's Red Cars, which served a larger area of Los Angeles. The system shared dual gauge track with the 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge Pacific Electric, "Red Car," system on Main Street in downtown Los Angeles, on 4th Street, along Hawthorne Boulevard south of Downtown Los Angeles toward the cities of Hawthorne and Torrance; the system was purchased by railroad and real estate tycoon Henry E. Huntington in 1898 and started operation in 1901. At its height, the system contained over 20 streetcar lines and 1,250 trolleys, most running through the core of Los Angeles and serving such neighborhoods as Crenshaw, West Adams, Leimert Park, Exposition Park, Echo Park, Hancock Park, Boyle Heights and Lincoln Heights; the system was sold in 1944 by Huntington's estate to American City Lines, Inc. of Chicago, a subsidiary of National City Lines, a holding company, purchasing transit systems across the country.
The sale was announced December 5, 1944. National City Lines, along with its investors that included Firestone Tire, Standard Oil of California and General Motors, were convicted of conspiring to monopolize the sale of buses and related products to local transit companies controlled by National City Lines and other companies in what became known as the General Motors streetcar conspiracy. National City Lines purchased Key System, which operated streetcars systems in Northern California, the following year; the company was renamed as Los Angeles Transit Lines. The new company introduced 40 new ACF-Brill trolley buses, intended for the Key System streetcar system in Oakland, being converted by National City Lines to buses in late 1948. Many lines were converted to buses in early 1950s; the last remaining lines were taken over by the Los Angeles Metropolitan Transit Authority along with the remains of the Pacific Electric Railway in 1958. The agency removed the remaining five streetcar lines and two trolley bus lines, replacing electric service with diesel buses on March 31, 1963.
2 Line – Rampart area of Echo Park to Montecito Heights. 3 Line – Skid Row to Hollywood. 5 Line – Hawthorne to Eagle Rock. 7 Line – South Los Angeles to Los Angeles Plaza Historic District. 8 Line – Leimert Park to Los Angeles Plaza Historic District. 9 Line – Leimert Park to the Wholesale District, by way of 48th Street, Hoover Street, Grand Avenue, Pico Boulevard, 2nd Street. 10 Line – Leimert Park to Lincoln Heights. A Line – Mid City to Echo Park. B Line – Nevin to City Terrace. D Line – Westlake to Skid Row. F Line – Athens to Boyle Heights. G Line – Nevin to South Park. H Line – South Los Angeles to East Hollywood. I Line - J Line – Jefferson Park to Huntington Park. K Line - Nevin to South Park. L Line – East Hollywood to Mid-City. N Line – Koreatown to South Park. O Line – South Los Angeles to Lincoln Heights. P Line – Mid-City to City Terrace. R Line – Hancock Park to East Los Angeles. S Line – Watts to East Hollywood. U Line – Nevin to West Adams. V Line – Nevin to E
The Avila Adobe, built in 1818 by Francisco Avila, is the oldest standing residence in Los Angeles, California. However, the oldest building in the county is the 1795 Gage Mansion in Bell Gardens considered the oldest structure in Los Angeles County. Avila Adobe is located in the paseo of historical Olvera Street, a part of Los Angeles Plaza Historic District, a California State Historic Park; the building itself is registered as California Historical Landmark #145, while the entire historic district is both listed on the National Register of Historic Places and as a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument. The Plaza is the third location of the original Spanish settlement El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de Los Ángeles sobre el Río Porciúncula, the first two having been washed out by flooding from the swollen Río Porciúncula; the Avila Adobe was one of the settlement's first houses to share street frontage in the Pueblo de Los Angeles of Spanish colonial Alta California. The walls of the Avila Adobe are built from sun-baked adobe bricks.
The original ceilings were 15 feet high and supported by beams of cottonwood, available along the banks of the Los Angeles River. Though the roof appears slanted today, the original roof was flat. Tar was brought up from the La Brea Tar Pits, located near the north boundary line of Avila's Rancho Las Cienegas; the tar was mixed with rocks and horsehair, a common binder in exterior building material, applied to beams of the roof as a sealant from inclement weather. The original floor of the Avila adobe was hard-as-concrete compacted earth. Which was swept several times a day to keep the surface free from loose soil. In years, varnished wood planks were used as flooring; the original structure was nearly twice as long as it now appears and was "L"-shaped with a wing that extended nearly to the center of Olvera Street. The rear of the house had a long porch facing the patio. Francisco tended a vineyard in the rear courtyard; the nearby Zanja Madre was a main water aqueduct and irrigation ditch that brought water down to the Pueblo from the Los Angeles River and was close enough to the adobe for Francisco Avila to avail himself.
Avila added a wooden veranda and steps to the front of the adobe. Avila Adobe was built in the year 1818 in Alta California. Throughout the years, the Avila home today has kept the styles as to when it was built after undergoing wars and restoration; the town in which the home was built in was called El Pueblo de la Reina de Los Angeles, now known as the city of Los Angeles. Before the construction of the Avila home, the land was colonized by Spanish people from Sinaloa, Mexico. In the early 1800s, the town was home to ranchero families. Francisco Avila was a wealthy cattle rancher, a native of Sinaloa. Francisco grazed cattle which led him to begin a ranching business that grew his wealth significantly. Francisco and his family lived in the Avila Adobe home until the year 1868 when it was overtaken by the U. S. Navy Commodore, Robert Stockton. Over the time, the home was rented to different people and in the next century, the Avila home took many other forms of use; the home was used as a hotel, housing and was a temporary home for the U.
S. troops. There was a period in time where the Avila Adobe was spent vacant and unattended during the first century. During the years of the late 1920s, the home was unwatched; the city attempted to demolish the home. The home was saved by a person of the name Christine Sterling, who saw the home as a historical sight. Sterling did not want the authenticity of the home to be destroyed since it was one of the first homes built in Los Angeles. Sterling was able to stop the city from demolishing the home and transformed it into a museum for others to learn about the history of the home. Sterling named the street in which the Avila home was built as Olvera Street after Agustin Olvera and influenced the creation of the Mexican marketplace called “Placita Olvera”. Today, the home is visited by many tourist and locals; the Olvera Street continues to provide a Mexican cultural environment, influenced by the history of the Avila Adobe home. Francisco Avila, a Californio and wealthy cattle rancher, was the grantee of Rancho Las Cienegas west of the pueblo.
Avila spent his working time at the rancho. On weekends, special feast days, or holidays, he came to the Pueblo where he could conduct trade business, entertain friends, families, or patrons; the Avila Adobe was considered gracious in its day. It had a number of spacious rooms with an ample number of windows, it served many a social gathering with the Avilas hosting these events in the large sala. Francisco Avila would trade hides and tallow to acquire finer imported things from Mexico and beyond to furnish the house. French doors and window frames were ordered from Boston; these imports were brought to post-independence Mexican Alta California by ship over thousands of miles around the southern Cape Horn of South America. Avila wealth and goods to trade allowed the purchase of fine furnishings and goods from Mexico and New England, Asia and Europe. Avila would trade for household goods, from on merchant ships anchored in San Pedro Bay or San Diego pueblo's Mission Bay, which were carted inland by an ox-drawn carreta, a wooden bull
The Italianate style of architecture was a distinct 19th-century phase in the history of Classical architecture. In the Italianate style, the models and architectural vocabulary of 16th-century Italian Renaissance architecture, which had served as inspiration for both Palladianism and Neoclassicism, were synthesised with picturesque aesthetics; the style of architecture, thus created, though characterised as "Neo-Renaissance", was of its own time. "The backward look transforms its object," Siegfried Giedion wrote of historicist architectural styles. The Italianate style was first developed in Britain in about 1802 by John Nash, with the construction of Cronkhill in Shropshire; this small country house is accepted to be the first Italianate villa in England, from, derived the Italianate architecture of the late Regency and early Victorian eras. The Italianate style was further developed and popularised by the architect Sir Charles Barry in the 1830s. Barry's Italianate style drew for its motifs on the buildings of the Italian Renaissance, though sometimes at odds with Nash's semi-rustic Italianate villas.
The style was not confined to England and was employed in varying forms, long after its decline in popularity in Britain, throughout Northern Europe and the British Empire. From the late 1840s to 1890 it achieved huge popularity in the United States, where it was promoted by the architect Alexander Jackson Davis. Key visual components of this style include: In interior decoration there were direct parallels to "Italianate" architecture with free re-combinations of decorative features drawn from Italian 16th-century architecture and objects, which were applied to purely 19th century forms. Wardrobes and dressers could be dressed in Italianate detailing as well as row houses; the spur to such commercial designs can be found in the "free Renaissance" style, espoused by Charles Eastlake. In 1868 he published Hints on Household Taste in Furniture and other Details, influential in Britain and in the United States, where the book was published in 1872. Although the archaeology of Mr. Eastlake's volume was always careful, most of the principles in it are beyond question, can be stated in a few words.
The Italianate style would have no carving or molding or other ornament glued on—such work must be done in the solid. The furniture that he thus proposed has straight, squarely cut members equal to their intention, its ornament is painted panels, porcelain plaques and tiles, metal trimmings, conventionalized carvings in sunk relief, a part of the construction entering into the ornament in the shape of narrow striated strips of wood radiating in opposite lines, after a fashion not altogether unknown in the time of Henry III. It has the solidity, but not the attraction, of the Medieval. Today "Italianate" furnishings are called "Eastlake" by American collectors and dealers, but contemporary terms ranged imaginatively, included "Neo-Grec". A late intimation of Nash's development of the Italianate style was his 1805 design of Sandridge Park at Stoke Gabriel in Devon. Commissioned by the dowager Lady Ashburton as a country retreat, this small country house shows the transition between the picturesque of William Gilpin and Nash's yet to be evolved Italianism.
While this house can still be described as Regency, its informal asymmetrical plan together with its loggias and balconies of both stone and wrought iron. Examples of the Italianate style in England tend to take the form of Palladian-style building enhanced by a belvedere tower complete with Renaissance-type balustrading at the roof level; this is a more stylistic interpretation of what architects and patrons imagined to be the case in Italy, utilises more the Italian Renaissance motifs than those earlier examples of the Italianate style by Nash. Sir Charles Barry, most notable for his works on the Tudor and Gothic styles at the Houses of Parliament in London, was a great promoter of the style. Unlike Nash he found his inspiration in Italy itself. Barry drew on the designs of the original Renaissance villas of Rome, the Lazio and the Veneto or as he put it: "...the charming character of the irregular villas of Italy." His most defining work in this style was the large Neo-Renaissance mansion Cliveden.
Although it has been claimed that one third of early Victorian country houses in England used classical styles Italianate, by 1855 the style was falling from favour and Cliveden came to be regarded as "a declining essay in a declining fashion."Anthony Salvin designed in the Italianate style in Wales, at Hafod House and Penoyre House, described by Mark Girouard as "Salvin's most ambitious classical house."Thomas Cubitt, a London building contractor, incorporated simple classical lines of the Italianate style as defined by Sir Char
Felipe de Neve
Felipe de Neve was the fourth governor of Las Californias, a province of New Spain,from 1775 to 1782. Neve is considered a founder of Los Angeles and helped to settle towns of Santa Barbara and San José whose surrounding communities became California cities. In 1781, Neve issued the first rules regarding governance of secular pueblos like Los Angeles, the "Regulations for the Government of the Province of the Californias" Felipe de Neve was appointed governor of the Californias in 1775. For two years he was based at Loreto, Baja California moved to Monterey, California. Las CaliforniasIt was during Neve's administration that Lieutenant José Joaquín Moraga is credited with building the Presidio of San Francisco, after the site was selected by Juan Bautista de Anza in 1776. Moraga is known as the founder of El Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe, the present day city of San Jose, California. On 29 November 1777, Moraga founded San José on orders from Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa, the Spanish Viceroy of New Spain.
It was the first Spanish colonial pueblo in the northern region of Las Californias Province, which became its own Alta California Province in 1804. The city served as a farming community to support the Presidio of San Francisco and the Presidio of Monterey. In 1781 in Neve's tenure, he founded the Pueblo de Los Ángeles. Neve had applied to Viceroy Bucareli for permission to establish a settlement near the Los Angeles River, where Father Juan Crespí had met local Tongva Indians. With the viceroy's approval, Neve was granted authority from The Crown, Charles III of Spain, to found and establish the second pueblo in upper Las Californias, El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles del Río de Porciúncula, the present day city of Los Angeles, California. During Neve's tenure as governor, he quarreled with the missionaries' leader, padre Junípero Serra, over the secularization of the Missions and the redistribution of land to the Mission Indian neophytes and soldiers. During his tenure four missions were founded: Mission San Francisco de Asís called Mission Dolores, Mission San Juan Capistrano, Mission Santa Clara de Asís and Mission San Buenaventura.
Neve's success as provincial governor won him promotion in 1783 to succeed Teodoro de Croix as Comandante General of the Provincias Internas, a position that had authority over all the northern provinces. He held that position until his death in 1784. A 7½ foot cast bronze statue of Felipe De Neve by Henry Lion was installed in 1932 at Plaza Park in the El Pueblo district of Los Angeles, California, by the City of Los Angeles; the statue is mounted on a 4-foot boulder and includes a bronze plaque with the following inscription: "FELIPE DE NEVE. SPANISH GOVERNOR OF THE CALIFORNIAS 1775-82. IN 1781, ON ORDERS OF KING CARLOS III OF SPAIN, FELIPE DE NEVE SELECTED A SITE NEAR THE RIVER PORCIUNCULA AND LAID OUT THE TOWN OF EL PUEBLO DE LA REINA DE LOS ANGELES, ONE OF TWO SPANISH PUEBLOS HE FOUNDED IN ALTA CALIFORNIA." History of Los Angeles Clyde Arbuckle. Clyde Arbuckle's History of San Jose. Smith McKay Printing. ISBN 978-9996625220; the Town of Our Lady Reina of the Angels on the Porciúncula river.
Edwin A. Beilharz. Felipe de Neve, first Governor of California. San Francisco: California Historical Society. Public Art in Public Places | "Felipe de Neve" by Henry Lion USC Libraries: Felipe de Neve California History - Felipe de Neve
Saint Junípero Serra y Ferrer, O. F. M. was a Roman Catholic Spanish priest and friar of the Franciscan Order who founded a mission in Baja California and the first nine of 21 Spanish missions in California from San Diego to San Francisco, in what was Alta California in the Province of Las Californias, New Spain. Serra was beatified by Pope John Paul II on September 1988, in the Vatican City. Pope Francis canonised him on September 23, 2015, at the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception in Washington, D. C. during his first visit to the United States. His missionary efforts earned him the title of Apostle of California. Serra was born in the village of Petra on the island of Majorca off the Mediterranean coast of Spain. A few hours after birth, he was baptized in the village church, his baptismal name was Miquel Josep Serra. His father Antonio Nadal Serra and mother Margarita Rosa Ferrer were married in 1707. By age seven, Miquel was working the fields with his parents, helping cultivate wheat and beans, tending the cattle.
But he showed a special interest in visiting the local Franciscan friary at the church of San Bernardino within a block of the Serra family house. Attending the friars' primary school at the church, Miquel learned reading, mathematics, Latin and liturgical song Gregorian chant. Gifted with a good voice, he eagerly took to vocal music; the friars sometimes let him sing at special church feasts. Miquel and his father Antonio visited the friary for friendly chats with the Franciscans. At age 16, Miquel's parents enrolled him in a Franciscan school in the capital city, Palma de Majorca, where he studied philosophy. A year he became a novice in the Franciscan order. On September 14, 1730, some two months before his 17th birthday, Serra entered the Franciscan Order at Palma the Alcantarine branch of the Friars Minor, a reform movement in the Order; the slight and frail Serra now embarked on his novitiate period, a rigorous year of preparation to become a full member of the Franciscan Order. He was given the religious name of Junípero in honor of Brother Juniper, among the first Franciscans and a companion of Saint Francis.
The young Junípero, along with his fellow novices, vowed to scorn property and comfort, to remain celibate. He still had seven years to go to become an ordained Catholic priest, he immersed himself in rigorous studies of logic, metaphysics and theology. The daily routine at the friary followed a rigid schedule: prayers, choir singing, physical chores, spiritual readings, instruction; the friars would wake up every midnight for another round of chants. Serra's superiors discouraged visitors. In his free time, he avidly read stories about Franciscan friars roaming the provinces of Spain and around the world to win new souls for the church suffering martyrdom in the process, he followed the news of famous missionaries winning sainthood. In 1737, Serra became a priest, three years earned an ecclesiastical license to teach philosophy at the Convento de San Francisco, his philosophy course, including over 60 students, lasted three years. Among his students were fellow future missionaries Francisco Palóu and Juan Crespí.
When the course ended in 1743, Serra told his students: "I desire nothing more from you than this, that when the news of my death shall have reached your ears, I ask you to say for the benefit of my soul:'May he rest in peace.' Nor shall I omit to do the same for you so that all of us will attain the goal for which we have been created."Serra was considered intellectually brilliant by his peers. He received a doctorate in theology from the Lullian College in Palma de Majorca, where he occupied the Duns Scotus chair of philosophy until he joined the missionary College of San Fernando de Mexico in 1749. During Serra's last five years on the island of Majorca and plague afflicted his home village of Petra. Serra sometimes went home from Palma for brief visits to his parents—now separated—and gave them some financial support. On one occasion he was called home to anoint his ill father with the last rites. In one of his final visits to Petra, Serra found his younger sister Juana María near death.
In 1748, Serra and Palóu confided to each other their desire to become missionaries. Serra, now 35, was assured a prestigious career as scholar if he stayed in Majorca. Applying to the colonial bureaucracy in Madrid, Serra requested that both he and Palóu embark on a foreign mission. After weathering some administrative obstacles, they received permission and set sail for Cádiz, the port of departure for Spain's colonies in the Americas. While waiting to set sail, Serra wrote a long letter to a colleague back in Majorca, urging him to console Serra's parents—now in their 70's—over their only son's pending departure. "They will learn to see how sweet is His yoke," Serra wrote, "and that He will change for them the sorrow they may now experience into great happiness. Now is not the time to muse or fret over the happenings of life but rather to be conformed to the will of God, striving to prepare themselves for that happy death which of all the things of life is our principal concern." Serra asked his colleague to read this letter to his parents.
In 1749, Serra and the Franciscan missionary team landed in Veracruz, on the Gulf coast of New Spain
The Plaza Substation was an electrical substation that formed a part of the "Yellow Car" streetcar system operated by the Los Angeles Railway from the early 1900s until 1963. After being threatened with demolition in the 1970s, the Plaza Substation was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. In May 1903, Henry Huntington, owner of the Los Angeles Railway, announced plans to build a new substation near the old plaza; the Los Angeles Times reported: "Another mammoth electricity substation is to be constructed by the Los Angeles Railway Company. Its location will be on the Plaza, its completion will mean a long step forward toward the perfection of a system, surpassed by few in this country." By 1905, the substation was operating, the Times ran an article detailing the relationship between the railway's four substations and its central power station at Sixth Street and Central Avenue. The Times described the role of the Plaza Substation this way:"From this place of manufacture, so to speak, the current is distributed to four other substations scattered over the city, known as the Plaza, University and South Park substations.
In these there are boilers, or steam engines. The central station, besides generating the electricity performs the work of a substation, it sends out about 40 per cent of the power used for the operation of the street cars on the Los Angeles Railway Company's system. The Plaza station, distributes the next 40 per cent used, while the three others combined account for the remaining 20 per cent." When the Yellow Cars stopped running in 1963, the building located along the city's old Mexican marketplace, Olvera Street, was converted to other uses. However, critics of the structure argued it was out of keeping with the pre-1900 flavor of Olvera Street and sought to remove it. In 1971, the Pueblo park's historian, Dr. Doyce Nunis, issued a report stating that the substation had "no identifiable historic value". Dr. Nunis wrote: "There was no identifiable distinguished architect involved the design was commonplace." After receiving the historian's report, the city's Recreation and Parks Commission voted 4-1 to demolish the building and replace it with a Mexican market and storage facility.
At that point, Los Angeles Times architecture writer John Pastier published an article titled: "How Do You Make a Historical Monument? Tear Down a Historic Building?" Pastier noted that the Plaza Substation was the largest and most distinctive of the three surviving Yellow Car substations and urged the city to adapt the utilitarian structure into a tasteful tourist attraction as San Francisco had done with Ghirardelli Square and the Cannery. The State Park Department's director stepped in opposing what he called the city's plan to turn the historic park into an amusement park; however the writers at the times were divided over preservation of the substation, as another columnist sided with the city and wrote:"Saving the MTA Powerhouse in the Plaza is another debatable project. Is it worth a continuing place along Olvera Street because it was a substation for our early transit system? Because it survives as a sturdy example of good contractor's performance? Because it sits near so much important history?
I think the substation is an excellent example of the way conserving can become a disease." A group called Californians for Preservation Action filed a lawsuit seeking to prevent the building's demolition, a state court judge issued a restraining order halting the demolition. The Plaza Substation was saved, funds set aside for its rehabilitation, as part of a settlement agreement reached in 1978; the substation is one of the two buildings in the Los Angeles Plaza Historic District, itself separately listed in the National Register of Historic Places, having been so listed in September 1978. Los Angeles Plaza Historic District List of Registered Historic Places in Los Angeles
Pío de Jesús Pico was a Californio rancher and politician, the last governor of Alta California under Mexican rule. He served from 1845 to 1846, he was elected to one term on the Los Angeles Common Council. Pico was a first-generation Californio, born in Alta California to parents who emigrated from the part of New Spain, now Mexico, he was born at the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel to José María Pico and his wife María Eustaquia Gutiérrez, with the aid of midwife Eulalia Pérez de Guillén Mariné. His paternal grandmother, María Jacinta de la Bastida, was listed in the 1790 census as mulata, meaning mixed race with African ancestry, his paternal grandfather, Santiago de la Cruz Pico, was described as a Mestizo in the same census. Santiago de la Cruz Pico was one of the soldiers who accompanied Juan Bautista de Anza on the expedition that left Tubac, Arizona for California in 1775 to explore the region and colonize it. Pio Pico and his siblings were thus of Spanish and Native American ancestry. After the death of his father in 1819, Pico settled in California.
He married María Ignacia Alvarado there on February 24, 1834. His younger brother was General Andrés Pico. John Bidwell, an early California settler, mentioned Pico among the people he knew: Los Angeles I first saw in March 1845, it had 250 people, of whom I recall Don Abel Stearns, John Temple, Captain Alexander Bell, William Wolfskill, Lemuel Carpenter, David W. Alexander. By the 1850s Pico was one of the richest men in Alta California. In 1850 he purchased the 8,894-acre Rancho Paso de Bartolo, which included half of present-day Whittier. Two years he built a home on the ranch and lived there until 1892, it is preserved today as Pio Pico State Historic Park. Pico owned the former Mission San Fernando Rey de España, Rancho Santa Margarita y Las Flores, several other ranchos for a total of over 500,000 acres. In 1868, he constructed the three-story, 33-room hotel, Pico House on the old plaza of Los Angeles, opposite today's Olvera Street. At the time of its opening in 1869, it was the most lavish hotel in Southern California.
Before 1900, however, it, the surrounding neighborhood declined, as the business center moved further south. After decades as a shabby flophouse, the hotel was deeded to the State of California in 1953, it is now a part of El Pueblo de Los Angeles State Historic Monument. It is used on occasion for special events. Pico twice served as Governor of Alta California, taking office the first time from Manuel Victoria in 1832, when Victoria was deposed for refusing to follow through with orders to secularize the mission properties; as governor pro tem and "Vocal" of the Departmental Assembly, Pico began secularization. After 20 days in office, he abdicated in favor of Zamorano and Echeandía, who governed the north and south until José Figueroa reunified the governorship in 1833. Pico ran for office in 1834 as the first alcalde of San Diego after secularization of the mission but was defeated, he challenged Governor Juan Bautista Alvarado on political issues and was imprisoned on several occasions. In 1844 he was chosen as a leader of the California Assembly.
In 1845, he was again appointed governor. Pico made Los Angeles the province's capital. In the year leading up to the Mexican–American War, Governor Pico was outspoken in favor of California's becoming a British Protectorate rather than a U. S. territory. When U. S. troops occupied Los Angeles and San Diego in 1846 during the Mexican–American War, Pico fled to Baja California, Mexico, to argue before the Mexican Congress for sending troops to defend Alta California. Pico did not return to Los Angeles until after the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, he reluctantly accepted the transfer of sovereignty. Automatically granted United States citizenship, he was elected to the Los Angeles Common Council in 1853, but he did not assume office. In 2010, scientists published an article about Pio Pico asserting that he showed signs of acromegaly, a disease not characterized until in the nineteenth century, they say that images of Pico from 1847 through 1858 show a characteristic pattern of progressive acromegaly, a disease caused by excessive and unregulated release of growth hormone from a growth hormone-secreting adenoma of the anterior pituitary gland.
He demonstrates progressive coarsening of his facial features with a large bulbous nose, broad forehead, protuberant lips and forward-jutting jaw. His hands reveal the diagnostic massive enlargement so typical of this illness. With a height of 67 inches in his forties, his acromegaly must have begun after puberty, or he would have manifested gigantism. Images of his younger brother Andrés Pico and elder brother, Jose Antonio Pico, show normal body features, suggesting Governor Pico's condition was a disease and not a benign familial trait. Pio Pico had never been recognized or diagnosed with acromegaly; the apparent pituitary adenoma had at least three additional secondary effects on his medical condition besides causing acromegaly. First, his eyes show progressive misalignment, indicating the tumor grew laterally into the cavernous sinus and compromised the cranial nerves controlling eye muscle power. Second, he has a hairless face. Although just a personal choice, in the presence of a large pituitary tumor, this is more due to testosterone deficiency.
This condition results from the enlarging tumor interfering with the normal function of gonadotropin pituitary