Elba is a Mediterranean island in Tuscany, Italy, 10 kilometres from the coastal town of Piombino, the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago. It is part of the Arcipelago Toscano National Park, the third largest island in Italy, after Sicily and Sardinia, it is located in the Tyrrhenian Sea about 50 kilometres east of the French island of Corsica. The island is part of the province of Livorno and is divided into seven municipalities, with a total population of about 30,000 inhabitants which increases during the summer; the municipalities are Portoferraio, Campo nell'Elba, Marciana, Marciana Marina, Porto Azzurro, Rio. Elba is the largest remaining stretch of land from the ancient tract that once connected the Italian peninsula to Corsica; the northern coast faces the Ligurian Sea, the eastern coast the Piombino Channel, the southern coast the Tyrrhenian Sea, the Corsica Channel divides the western tip of the island from neighbouring Corsica. The island itself is made up of slices of rocks which once formed part of the ancient Tethyan seafloor.
These rocks have been through the Alpine orogeny and the Apennine orogeny. The second of these two events was associated with subduction of the Tethyan oceanic crust underneath Italy and the obduction of parts of the ancient seafloor onto the continents. Extension within the stretched inner part of the Apennine mountains caused adiabatic melting and the intrusion of the Mount Capanne and the La Serra-Porto Azzuro granitoids; these igneous bodies brought with them skarn fluids which dissolved and replaced some of the carbonate units, precipitating iron-rich minerals in their place. One of the iron-rich minerals, was first identified on the island and takes its name from the Latin word for Elba. More high-angle faults formed within the tectonic pile, allowing for the migration of iron-rich fluids through the crust; the deposits left behind by these fluids formed the island's rich seams of iron ore. The terrain is thus divided into several areas based on geomorphology; the mountainous and most recent part of the island can be found to the west, the centre of, dominated by Mount Capanne called the "roof of the Tuscan Archipelago".
The mountain is home to many animal species including the mouflon and wild boar, two species that flourish despite the continuous influx of tourists. The central part of the island is a flat section with the width being reduced to just four kilometres, it is where the major centres can be found: Portoferraio, Campo nell'Elba. To the east is the oldest part of the island, formed over 3 million years ago. In the hilly area, dominated by Monte Calamita, are the deposits of iron that made Elba famous. Rivers exceed 3 kilometres in length, it is common for the shorter ones to dry up during the summer; the largest rivers, sorted by length, are: Fosso San Francesco 6.5 kilometres. The climate of the island is predominantly Mediterranean, except for Mount Capanne, where winters tend to be moderately cold. Precipitation comprises a normal rainfall; the island lies in the rain shadow of the large and mountainous island of Corsica, so precipitation totals are somewhat reduced from the mainland. Snowfall in winter melts quickly.
The table below shows the average temperatures for the islands by month. The island was inhabited by Ligures Ilvates, who gave it the ancient name Ilva, it was well known from ancient times for its iron resources and valued mines. The Greeks called it Aethalia, after the fumes of the metal producing furnaces. Apollonius of Rhodes mentions it in his epic poem Argonautica, describing that the Argonauts rested here during their travels, he writes that signs of their visit were still visible in his day, including skin-coloured pebbles that they dried their hands on and large stones which they used at discus. Strabo presents a different account: "because the scrapings, which the Argonauts formed when they used their strigils, became congealed, the pebbles on the shore remain variegated still to this day."The island was invaded by the Etruscans, who called the island Elba, by the Romans. In the middle ages, it was invaded by the Ostrogoths and the Lombards, it became a possession of the Republic of Pisa.
After the battle of Meloria, the Republic of Genova took possession of Elba, but it was regained by Pisa in 1292. The island was retained for two centuries by the Appiani family, Lords of Piombino, when they sold Pisa to the house of Visconti of Milan in 1399. In 1544, the Barbary pirates from North Africa devastated the coasts of Tuscany. In 1546, part of the island was handed over to Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, who fortified Portoferraio and renamed it "Cosmopoli", while the rest of the island was returned to the Appiani in 1577. In 1596, Philip II of Spain had two fortresses built there; this part of Elba came into the direct power of Spain through the State of the Presidi, including Porto Longone. In 1736, the sovereignty of this part of Elba was claimed by the Kingdom of Naples but remained abandoned; the British landed on the Island of Elba in 1796, after the occupation of Livorno by the French Repub
Tony Dixon is a former American football safety in the National Football League for the Dallas Cowboys. He was selected by the Dallas Cowboys in the second round of the 2001 NFL Draft, he played college football at the University of Alabama. Dixon attended Pickens County High School, he earned All-State honors two years in a row. As a junior he registered 1,286 rushing 17 touchdowns, 115 tackles and 6 interceptions; the next year, he posted 1,450 rushing yards, 18 rushing touchdowns, 2 touchdown passes, one receiving touchdown, 6 sacks, 4 interceptions and 2 fumble recoveries. He practiced baseball and basketball, he graduated fourth in his class and was the first athlete from his school to receive a division I scholarship. Dixon accepted a football scholarship from the University of Alabama; as a true freshman he collected 22 tackles and one sack, earning his first career start at free safety against the University of Tennessee. The next year he became a regular starter at strong safety, making 75 tackles, 2 tackles for loss and one interception.
As a junior, he split time between strong and free safety and was second on the team with 65 tackles. In his last year he started at free safety, finishing third on the team in tackles and had 2 interceptions; the Dallas Cowboys traded down in the second round of the 2001 NFL Draft, sending to the Miami Dolphins the 52nd overall selection, in exchange for the 56th and the 122nd. As a rookie, he played on the nickel defense. In his second season, he started the last six games at strong safety, after Darren Woodson suffered a season-ending groin injury, making 49 tackles, 2 sacks, 4 quarterback pressures, 2 passes defensed, one interception and 16 special teams. In 2003, he was a special teams standout. In 2004, after Woodson missed the season due to a herniated disc, he split time with Lynn Scott at strong safety, registering seven starts and finding a niche as a blitzer, tying for fifth in the NFL among defensive backs with 3 sacks, he wasn't re-signed after the season and finished his Cowboys career with 90 tackles, 6 sacks, 10 passes defensed, 49 special teams tackles and one interception.
On June 18, 2005, signed a one-year contract as a free agent with the Washington Redskins, but was released before the start of the season on August 23. On November 1, 2005, he was signed by the Dallas Cowboys to help improve the secondary depth, he was cut on November 9 to make room for linebacker Quinton Caver. He was brought back for depth purposes on December 26, he wasn't re-signed at the end of the season
Photo of María Dolores Velázquez Rivas.jpg María Dolores Velázquez Rivas, better known as "Lola" Cueto was a Mexican painter, puppet designer and puppeteer. She is best known for her work in children’s theater, creating sets and theatre companies performing pieces for educational purposes. Cueto took her last name from husband Germán Cueto, which whom she had two daughters, one of, noted playwright and puppeteer Mireya Cueto. Most of Cueto’s artistic interest was related to Mexican handcrafts and folk art, either creating paintings about it or creating traditional works such as tapestries, papel picado and traditional Mexican toys. Cueto was born María Dolores Velázquez Rivas in Azcapotzalco on March 2, 1897 to Juan Velázquez and Ana María Rivas. Cueto entered the Academy of San Carlos, she was one of the Academy's first female students, breaking social norms for women at the time. She was part of a group of students that included David Alfaro Siqueiros and Andrés Audifred, which rebelled against the traditional teaching methods of the Academy.
It is believed. Her studies at San Carlos were interrupted by the Mexican Revolution and she entered the Escuela de Pintura al Aire Libre known as the Escuela de Barbizón created and directed by Alfredo Ramos Martínez. In 1919, she married vanguard sculptor Germán Cueto; the couple was prominent in the artistic and intellectual circles of Mexico City which included Diego Rivera, Lupe Marín, Ramón Alva de la Canal, Fermín Revueltas, Germán List Arzubide, Manuel Maples Arce and Arqueles Vela. It was as this time she assumed her husband’s last name as her own, becoming best known as Lola Cueto. From 1927 to 1932, she lived with her husband in Paris, where both experienced critical moments in their artistic development. While living in Paris, they had their first contact with hand puppet design. Upon their return to Mexico, they founded a glove puppet theatre named "Rin-Rin." With the support of the Ministry of Public Education, several groups were formed to perform the Cuetos' puppet shows in schools throughout Mexico, over a period of fifty years.
In 1936 the couple separated. Lola and Gérman Cueto had two daughters, named Ana Maria and Mireya, who became a well-known puppeteer and playwright, winning the Bellas Artes Medal for her life’s work. Mireya began her career helping her parents. Lola Cueto died on January 1978 in Mexico City. Lola Cueto was one a few working women artists in Mexico in the early twentieth century, at a time when the field was dominated by men, her contemporaries include Olga Costa and Helen Escobedo. Mexico City was a hub for art collaborations in the 1920s. Among these were Stridentism, a popular multidisciplinary avant-garde movement. Although male-dominated, a few women did manage to gain a foothold. One of was Cueto herself, armed with a sewing machine. While her husband worked within the movement as a sculptor, she brought modernity to the art of tapestries by using her sewing machine, her Pre-Colombian style was merged with folk depictions, all made possible with the use of a Cornelli embroidery machine. She is best known for her work in theatre with puppets and marionettes for children.
Germán had the idea to create marionettes and puppets when the couple lived in Paris, but it was Lola who pursued it. Most of her theatre work was related to education, she founded the Rin Run, El Nahual and El Colorín theatre companies which performed educational sketches in urban and rural areas. One of her major theatrical works was with Silvestre Revueltas from between 1933 and 1935, with a marionette ballet called “El Renacuajo Paseador.” It was presented at the Palacio de Bellas Artes in 1940. While she lived in Paris beginning in 1926, Lola Cueto began to see her work receive praise unlike any she'd seen for her paintings; the French, in particular, featured her prominently as one of the faces of the Mexican Renaissance within the L' Art Vivant journal in 1928. It was common knowledge both in France and among other Mexican artists that Cueto's tapestry work was exceptional and entrancing, and as it was in a'timeless medium,' it reached more people than the high and mighty paintings and sculptures of fine artists would.
In addition to puppets and marionettes, she had a strong interest in Mexican handcrafts and folk art, which influenced her art. Her earliest work in the early 1920s was the design and crafting of tapestry while she lived in Paris; the work received recognition at exhibitions in Paris and Rotterdam. Following the reforms and revolutions taking place in Mexican art and thought, List Arzubide and Leopoldo Mendez form"Troka" in 1932 to involve the teaching of other more varied art forms to children within educational institutions, they call each other friends they had made in France for their unique specialties to help form the group. Cueto was invited, funding for her puppetry was provided, she created an early abstract sculpture. José Luis Cuevas called her the first artist in Mexico to discover abstract art. At the end of the 1930s, she joined the Sociedad Mexicana de Grabadores and worked under Carlos Alvarado Lang, her best work here was in mezzotint which stands out with its play on shadow. She created the aquatints for a 1947 book by Roberto Lago called “Títeres Populares Mexicanos”.
Roberto Lago featured Cueto's puppetry in his 1941 book "Mexican Folk Puppets." She contributed to the book's illustrations, using a small yet vivid color pallette to depict popula