A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land. It is used for major roads, but includes other public roads and public tracks: It is not an equivalent term to controlled-access highway, or a translation for autobahn, etc. According to Merriam Webster, the use of the term predates 12th century. According to Etymonline, "high" is in the sense of "main". In North American and Australian English, major roads such as controlled-access highways or arterial roads are state highways. Other roads may be designated "county highways" in the Ontario; these classifications refer to the level of government. In British English, "highway" is a legal term. Everyday use implies roads, while the legal use covers any route or path with a public right of access, including footpaths etc; the term has led to several related derived terms, including highway system, highway code, highway patrol and highwayman. The term highway exists in distinction to "waterway". Major highways are named and numbered by the governments that develop and maintain them.
Australia's Highway 1 is the longest national highway in the world at over 14,500 km or 9,000 mi and runs the entire way around the continent. China has the world's largest network of highways followed by the United States of America; some highways, like the European routes, span multiple countries. Some major highway routes include ferry services, such as U. S. Route 10. Traditionally highways were used on horses, they accommodated carriages and motor cars, facilitated by advancements in road construction. In the 1920s and 1930s, many nations began investing in progressively more modern highway systems to spur commerce and bolster national defense. Major modern highways that connect cities in populous developed and developing countries incorporate features intended to enhance the road's capacity and safety to various degrees; such features include a reduction in the number of locations for user access, the use of dual carriageways with two or more lanes on each carriageway, grade-separated junctions with other roads and modes of transport.
These features are present on highways built as motorways. The general legal definition deals with right of use not the form of construction. A highway is defined in English common law by a number of similarly-worded definitions such as "a way over which all members of the public have the right to pass and repass without hindrance" accompanied by "at all times". A highway might be open to all forms of lawful land traffic or limited to specific types of traffic or combinations of types of traffic. A highway can share ground with a private right of way for which full use is not available to the general public as will be the case with farm roads which the owner may use for any purpose but for which the general public only has a right of use on foot or horseback; the status of highway on most older roads has been gained by established public use while newer roads are dedicated as highways from the time they are adopted. In England and Wales, a public highway is known as "The Queen's Highway"; the core definition of a highway is modified in various legislation for a number of purposes but only for the specific matters dealt with in each such piece of legislation.
This is in the case of bridges and other structures whose ownership, mode of use or availability would otherwise exclude them from the general definition of a highway, examples in recent years are toll bridges and tunnels which have the definition of highway imposed upon them to allow application of most traffic laws to those using them but without causing all of the general obligations or rights of use otherwise applicable to a highway. Scots law is similar to English law with regard to highways but with differing terminology and legislation. What is defined in England as a highway will in Scotland be what is defined by s.151 Roads Act 1984 as a road, that is:- "any way over which there is a public right of passage and includes the road’s verge, any bridge over which, or tunnel through which, the road passes. In American law, the word "highway" is sometimes used to denote any public way used for travel, whether a "road and parkway". Highways have a route number designated by t
Trestles is a collection of surfing spots at San Onofre State Beach in San Diego County, California. Trestles consists of, from north to south, Upper Trestles, Lower Trestles, Middle Trestles. North of Upper Trestles is the surf spot called Cottons. South of Middles is the surf spot called The Church, it is named after Trestles Bridge, a wooden trestle bridge that surfers must walk under to reach the beach, replaced in 2012 by a concrete viaduct. Lower Trestles has the best waves of the group. For many years there was an WSL World Tour surfing competition held at Lowers every year, as well as the NSSA Nationals. Uppers is less consistent. North of Uppers is Cotton's Point, the location of former President Richard Nixon's home, La Casa Pacifica, aka "The Western White House", the associated surfing spot of Cottons. Getting to Trestles is a trek. Visitors can park and walk down an asphalt trail to Trestles from the trailhead at Cristianitos Road, near where Cristianitos crosses over the San Diego Freeway.
Visitors can expect to see surf graffiti on the sidewalk, with such phrases as "no kooks", "surf hard", "you're going the wrong way", "duckbutter". There is a pay parking lot near the Carl’s Jr. restaurant on Coast Highway at Cristianitos, along with some public parking on streets near the restaurant. There skateboard, or bike into Trestles by means of this trail. Most visitors enter Trestle by this trail. It's about a 15-minute walk from the parking lot to the beach. Visitors can park at San Onofre State Beach by exiting the San Diego Freeway at Basilone Road heading westerly from the freeway exit to the entrance to the portion of San Onofre State Beach named Surf Beach; the hike northwest to Trestles from Surf Beach at San Onofre State Beach is longer than the hike southwest from the Cristianitos Road bridge and the San Diego Freeway. There is a fee to drive into the State Park at Surf Beach. Trestles park is home to a variety of animal life; the most common plant is the coastal sage scrub, native to the coast of California and thrives in the area's Mediterranean climate.
Trestles park is home to quite a lot of animal life, including California brown pelicans. These animals used to be endangered species, but the populations recovered so well that the species was removed from the endangered species list in 2009. During times of heavy rains, there is a river delta flowing into the ocean where there are tadpoles. One plant which grows right out of the sand is the beach evening primrose; each plants creates a large mat of roots and foliage, an important aspect of the ecosystem, because other plants are able to grow from the stable surface this plants provides. The primrose can be identified by its bright yellow, four petaled flowers which open in the morning, turn reddish as evening progresses; the primrose has unique medical benefits as well. These flowers aid in the treatment of sore eye diseases. During periods of strong rain, Trestles park has a stream that runs through its center and empties into the ocean. You find the stream flowing during winter, spring which are the seasons with the most rain in Southern California.
The stream does not contain much animal life, as it dries up quickly without a steady water source. The stream does create a small pool which contains tadpoles; when the stream dries up above ground, an underground water flow still exits into the ocean, just not through a river delta. It is an interesting phenomenon to see the river drain from under the sand into the ocean. One significant problem is littering. Many visitors leave trash in the dried stream bed; when the stream flows again, it brings the waste onto the beach. This is one of the main reasons why Trestles has numerous signs reminding visitors to dispose of waste properly; the California Transportation Corridor Agency is seeking to construct a 16-mile long six-lanes wide toll highway through San Onofre State Beach/Park and a habitat reserve in Orange County, joining the San Diego Freeway at Trestles. The Toll Road, one of several routes that could be constructed to extend California State Route 241, is favored by several business groups and public officials from Orange County as a way to ease future traffic congestion.
The particular Toll Road route through San Onofre is opposed by more than two dozen members of California’s congressional delegation in Washington, D. C. thirty-eight California legislators including California's United States Senator Barbara Boxer, Surfrider Foundation, Defenders of Wildlife, The Sierra Club, The Natural Resources Defense Council, the California State Parks Foundation, the California State Park and Recreation Commission the Native American United Coalition to Protect Panhe, The City Project, the Save San Onofre Coalition, Save Trestles, among others. Opposition is based upon the damage to the environment that would result from construction and operation of the Toll Road, the loss of park camping and recreational areas, the loss/damage to a site sacred to Native Americans, studies that show that traffic congestion would increase on the San Diego Freeway if the toll road is built through San Onofre Beach. A survey of Orange County voters revealed that while 52% favored "a" toll road, 66% opposed the proposed route that would take the Toll Road through San Onofre State Park.
On February 6, 2008 the California Coastal Commission denied a Coastal Permit for the route of the proposed 241 Toll Road that would have cut through San Onofre and the Reserve, saying that of the eight possible routes considered, the one sought by the TCA was the most environm
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed
Orange County, California
Orange County is located in the Los Angeles metropolitan area in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,010,232, making it the third-most populous county in California, the sixth-most populous in the United States, more populous than 21 U. S. states. Its county seat is Santa Ana, it is the second most densely populated county behind San Francisco County. The county's four largest cities by population, Santa Ana and Huntington Beach, each have a population exceeding 200,000. Several of Orange County's cities are on the Pacific Ocean western coast, including Huntington Beach, Newport Beach, Laguna Beach, Dana Point, San Clemente. Orange County is included in Metropolitan Statistical Area. Thirty-four incorporated towns and cities are in the county. Anaheim was the first city, incorporated in 1870 when the region was still part of neighboring Los Angeles County. Whereas most population centers in the United States tend to be identified by a major city with a large downtown central business district, Orange County has no single major downtown / CBD or dominant urban center.
Santa Ana, Costa Mesa, Irvine all have smaller high-rise CBDs, other, older cities like Anaheim, Huntington Beach, Orange have traditional American downtowns without high-rises. The county's northern and central portions are urbanized and dense, despite the prevalence of the single-family home as a dominant land use, its southern portion is more suburban, with limited urbanization. There are several "edge city"-style developments, such as Irvine Business Center, Newport Center, South Coast Metro. Orange County is part of the "Tech Coast"; the county is a tourist center, with attractions like Disneyland, Knott's Berry Farm, several popular beaches along its more than 40 miles of coastline. Throughout the 20th century and up until 2016, it was known for its political conservatism and for being a bastion for the Republican Party, with a 2005 academic study listing three Orange County cities as among America's 25 most conservative. However, the county's changing demographics have resulted in a shift in political alignments.
In 2016, Hillary Clinton became the first Democrat since 1936 to carry Orange County in a presidential election and in the 2018 midterm elections the Democratic Party gained control of every Congressional seat in the county. Members of the Tongva, Juaneño, Luiseño Native American groups long inhabited the area. After the 1769 expedition of Gaspar de Portolà, a Spanish expedition led by Junipero Serra named the area Valle de Santa Ana. On November 1, 1776, Mission San Juan Capistrano became the area's first permanent European settlement. Among those who came with Portolá were José Manuel Nieto and José Antonio Yorba. Both these men were given land grants—Rancho Los Nietos and Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, respectively; the Nieto heirs were granted land in 1834. The Nieto ranches were known as Rancho Los Alamitos, Rancho Las Bolsas, Rancho Los Coyotes. Yorba heirs Bernardo Yorba and Teodosio Yorba were granted Rancho Cañón de Santa Ana and Rancho Lomas de Santiago, respectively. Other ranchos in Orange County were granted by the Mexican government during the Mexican period in Alta California.
A severe drought in the 1860s devastated the prevailing industry, cattle ranching, much land came into the possession of Richard O'Neill, Sr. James Irvine and other land barons. In 1887, silver was discovered in the Santa Ana Mountains, attracting settlers via the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific Railroads. After several failed attempts in previous sessions, the California legislature passed a bill authorizing the portion of Los Angeles County south of Coyote Creek to hold a referendum on whether to remain part of Los Angeles County or to secede and form a new county to be named “Orange” as directed by the legislature; such referendum required a 2/3 vote for secession to take place, subsequently on June 4th, 1889, the residents south of Coyote Creek voted 2,509 to 500 in favor of secession. After such referendum, Los Angeles County filed three lawsuits in the courts to stall and stop the secession from occurring, but such attempts were futile. On July 17, 1889, a second referendum was held south of the Coyote Creek to determine if the county seat of the to-be county to be in either Anaheim or Santa Ana, along with an election for every county officer.
In the end, Santa Ana defeated Anaheim in such referendum and elected right leaning officers, with some, including one of the primary lobbyists for the creation of the county, Henry W. Head, elected to the Board of Supervisors while being a member of the Ku Klux Klan, with Head’s son, Horace Head, elected as District Attorney of the soon to be county, known to, as stated by the OC Weekly, threaten “...any Mexicans who walked in front of their homes with shotguns when not burning crosses on front lawns,” along with Horace Head supporting and defending his fathers affiliation with the Ku Klux Klan. With the referendum taken place, the County of Orange was incorporated on August 1st, 1889, as prescribed by state law. Since the date of the incorporation of the county, the only geographical changes to have occurred which affected Orange County was when the County and Los Angeles County agreed to trade land around Coyote Creek to adjust the border of the two counties to conform with city blocks.
The county is said to have been named for the
Laguna Hills, California
Laguna Hills is a city in Orange County, United States. Its name refers to its proximity to the much older Laguna Beach. Other newer cities nearby—Laguna Niguel and Laguna Woods—are named. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.7 square miles. 6.7 square miles of it is land and 0.025 square miles of it is water. Laguna Hills is built on one of the major land grants developed during the rancho era. Following Mexico's independence from Spain in 1821, those who had served in the government or who had friends in authority, were given vast lands for cattle grazing. Rancho Lomas de Santiago, Rancho San Joaquin, Rancho Niguel covered much of the western portion of the Saddleback Valley. Don Juan Avila was granted the 13,000-acre Rancho Niguel. In 1894, Lewis Moulton purchased Rancho Niguel from Don Juan Avila and increased the original grant to 22,000 acres. Moulton and his partner, Jean Piedra Daguerre, used the ranch to raise sheep and cattle; the Moulton Ranch was subdivided in the early 1960s, part of the division became today's Laguna Hills.
Incorporation efforts began in 1987 and on March 5, 1991, 86% of the residents voted in favor of forming the City of Laguna Hills. On December 20, 1991, Laguna Hills became a City. Subsequent annexations have included the "Westside Annexation" areas; the latter included 149 acres of residential land, including the Aliso Viejo Community Association's Sheep Hills Park. In 2004, Laguna Hills' City Hall was moved to an existing office building at 24035 El Toro Road, bought and renovated by the city; the city rents out commercial space in the building, providing the city with a positive net income. The 2010 United States Census reported that Laguna Hills had a population of 30,344; the population density was 4,532.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of Laguna Hills was 22,045 White, 420 African American, 101 Native American, 3,829 Asian, 58 Pacific Islander, 2,470 from other races, 1,421 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6,242 persons; the Census reported that 29,975 people lived in households, 233 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 136 were institutionalized.
There were 10,469 households, of which 3,637 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 6,278 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 983 had a female householder with no husband present, 472 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 445 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 101 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,041 households were made up of individuals and 822 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.86. There were 7,733 families. 6,762 people were under the age of 18. The median age was 40.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.6 males. There were 11,046 housing units at an average density of 1,649.9 per square mile, of which 7,820 were owner-occupied, 2,649 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.4%. 22,307 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 7,668 people lived in rental housing units. At the 2000 census, there were 31,178 people, 10,895 households and 7,942 families residing in the city.
The population density was 4,911.1 per square mile. There were 11,303 housing units at an average density of 1,780.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 76.83% White, 1.38% African American, 0.44% Native American, 10.20% Asian, 0.15% Pacific Islander, 7.19% from other races, 3.81% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 16.40% of the population. There were 10,895 households of which 37.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.0% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.1% were non-families. 21.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.82 and the average family size was 3.29. 26.2% of the population were under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 28.8% from 25 to 44, 25.4% from 45 to 64, 12.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.6 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.0 males. According to a 2007 estimate, the median household income was $89,781 and the median family income was $102,191. Males had a median income of $59,144 versus $38,761 for females; the per capita income for the city was $36,133. About 3.6% of families and 5.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.3% of those under age 18 and 5.1% of those age 65 or over. In the California State Legislature, Laguna Hills is in the 36th Senate District, represented by Republican Patricia Bates, in the 73rd Assembly District, represented by Republican Bill Brough. In the United States House of Representatives, Laguna Hills is in California's 45th congressional district, represented by Democrat Katie Porter; the Laguna Hills Civic Center was an existing office building at 24035 El Toro Roa
Lake Forest, California
Lake Forest is a city in Orange County, California. The population was 77,264 at the 2010 census. Lake Forest incorporated as a city on December 20, 1991. Prior to incorporation, the community had been known as El Toro. Following a vote in 2000, Lake Forest expanded its city limits to include the master-planned developments of Foothill Ranch and Portola Hills; this expansion brought commercial centers to the northeastern boundary of the city. Lake Forest is ranked as one of the safest cities in the country. Lake Forest has two lakes; the lakes are man-made, condominiums and custom homes ranging from large to small line their shores. Neighborhood associations manage the lakes Each facility features tennis courts, basketball courts, barbecue pits, volleyball courts, multiple swimming pools, hot tubs and club houses for social events; the "forest" for which the city is named lies in the area between Ridge Route, Lake Forest and Serrano roads, consists of Eucalyptus trees. It is man-made, was created in the first decade of the 1900s when a local landowner, Dwight Whiting, planted 400 acres of Eucalyptus groves in the vicinity of Serrano Creek as part of a lumber operation intended to draw development to the area.
In the late 1960s, the Occidental Petroleum company developed a residential community in and around the Eucalyptus groves, which had long since expanded and grown much more dense. From 1863, the community had been known as El Toro. In 1874 José Serrano and his family occupied eleven thousand hectares of ranch, granted to them by the Government of Mexico, that reached the hands of Dwight Whiting. Whiting was instrumental in bringing the Santa Fe rail line through the region; the Rancho Niguel was granted to Juan B. Alvarado, Juan Avila and his sister Conception, the widow of one Pedro Sánchez. From them it was divided into plots, including Yorba. In 1874, most of it was owned by Cyrus B. Rawson. Jonathan E. Bacon owned 1600 acres. In addition to the Serranos, established in Aliso Canyon, there was a group of pioneers who lived in the foothills and several miles above El Toro, many of whom were among the first settlers of this neighborhood. El Toro Road at the I-5 Freeway was the epicenter of the Saddleback Valley from the late 19th century to the end of the 20th century.
However, the area deteriorated, most of the shops closed or moved to other cities. After years of planning, the city has worked with the property owners of some aging strip malls and developed the "Arbor at Lake Forest" commercial district; the new center now competes with large shopping centers in cities. The city is home to the headquarters of eyewear manufacturer Oakley, Inc.. Etnies, Autism Behavior Services Inc. and Tilly's. It is the home of the corporate headquarters for Eagle Community Credit Union, a credit union focused on serving postal and federal employees who live or work in Orange County. However, along with Oakley, the city is best known as the home of Rick Warren's famed megachurch, Saddleback Church the eighth-largest church in the United States. According to the City's 2012 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are: Lake Forest Sports Park and Recreation Center opened on November 1, 2014, across the street from Saddleback Church; the 86.2-acre Sports Park, built with fees collected from developers for a "study" that led to the rezoning of surrounding areas, is one of the largest sports parks in Orange County.
The Recreation Center houses classrooms/activities rooms and a gymnasium, hosting many education and recreation programs that have been hosted at the rented City Hall facility. Lake Forest is home to two county parks. Whiting Ranch in the eastern part of the city was the site of an infamous mountain lion mauling in 2004 that captured the attention of the West Coast news media. Heritage Hill Historical Park and Museum is home to some of the oldest buildings in Orange County, including the Jose Serrano Adobe, an original adobe home and settlement built in 1863; the Bennetts raised oranges for Sunkist, owned the State-deeded water rights to Aliso Creek, rare in California, instrumental to their success. It is the location of "Ritchie's Park," per signs along Aliso Creek, a set childhood playground along the stream, where all of the Bennett children and grandchildren played; the children found Indian artifacts along the banks, met relatives of the Indians whose ancestors had lived there, including "Al" and "Cy" who were older Indians working for the Bennetts.
The park is named for Richard Bennett Harvey, the grandchild whom Harvey and Frances Bennett raised, their seventh and last "child" who grew up on the ranch in youth, lived there in early marriage, working on the ranch until it was sold. The Bennett's son, Richard Beach Bennett, was educat
A toll road known as a turnpike or tollway, is a public or private road for which a fee is assessed for passage. It is a form of road pricing implemented to help recoup the cost of road construction and maintenance. Toll roads have existed in some form since antiquity, with tolls levied on passing travellers on foot, wagon, or horseback; the amount of the toll varies by vehicle type, weight, or number of axles, with freight trucks charged higher rates than cars. Tolls are collected at toll booths, toll houses, stations, bars, or gates; some toll collection points are unmanned and the user deposits money in a machine which opens the gate once the correct toll has been paid. To cut costs and minimise time delay many tolls are collected by some form of automatic or electronic toll collection equipment which communicates electronically with a toll payer's transponder; some electronic toll roads maintain a system of toll booths so people without transponders can still pay the toll, but many newer roads now use automatic number plate recognition to charge drivers who use the road without a transponder, some older toll roads are being upgraded with such systems.
Criticisms of toll roads include the time taken to stop and pay the toll, the cost of the toll booth operators—up to about one-third of revenue in some cases. Automated toll-paying systems help minimise both of these. Others object to paying "twice" for the same road: with tolls. In addition to toll roads, toll bridges and toll tunnels are used by public authorities to generate funds to repay the cost of building the structures; some tolls are set aside to pay for future maintenance or enhancement of infrastructure, or are applied as a general fund by local governments, not being earmarked for transport facilities. This is sometimes prohibited by central government legislation. Road congestion pricing schemes have been implemented in a limited number of urban areas as a transportation demand management tool to try to reduce traffic congestion and air pollution. Toll roads have existed for at least the last 2,700 years, as tolls had to be paid by travellers using the Susa–Babylon highway under the regime of Ashurbanipal, who reigned in the 7th century BC.
Aristotle and Pliny refer to other parts of Asia. In India, before the 4th century BC, the Arthashastra notes the use of tolls. Germanic tribes charged tolls to travellers across mountain passes. A 14th-century example is Castle Loevestein in the Netherlands, built at a strategic point where two rivers meet. River tolls were charged on boats sailing along the river; the Øresund in Scandinavia was once subject to a toll to the Danish Monarch, who derived a sizable portion of his revenue from it. Many modern European roads were constructed as toll roads in order to recoup the costs of construction, maintenance and as a source of tax money, paid by someone other than the local residents. In 14th-century England, some of the most used roads were repaired with money raised from tolls by pavage grants. Widespread toll roads sometimes restricted traffic so much, by their high tolls, that they interfered with trade and cheap transportation needed to alleviate local famines or shortages. Tolls were used in the Holy Roman Empire in the 15th centuries.
Industrialisation in Europe needed major improvements to the transport infrastructure which included many new or improved roads, financed from tolls. The A5 road in Britain was built to provide a robust transport link between Britain and Ireland and had a toll house every few miles. In the 20th century, road tolls were introduced in Europe to finance the construction of motorway networks and specific transport infrastructure such as bridges and tunnels. Italy was the first European country to charge motorway tolls, on a 50 kilometres motorway section near Milan in 1924, it was followed by Greece, which made users pay for the network of motorways around and between its cities in 1927. In the 1950s and 1960s, France and Portugal started to build motorways with the aid of concessions, allowing rapid development of this infrastructure without massive state debts. Since road tolls have been introduced in the majority of the EU member states. In the United States, prior to the introduction of the Interstate Highway System and the large federal grants supplied to states to build it, many states constructed their first controlled-access highways by floating bonds backed by toll revenues.
Starting with the Pennsylvania Turnpike in 1940, followed by similar roads in New Jersey, New York and others, numerous states throughout the 1950s established major toll roads. With the establishment of the Interstate Highway System in the late 1950s, toll road construction in the U. S. slowed down as the federal government now provided the bulk of funding to construct new freeways, regulations required that such Interstate highways be free from tolls. Many older toll roads were added to the Interstate System under a grandfather clause that allowed tolls to continue to be collected on toll roads that predated the system; some of these such as the Connecticut Turnpike and the Richmond–Petersburg Turnpike removed their tolls when the initial bonds were paid off. Many states, have maintained the tolling of these roads as a consistent source of revenue; as the