Tuscany is a region in central Italy with an area of about 23,000 square kilometres and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants. The regional capital is Florence. Tuscany is known for its landscapes, artistic legacy, its influence on high culture, it is regarded as the birthplace of the Italian Renaissance and has been home to many figures influential in the history of art and science, contains well-known museums such as the Uffizi and the Pitti Palace. Tuscany produces wines, including Chianti, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Morellino di Scansano and Brunello di Montalcino. Having a strong linguistic and cultural identity, it is sometimes considered "a nation within a nation". Tuscany is a popular destination in Italy; the village of Castiglione della Pescaia is the most visited seaside destination in the region, with seaside tourism accounting for 40% of tourist arrivals. Additionally, Lucca, the Chianti region and Val d'Orcia are internationally renowned and popular spots among travellers.
Seven Tuscan localities have been designated World Heritage Sites: the historic centre of Florence. Tuscany has over 120 protected nature reserves, making Tuscany and its capital Florence popular tourist destinations that attract millions of tourists every year. In 2012, the city of Florence was the world's 89th most visited city, with 1.834 million arrivals. Triangular in shape, Tuscany borders the regions of Liguria to the northwest, Emilia-Romagna to the north, Marche to the northeast, Umbria to the east and Lazio to the southeast; the comune of Badia Tedalda, in the Tuscan Province of Arezzo, has an exclave named Ca' Raffaello within Emilia-Romagna. Tuscany has a western coastline on the Ligurian Sea and the Tyrrhenian Sea, among, the Tuscan Archipelago, of which the largest island is Elba. Tuscany has an area of 22,993 square kilometres. Surrounded and crossed by major mountain chains, with few plains, the region has a relief, dominated by hilly country used for agriculture. Hills make up nearly two-thirds of the region's total area, covering 15,292 square kilometres, mountains, a further 25%, or 5,770 square kilometres.
Plains occupy 8.4% of the total area—1,930 square kilometres —mostly around the valley of the Arno. Many of Tuscany's largest cities lie on the banks of the Arno, including the capital Florence and Pisa; the climate is mild in the coastal areas, is harsher and rainy in the interior, with considerable fluctuations in temperature between winter and summer, giving the region a soil-building active freeze-thaw cycle, in part accounting for the region's once having served as a key breadbasket of ancient Rome. The pre-Etruscan history of the area in the middle and late Bronze parallels that of the early Greeks; the Tuscan area was inhabited by peoples of the so-called Apennine culture in the second millennium BC who had trading relationships with the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations in the Aegean Sea, and, at the end of the Bronze Age, by peoples of the so-called Proto-Villanovan culture part of the central European Urnfield culture system. Following this, at the beginning of the Iron Age, the Villanovan culture, regarded as the oldest phase of Etruscan civilization, saw Tuscany, the rest of Etruria, taken over by chiefdoms.
City-states developed in the late Villanovan. The Etruscans created the first major civilization in this region, large enough to establish a transport infrastructure, to implement agriculture and mining and to produce vibrant art; the Etruscans lived in the area of Etruria well into prehistory. The civilization grew to fill the area between the Arno and Tiber from the tenth century BCE, reaching its peak during the seventh and sixth centuries B. C. succumbing to the Romans by the first century BCE. Despite being seen as distinct in its manners and customs by contemporary Greeks, the cultures of Greece, Rome, influenced the civilization to a great extent. One reason for its eventual demise was this increasing absorption by surrounding cultures, including the adoption of the Etruscan upper class by the Romans. Soon after absorbing Etruria, Rome established the cities of Lucca, Pisa and Florence, endowed the area with new technologies and development, ensured peace; these developments included extensions of existing roads, introduction of aqueducts and sewers, the construction of many buildings, both public and private.
However, many of these structures have been destroyed by erosion due to weather. The Roman civilization in the West of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire collapsed in the fifth century, the region fell to barbarians migrating through the Empire from Eastern Europe and Central Asia of the Goths was re-conquered by the revived Eastern Roman Empire under the strong Emperor Justinian. In the years following 572, the Lombards arrived and designated Lucca the capital of their subsequent Tuscia. Pilgrims travelling along the Via Francigena between Rome and France brough
Claude M. Kicklighter is a former United States Army officer, he is a former commander of the United States Army Western Command, which he held from 1989 to 1991. He was Director for Security Assistance for the US Army Security Assistance Center and Chief of Staff for the US Army Material Development and Readiness Command in Alexandria, from 1981–1984 and Assistant Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics and Director of the Army Staff for the Office of Chief of Staff in Washington, D. C. Kicklighter was commander of the 25th Infantry Division from 1984 until being succeeded by James W. Crysel in 1986, he is an alumnus of Georgia Military College, Mercer University, George Washington University, Industrial College of the Armed Forces. In 2007, he was named Inspector General of the Department of Defense, having served as Chief of Staff, Department of Veterans Affairs, Special Advisor to the Deputy Secretary of State for Stabilization and Security Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, Director of the Department of Defense's Iraq Transition Team, Assistant Secretary for Policy and Planning, Department of Veterans Affairs and Deputy Under Secretary of the Army for International Affairs.
Lockheed Martin Corporation is an American global aerospace, defense and advanced technologies company with worldwide interests. It was formed by the merger of Lockheed Corporation with Martin Marietta in March 1995, it is headquartered in North Bethesda, Maryland, in the Washington, D. C. area. Lockheed Martin employs 110,000 people worldwide as of January 2020. Lockheed Martin is one of the largest companies in the aerospace, defense and technologies industry, it is the world's largest defense contractor, based on revenue for fiscal year 2014. In 2013, 78% of Lockheed Martin's revenues came from military sales. In 2009, US government contracts accounted for $38.4 billion, foreign government contracts for $5.8 billion, commercial and other contracts for $900 million. Lockheed Martin operates in four business segments: Aeronautics and Fire Control and Mission Systems, Space; the company has received the Collier Trophy six times, including in 2001 for being part of developing the X-35/F-35B LiftFan Propulsion System and most in 2018 for the Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System.
Lockheed Martin is developing the F-35 Lightning II and leads the international supply chain, leads the team for the development and implementation of technology solutions for the new USAF Space Fence, is the primary contractor for the development of the Orion command module. The company invests in healthcare systems, renewable energy systems, intelligent energy distribution, compact nuclear fusion. Merger talks between Lockheed Corporation and Martin Marietta began in March 1994, with the companies announcing their $10 billion planned merger on August 30, 1994; the headquarters for the combined companies would be at Martin Marietta headquarters in North Bethesda, Maryland. The deal was finalized on March 1995, when the two companies' shareholders approved the merger; the segments of the two companies not retained by the new company formed the basis for the L-3 Communications, a mid-size defense contractor in its own right. Lockheed Martin later spun off the materials company Martin Marietta Materials.
The company received billions of dollars in subsidies to complete the merger. Executives received large bonuses directly from the government as a result of the merger. Norman R. Augustine, at the time CEO of Martin Marietta received an $8.2 million bonus. This was opposed by Senator Bernie Sanders. Both companies contributed important products to the new portfolio. Lockheed products included the Trident missile, P-3 Orion maritime patrol aircraft, U-2 and SR-71 reconnaissance airplanes, F-117 Nighthawk, F-16 Fighting Falcon, F-22 Raptor, C-130 Hercules, A-4AR Fightinghawk and the DSCS-3 satellite. Martin Marietta products included Titan rockets, Sandia National Laboratories, Space Shuttle External Tank, Viking 1 and Viking 2 landers, the Transfer Orbit Stage and various satellite models. On April 22, 1996, Lockheed Martin completed the acquisition of Loral Corporation's defense electronics and system integration businesses for $9.1 billion, the deal having been announced in January. The remainder of Loral became Loral Communications.
Lockheed Martin abandoned plans for an $8.3 billion merger with Northrop Grumman on July 16, 1998, due to government concerns over the potential strength of the new group. For the Mars Climate Orbiter, Lockheed Martin incorrectly provided NASA with software using measurements in US Customary force units when metric was expected; the development of the spacecraft cost $193.1 million. In addition to their military products, in the 1990s Lockheed Martin developed the texture mapping chip for the Sega Model 2 arcade system board and the entire graphics system for the Sega Model 3, which were used to power some of the most popular arcade games of the time. In May 2001, Lockheed Martin sold Lockheed Martin Control Systems to BAE Systems. On November 27, 2000, Lockheed completed the sale of its Aerospace Electronic Systems business to BAE Systems for $1.67 billion, a deal announced in July 2000. This group encompassed Sanders Associates, Fairchild Systems, Lockheed Martin Space Electronics & Communications.
In 2001, Lockheed Martin won the contract to build the F-35 Lightning II. In 2001, Lockheed Martin settled a nine–year investigation conducted by NASA's Office of Inspector General with the assistance of the Defense Contract Audit Agency; the company paid the United States government $7.1 million based on allegations that its predecessor, Lockheed Engineering Science Corporation, submitted false lease costs claims to NASA. On May 12, 2006, The Washington Post reported that when Robert Stevens took control of Lockheed Martin in 2004, he faced the dilemma that within 10 years, 100,000 of the about 130,000 Lockheed Martin employees – more than three-quarters – would be retiring. On August 31, 2006, Lockheed Martin won a $3.9 billion contract from NASA to design and build the CEV capsule named Orion for the Ares I rocket in the Constellation Program. In 2009, NASA reduced the capsule crew requirements from the initial six seats to four for transport to the International Space Station. On August 13, 2008, Lockheed Martin acquired the government business unit of Nantero, Inc. a company that had deve