Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California. With an estimated population of nearly four million people, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles lies in a basin in Southern California, adjacent to the Pacific Ocean, with mountains as high as 10,000 feet, deserts; the city, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populous county in the United States. With a population of 13.1 million people, the Los Angeles metropolitan area is the second-largest metropolitan area in the nation after the New York metropolitan area. The Los Angeles combined statistical area known as Greater Los Angeles, includes the metro areas of Los Angeles–Long Beach–Anaheim, Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario, Oxnard–Thousand Oaks–Ventura; this is the second most populous U.
S. combined statistical area with a 2015 estimate of 18.7 million people. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542; the city was founded on September 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, thus became part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The city was further expanded with the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, which delivers water from Eastern California. Los Angeles has a diverse economy and hosts businesses in a broad range of professional and cultural fields, it has the busiest container port in the entire Americas. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index.
The Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.0 trillion, making it the third-largest city by GDP in the world, after the Tokyo and New York City metropolitan areas. Los Angeles will host the 2028 Summer Olympics; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America. Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'.
The present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico. During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output.
By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city; because of clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent cities and communities felt compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles. Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were prohibited. The proscriptions included barns, lumber yards, any industrial land use employing machine-powered equipment; these laws were enforced against industrial properties after-the-fact. These prohibitions were in addition to existing activities that were already
Stephen Michael Tensi is a former professional American football quarterback in the American Football League and the National Football League. He played for the Denver Broncos. Tensi came to Florida State from Elder High School in Cincinnati, where he had been his high school MVP and first-team All City and Cincinnati Post All-Metro, his biggest collegiate success came in 1964, his senior year at FSU. The Seminoles switched to a pro-set offense that year and had one of the highest scoring teams in college football, averaging nearly 24 points a game. Tensi threw for 1,683 yards and 14 TDs in FSU's 10 games, many of which were thrown to first-team All American and future Oakland Raiders great Fred Biletnikoff. Behind the Tensi to Biletnikoff tandem, a defense which had four shutouts, Florida State enjoyed its best record up until that time, going 9-1-1, their victories included a blowout win over #5 ranked University of Kentucky and the Seminoles' first win against the University of Florida. Tensi capped the season with 5 touchdown passes and 303 yards in passing in Florida State's 36-19 Gator Bowl victory over the University of Oklahoma.
He and Biletnikoff were named co-FSU players of the game. In 1981, Tensi was named to Florida State's athletic Hall of Fame. Tensi was drafted by the AFL's San Diego Chargers. Rather than go to the Colts—led by Johnny Unitas—Tensi signed with the Chargers after the Gator Bowl. Seminoles coach Bill Peterson learned his pro set offense from Chargers' coach Sid Gillman, the Seminoles used some of the same terminology in their offense as the Chargers as well. However, Tensi played little in San Diego. Tensi did not throw a single pass in 1965, but threw 5 touchdown passes against only one interception in limited duty in 1966; the Denver Broncos were in the market for a new quarterback for 1967. In 1966, they played a total of five; these five signal callers combined for a ratio of 12 touchdown passes to 30 interceptions, finished last in the American Football League in scoring. On August 15, 1967, shortly before the 1967 season, new coach and general manager Lou Saban traded Denver's #1 draft picks in the 1968 and 1969 common AFL-NFL draft for Tensi.
These proved to be valuable picks for San Diego, becoming the #4 and #9 overall selections respectively. Tensi started 12 of 14 games for the Broncos in 1967, who finished 3-11 and allowed the most points in the AFL. However, their offensive numbers were an improvement over 1966. According to former Broncos executive Jim Saccomano, Tensi's effectiveness and health in Denver was hamstrung by weak pass protection. In 1968, Tensi's football career took a major hit as his collarbone was broken twice—first in a preseason game against the San Francisco 49ers and in a regular season game. Tensi's injuries helped open the door for rookie Marlin Briscoe to play quarterback for the Broncos and become the first African-American quarterback in modern American pro football history. However, Tensi was back as the starting quarterback for 1969, but after winning only 4 of his 13 starts that year, Tensi was replaced as the starter by Pete Liske partway through the 1970 season. His last game was against the Oakland Raiders on November 15, 1970.
After the season, Tensi recalled, "The injury affected my shoulder, I just couldn't throw with strength anymore. I told Lou to find someone else. I was retiring."Comments by football scouts on Tensi late in his career noted his excellent size but gave him mixed reviews in other areas. One scout said, "Tensi has excellent size for a quarterback. He's tall enough to throw over defensive linemen from the pocket, he can set up shorter. He has a strong arm and can throw long and he has good accuracy on short routes, he can beat you with the bomb if his protection holds up, but he is not a good scrambler." Another scout said, "Tensi is just fair. He's a big tall guy who can throw the ball but he doesn't have the peripheral vision which allows you to look and pick things out. Other quarterbacks have better clarity of vision as far as seeing people in the secondary." Tensi worked as receivers coach for the 1974 Chicago Fire of the World Football League. He joined his father-in-law in the construction business in Miami and moved to a small town in North Carolina.
He is married to his college sweetheart Barbara Jean, who he met at freshman orientation at Florida State. List of American Football League players
The Grumman F2F was a single-engine, biplane fighter aircraft with retractable undercarriage, serving as the standard fighter for the United States Navy between 1936 and 1940. It was designed for both carrier- and land-based operations. Grumman's success with the two-seat FF-1, faster than the single-seat fighters of its time, resulted in a contract for the single-seat XF2F-1. Armed with two.30 caliber machine guns above the cowl, the new design incorporated watertight compartments to reduce weight and improve survivability in the event of a water landing. The prototype first flew on 18 October 1933, equipped with the experimental 625 hp XR-1534-44 Twin Wasp Junior radial engine, reached a top speed of 229 mph at 8,400 ft – 22 mph faster than the FF-1 at the same altitude. Maneuverability proved superior to the earlier two-seat aircraft; the Navy ordered 54 F2F-1 fighters on 17 May 1934, with the first aircraft delivered 19 January 1935. One additional aircraft was ordered to replace one which crashed on 16 March 1935, bringing the total to 55, with the final F2F-1 delivered on 2 August 1935.
The F2F-1 had a long service life for the time, serving in front-line squadrons from 1935 to late 1939, when squadrons began to receive the F3F-3 as a replacement. By September 1940, the F2F had been replaced in fighter squadrons and was relegated to training and utility duties; the last F2F-1s were stricken from the list of naval aircraft in early 1943. XF2F-1 United States Navy designation for the Grumman Model G-8 prototype with a 625 hp XR-1534-44 Twin Wasp Junior radial engine, one built. F2F-1 Production variant with 55 built. United StatesUnited States Navy VF-2B VF-3B VF-5B VB-5B VF-2 VF-5 VF-7 NAS Seattle NAS Coco Solo NAS Alameda NAS Pearl Harbor United States Marine Corps VF-4M VMF-2 Data from United States Navy Aircraft since 1911 General characteristics Crew: One Length: 21 ft 5 in Wingspan: 28 ft 6 in Height: 9 ft 1 in Wing area: 230 ft² Empty weight: 2,691 lb Max. Takeoff weight: 3,847 lb Powerplant: 1 × Pratt & Whitney R-1535-72 Twin Wasp Junior radial engine, 700 hp Performance Maximum speed: 231 mph Range: 985 mi Service ceiling: 27,100 ft Rate of climb: 2,050 ft/min Armament Guns: 2×.30-in machine guns Related development Grumman F3F Related lists List of fighter aircraft List of United States naval aircraft Media related to Grumman F2F at Wikimedia Commons