Manhattan referred to locally as the City, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City and its economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U. S. state of New York. The borough consists of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson and Harlem rivers. S. mainland, physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Manhattan has been described as the cultural, financial and entertainment capital of the world, the borough hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, Manhattan is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization: the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.
Many multinational media conglomerates are based in Manhattan, the borough has been the setting for numerous books and television shows. Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island, including real estate, estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2013. Manhattan traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan. Manhattan is documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders, which equals $1038 in current terms; the territory and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York, based in present-day Manhattan, served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790; the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace.
Manhattan became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898. New York County is the United States' second-smallest county by land area, is the most densely populated U. S. county. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 1,664,727 living in a land area of 22.83 square miles, or 72,918 residents per square mile, higher than the density of any individual U. S. city. On business days, the influx of commuters increases this number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York City's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, is the smallest borough in terms of land area. Manhattan Island is informally divided into three areas, each aligned with its long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan are well known, as New York City received a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017, Manhattan hosts three of the world's 10 most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Grand Central Terminal.
The borough hosts many prominent bridges, such as the Brooklyn Bridge. Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, part of the Stonewall National Monument, is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement; the City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the city's government. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, Cornell Tech, Weill Cornell Medical College, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the world; the name Manhattan derives from the Munsee dialect of the Lenape language'manaháhtaan'. The Lenape word has been translated as "the place where we get bows" or "place for gathering the bows". According to a Munsee tradition recorded in the 19th century, the island was named so for a grove of hickory trees at the lower end, considered ideal for the making of bows.
It was first recorded in writing as Manna-hata, in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen. A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River. Alternative folk etymologies include "island of many hills", "the island where we all became intoxicated" and "island", as well as a phrase descriptive of the whirlpool at Hell Gate; the area, now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – became the first documented European to visit the area that would become New York City, he entered the tidal strait now known as The Narrows and named the land around Upper New York
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
John Purroy Mitchel
John Purroy Mitchel was the 95th mayor of New York from 1914 to 1917. At age 34 he was the second-youngest ever. Mayor Mitchel is remembered for his short career as leader of Reform politics in New York as well as for his early death as a US Army Air Service officer in the last months of World War I. Mitchel's staunchly Catholic New York family had been founded by his paternal grandfather and namesake John Mitchel, an Ulster Presbyterian Young Irelander who became a renowned writer and leader in the Irish independence movement, as well as a staunch supporter of the Confederate States of America. Reformers praised him. Oswald Garrison Villard, the editor of The Nation, said he was "the ablest and best Mayor New York had." Former President Theodore Roosevelt, endorsing Mitchel's re-election bid in 1917, stated that he had "given us as nearly an ideal administration of the New York City government as I have seen in my lifetime." However his staunchest supporters admitted he was a poor politician, too aloof from the ordinary voters and too concerned with "scientific" urban management.
He still won in a landslide in 1913 but lost the Republican primary in 1917. John Purroy Mitchel was born on July 19, 1879 at Fordham, New York City to James Mitchel, a New York City fire marshal, Mary Purroy who worked as a schoolteacher until her marriage, his father James was a veteran of the Confederate States army and two of his uncles had been killed fighting for the Confederacy. His grandfather, Venezuelan-born Juan Bautista Purroy, was that country's consul in New York, which made Purroy the first Mayor of New York City of Latino descent; the Purroy family included leading politicians in The Bronx. He graduated from a Catholic secondary school at Fordham Preparatory School in the late 1890s, he obtained his bachelor's degree from Columbia College in 1899 and graduated from New York Law School in 1902 with honors. Mitchel pursued a career as a private attorney. In December 1906, Mitchel's career took flight when he was hired by family friend and New York City corporation counsel, William B.
Ellison to investigate the office of John F. Ahearn, borough president of Manhattan, for incompetence and inefficiency; as a result, Ahearn was dismissed as borough president of Manhattan. Mitchel began his career as assistant corporation counsel and became a member of the Commissioners of Accounts, from which he investigated city departments. Mitchel gained results and recognition for his thorough and professional investigations into various city departments and high-ranking officials. Mitchel, with the help of Henry Bruere and other staff members of the Bureau of Municipal Research turned the insignificant Commissioners of Accounts into an administration of importance; the young Mitchel's reputation as a reformer garnered him the support of the anti-Tammany forces. In 1909, Mitchel was elected president of the board of aldermen; as president of the board of aldermen, Mitchel was able to enact fiscal reforms. Mitchel cut improved accounting practices. Mitchel unsuccessfully fought for a municipal owned transit system and the city saw Mitchel vote against allowing the Interborough Rapid Transit and the Brooklyn Rapid Transit companies permission to extend their existing subway and elevated lines.
For a six-week period in 1910 after current Mayor William J. Gaynor was injured by a bullet wound, Mitchel served as acting mayor, his biggest accomplishment during his short tenure was the act of neutrality during a garment industry strike. As the mayoral election approached in 1913, the Citizens Municipal Committee of 107 set out to find a candidate that would give New York "a non-partisan and progressive government." They were assisted in this endeavor by the Fusion Executive Committee, led by Joseph M. Price of the City Club of New York. After nine ballots, Mitchel was nominated as a candidate for mayor. During his campaign, Mitchel focused on making City Hall a place of honesty, he focused on business as he promised New Yorkers that he would modernize the administrative and financial machinery and the processes of city government. At the age of 34, Mitchel was elected mayor on the Republican Party slate as he won an overwhelming victory, defeating Democratic candidate Edward E. McCall by 121,000 votes, thus becoming the second youngest mayor of New York City.
He was referred to as "The Boy Mayor of New York." Mitchel's administration introduced widespread reforms in the Police Department, which had long been corrupt and, cleaned up by Mitchel's Police Commissioner Arthur Woods. Woods was able to break up gangs and in his first year in office, he arrested more than 200 criminals. Woods launched an attack on robbery, prostitution and gambling. Woods transformed the police department into a crime-fighting machine. Mitchel aimed to get rid of corruption. Mitchel's administration set out to modernize New York City and its government. Mitchel was able to expand the city's regulatory activities, ran the police department more and efficiently and much like in 1910 he maintained impartiality during garment and transportation workers strikes in 1916. At 1:30 P. M. on April 17, 1914, Michael P. Mahoney fired a gun at the mayor as Mitchel was getting in his car to go to lunch; the bullet ricocheted off a pedestrian and hit Frank Lyon Polk, New York City's corporation counsel, in the chin.
Mitchel's early popularity was soon diminished due to his fiscal policies and vision of education. Mitchel was criticized for combining vocational and academic courses. Mitchel began to trim the siz
Great Chicago Fire
The Great Chicago Fire was a conflagration that burned in the American city of Chicago from October 8–10, 1871. The fire killed 300 people, destroyed 3.3 square miles of the city, left more than 100,000 residents homeless. The fire began in a neighborhood southwest of the city center. A long period of hot, windy conditions, the wooden construction prevalent in the city lead to a conflagration; the fire leapt the south branch of the Chicago River and destroyed much of central Chicago, leapt the main branch of the river consuming the near north side. Help flowed to the city from far after the fire; the city government improved building codes to stop the rapid spread of fire, re-built to those higher standards. A donation from the United Kingdom spurred the establishment of the Chicago Public Library, a free public library system, a contrast to the private, fee for membership libraries common before the fire; the fire started at about 9:00 p.m. on October 8, in or around a small barn belonging to the O'Leary family that bordered the alley behind 137 DeKoven Street.
The shed next to the barn was the first building to be consumed by the fire. City officials never determined the exact cause of the blaze, but the rapid spread of the fire due to a long drought in the prior summer, strong winds from the southwest, the rapid destruction of the water pumping system explain the extensive damage of the wooden city structures. There has been much speculation over the years on a single start to the fire; the most popular tale blames Mrs. O'Leary's cow, who knocked over a lantern. Still other speculation suggests; the fire's spread was aided by the city's use of wood as the predominant building material in a style called balloon frame. More than two thirds of the structures in Chicago at the time of the fire were made of wood, with most of the houses and buildings being topped with flammable tar or shingle roofs. All of the city's sidewalks and many roads were made of wood. Compounding this problem, Chicago received only 1 inch of rain from July 4 to October 9, causing severe drought conditions before the fire, while strong southwest winds helped to carry flying embers toward the heart of the city.
In 1871, the Chicago Fire Department had 185 firefighters with just 17 horse-drawn steam engines to protect the entire city. The initial response by the fire department was quick, but due to an error by the watchman, Matthias Schaffer, the firefighters were sent to the wrong place, allowing the fire to grow unchecked. An alarm sent from the area near the fire failed to register at the courthouse where the fire watchmen were, while the firefighters were tired from having fought numerous small fires and one large fire in the week before; these factors combined to turn a small barn fire into a conflagration. When firefighters arrived at DeKoven Street, the fire had grown and spread to neighboring buildings and was progressing toward the central business district. Firefighters had hoped that the South Branch of the Chicago River and an area that had thoroughly burned would act as a natural firebreak. All along the river, were lumber yards and coal yards, barges and numerous bridges across the river.
As the fire grew, the southwest wind intensified and became superheated, causing structures to catch fire from the heat and from burning debris blown by the wind. Around 12:00 p.m. flaming debris blew across the river and landed on roofs and the South Side Gas Works. With the fire across the river and moving toward the heart of the city, panic set in. About this time, Mayor Roswell B. Mason sent messages to nearby towns asking for help; when the courthouse caught fire, he ordered the building to be evacuated and the prisoners jailed in the basement to be released. At 2:30 a.m. on the 9th, the cupola of the courthouse collapsed, sending the great bell crashing down. Some witnesses reported hearing the sound from a mile away; as more buildings succumbed to the flames, a major contributing factor to the fire’s spread was a meteorological phenomenon known as a fire whirl. As overheated air rises, it comes into contact with cooler air and begins to spin creating a tornado-like effect; these fire whirls are what drove flaming debris so high and so far.
Such debris was blown across the main branch of the Chicago River to a railroad car carrying kerosene. The fire was now raging across the city's north side. A factor in the fire's rapid spread was the amount of flammable waste that had accumulated in the river from years of improper disposal methods used by local industries. Despite the fire spreading and growing the city's firefighters continued to battle the blaze. A short time after the fire jumped the river, a burning piece of timber lodged on the roof of the city’s waterworks. Within minutes, the interior of the building was engulfed in flames and the building was destroyed. With it, the city’s water mains went dry and the city was helpless; the fire burned unchecked from block to block. Late into the evening of the 9th, it started to rain, but the fire had started to burn itself out; the fire had spread to the sparsely populated areas of the north side, having consumed the densely populated areas thoroughly. Once the fire had ended, the smoldering remains were still too hot for a survey of the damage to be completed for many days.
The city determined that the fire destroyed an area about 4 miles long and averaging 3⁄4 mile wide, encompassing an area o
Gary is a city in Lake County, United States, 25 miles from downtown Chicago, Illinois. Gary borders southern Lake Michigan. Gary was named after lawyer Elbert Henry Gary, the founding chairman of the United States Steel Corporation; the city is known for its large steel mills, as the birthplace of the Jackson 5 music group. The population of Gary was 80,294 at the 2010 census, making it the ninth-largest city in the state of Indiana, it was a prosperous city from the 1920s through the mid-1960s due to its booming steel industry, but overseas competition and restructuring of the steel industry resulted in a decline and a severe loss of jobs. Since the late 1960s, Gary has suffered drastic population loss, falling by 55 percent from its peak of 178,320 in 1960; the city faces the difficulties of many Rust Belt cities, including unemployment, decaying infrastructure, low literacy and educational attainment levels. It is estimated that nearly one-third of all houses in the city are abandoned. Gary, was founded in 1906 by the United States Steel Corporation as the home for its new plant, Gary Works.
The city was named after lawyer Elbert Henry Gary, the founding chairman of the United States Steel Corporation. Gary was the site of civil unrest in the steel strike of 1919. On October 4, 1919, a riot broke out on Broadway, the main north-south street through downtown Gary, between striking steel workers and strike breakers brought in from outside. Three days Indiana governor James P. Goodrich declared martial law. Shortly thereafter, over 4,000 federal troops under the command of Major General Leonard Wood arrived to restore order; the jobs offered by the steel industry provided Gary with rapid growth and a diverse population within the first 26 years of its founding. According to the 1920 United States Census, 29.7% of Gary's population at the time was classified as foreign-born from eastern European countries, with another 30.8% classified as native-born with at least one foreign-born parent. By the 1930 United States Census, the first census in which Gary's population exceeded 100,000, the city was the fifth largest in Indiana and comparable in size to South Bend, Fort Wayne, Evansville.
At that time, 19.3% of the population was classified as foreign-born, with another 25.9% as native-born with at least one foreign-born parent. In addition to white internal migrants, Gary had attracted numerous African-American migrants from the South in the Great Migration, 17.8% of the population was classified as black. 3.5% was classified as Mexican. Gary's fortunes have fallen with those of the steel industry; the growth of the steel industry brought prosperity to the community. Broadway was known as a commercial center for the region. Department stores and architecturally significant movie houses were built in the downtown area and the Glen Park neighborhood. In the 1960s, like many other American urban centers reliant on one particular industry, Gary entered a spiral of decline. Gary's decline was brought on by the growing overseas competitiveness in the steel industry, which had caused U. S. Steel to lay off many workers from the Gary area; the U. S. Steel Gary Works employed over 30,000 in 1970, declined to just 6,000 by 1990, further declined to 5,100 in August 2015.
Attempts to shore up the city's economy with major construction projects, such as a Holiday Inn hotel and the Genesis Convention Center, failed to reverse the decline. Rapid racial change occurred in Gary during the late 20th century; these population changes resulted in political change which reflected the racial demographics of Gary: the non-white share of the city's population increased from 21% in 1930, 39% in 1960, to 53% in 1970. Non-whites were restricted to live in the Midtown section just south of downtown. Gary had one of the nation's first African-American mayors, Richard G. Hatcher, hosted the ground-breaking 1972 National Black Political Convention. Since the 1930s, Gary had developed a reputation as a tough city due to rampant political corruption, racial violence & segregation, labor unrest, industrial pollution. In the 1960s through the 1980s, surrounding suburban localities such as Merrillville, Crown Point and Valparaiso experienced rapid growth, including new homes and shopping districts.
Owing to white flight, economic distress, a perception of skyrocketing crime, many middle-class and affluent residents moved to other cities in the metro area. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, Gary had the highest percentage of African-Americans of U. S. cities with a population of 100,000 or more, 84%. This no longer applies to Gary since the population of the city has now fallen well below 100,000 residents; as of 2013, the Gary Department of Redevelopment has estimated that one-third of all homes in the city are unoccupied and/or abandoned. U. S. Steel continues to be a major steel producer, but with only a fraction of its former level of employment. While Gary has failed to reestablish a manufacturing base since its population peak, two casinos opened along the Gary lakeshore in the 1990s, although this has been aggravated by the state closing of Cline Avenue, an important access to the area. Today, Gary faces the difficulties of a Rust Belt city, including unemployment, decaying infrastructure, low literacy and educational attainment levels.
Gary has closed several of its schools within the last ten years. While some of the school buildings have been reused, most remain unused since their closing; as of 2014, Gary is consid
Delmonico's is the name of various New York City restaurants of varying duration and fame. The original and most famous was operated by the Delmonico family at 2 South William Street in Lower Manhattan during the 19th and early 20th centuries, when it gained a reputation as one of the nation's top fine dining establishments; the birthplace of the imitated Delmonico steak, the restaurant is credited with being the first American restaurant to allow patrons to order from a menu à la carte, as opposed to table d'hôte. It is said to be the first to employ a separate wine list; the family opened other restaurants under the name, operating up to four at a time and totaling 10 establishments by the time it departed the business in 1923. In 1926, restaurateur Oscar Tucci purchased the ground floor and the basement of the 70,000-square foot building at 56 Beaver Street and reopened Delmonico's as a speakeasy. During the 1920s and 1930s the upper floors of 56 Beaver Street were being used as offices for ship insurance, legal offices, other types of offices.
In 1933, after the repeal of Prohibition, Tucci was given the third liquor license in New York City and renamed the restaurant to Oscar's Delmonico's. By the 1940s Tucci was able to purchase the entire building. Delmonico's in the Tucci era was open through 1986 with its final closure of the Greenwich, location after the death of Oscar Tucci's son Mario Tucci. Other Delmonico's have operated in the space from the late 1980s to 1992 and since 1998; the original Delmonico's opened in 1827 in a rented pastry shop at 23 William Street, appeared in a list of restaurants in 1830. It was opened from Ticino, Switzerland. In 1831, they were joined by their nephew, Lorenzo Delmonico, who became responsible for the restaurant's wine list and menu; the brothers moved their restaurant several times before settling at 2 South William Street. When the building was opened on a grand scale in August 1837 after the Great Fire of New York, New Yorkers were told that the columns by the entrance had been imported from the ruins of Pompeii.
It became one of the most famous restaurants in New York, with its reputation growing to national prominence. Beginning in the 1850s, the restaurant hosted the annual gathering of the New England Society of New York, which featured many important speakers of the day. In 1860, Delmonico's provided the supper at the Grand Ball welcoming the Prince of Wales at the Academy of Music on East 14th Street. Supper was set out in a specially constructed room; the New York Times reported, "We may frankly say that we have never seen a public supper served in a more inapproachable fashion, with greater discretion, or upon a more luxurious scale". In 1862, the restaurant hired Charles Ranhofer, considered one of the greatest chefs of his day. In 1876 news of the prices at Delmonicos restaurants spread at least as far as Colorado where complaints about the cost of wine, eggs and butter, potatoes appeared in the Pueblo Daily Chieftain The business was so successful that from 1865 to 1888, it expanded to four restaurants of the same name.
At various times, there were Delmonico's at ten locations. Delmonico's vacated the six-story Delmonico Building at Fifth Avenue and 26th Street in 1899; the edifice was sold to John B. Martin, owner of the Martin Hotel, in May 1901. In 1919, Edward L. C. Robins purchased Delmonico's, its grand location at Fifth Avenue and 44th Street closed in 1923 as a result of changing dining habits due to Prohibition. That location was the final incarnation of Delmonico's with continuity to the original. In 1927, Oscar Tucci opened a "Delmonico's" popularly called "Oscar's Delmonico's" at the former Delmonico's location at 56 Beaver Street and South William Street in New York; the Delmonico family sued to prevent it, but a court ruled that they had abandoned rights to the name. The Tucci incarnation adopted the original menus and recipes, became distinguished in its own right, continuing to attract prominent politicians and celebrities. Tucci instituted many of the professional standards in use today in American restaurants.
The Tucci era produced three of the most prominent restaurateurs of the twentieth century: Sirio Maccioni of Le Cirque, Tony May of San Domenico and the Rainbow Room, Harry Poulakakos of Harry at Hanover Square. In the 1930s, Tucci invented the wedge salad after picking produce at a local farm. Under the Tuccis' ownership, Mario Tucci, the son of Oscar Tucci opened another Delmonico's at 55 Arch Street, Greenwich Connecticut. Mario Tucci referred to Greenwich as the "New Uptown" serving many of the same customers that frequented Delmonico's at 56 Beaver Street. In 1981, a new Delmonico's was opened at the location by Ed Huber, which operated until 1992; the building was vacant until 1998, when the Bice Group acquired the property and again opened a Delmonico's, with Gian Pietro Branchi as executive chef, who turned over to Spencer Levy. In 1999, the restaurant was sold to the Ocinomled partnership, which continues to operate Delmonico's at the South William Street location; the current website lists the address as 56 Beaver Street.
Delmonico Potatoes were invented at Delmonico's restaurant, Chicken à la King, but it was most famous for Delmonico steak. Eggs Benedict were said to have originated at Delmonico's, although others claim that dish as well, it is said that Baked Alaska's name was coined at Delmonico's as well, in 1867, by cook Charles Ranhofer. However, no contemporary account exists of this occurrence and Ranhofer himself referred to the dish
20th Century Press Archives
The 20th Century Press Archives comprises about 19 million of newspaper clippings, organized in folders about persons, wares and topics. It originates from the Hamburg Kolonialinstitut founded in 1908. Within the Hamburg Institute of International Economics it turned into a unique public press archives. In 2007 it was absorbed by the German National Library of Economics and merged with the Wirtschaftsarchiv of the Kiel Institute for the World Economy, founded in 1914. Article collection was discontinued by end of 2005. After a few years, the "Zentralstelle" of the Kolonialinstitut was transformed from a free information center for colonial issues into a comprehensive archive of global political and economic topics, which supported Hamburg's merchants. After the breakdown of the German colonial empire in World War I, the renaming to "Hamburgisches Welt-Wirtschafts-Archiv" in 1919 sealed this reorientation; the staff of HWWA reflected its importance and grew from 54 in 1919 to 183 permanent or temporary employees in 1958 - a state that seems to have remained stable until the late 1990s.
Founded shortly before the outbreak of the First World War, the Kiel Economic Archive and its library were linked to the scientific work of the IfW, which focused on global economic contexts and their practical use. In 1966, the library of the IfW was given the function of a central library for economics by the German Research Foundation in the Federal Republic of Germany, in 1993, the department was renamed accordingly. During the First and the Second World War both archives were intensively involved in the foreign and wartime planning of the empire and the Nazi state. Starting in 1936, "Confidential Reports from the Foreign Press" provided selected economic leaders and Nazi departments with "largely unfiltered information and comments on economic issues from foreign media and represented a unique feature in Nazi media policy". By acting with the informal means of a foreign cultural and information policy supplementing the military expansion policy, HWWA and IfW dedicated their services to the Nazi regime.
In 1996, a closer cooperation between HWWA and ZBW / Wirtschaftsarchiv began with the aim of merging the two archives. Since the beginning of 2001, the articles were indexed according to a new common classification system and made retrievable via a reference database, "EconPress". Following a recommendation from the evaluation within the Leibniz Association in 2003, the current press documentation was finished at the end of 2005 and the materials were frozen at the level reached; the existence of the HWWA ended in 2007 with the integration of its press documentation and library into the ZBW as a newly formed foundation under public law. Today, the press archive belongs to the infrastructures of the Leibniz Association. By 1919 at the latest, the Hamburg archive collected "press clippings on a global scale"; the archive was subdivided in four sections: The Sacharchiv with subject matter "from all countries and the whole world". For the individual countries and regions, which constituted the primary order criterion, up to 1200 individual topics were recorded.
Further special folders were created for individual events or questions "such as the Boer War, the issue of slavery or the Suez Canal". Since the late 1990s, collecting had focused on "domestic and international economic issues"; the Warenarchiv with national and international raw materials, semi-finished and finished products. The product names are subdivided into 980 upper and 3400 sub-terms. Here and regions represent the secondary order criterion; the Firmenarchiv with business reports, anniversary publications and press clippings of c. 36,000 domestic and foreign companies. In addition, material on several hundred institutions and international organizations and research institutes has been collected; the Personenarchiv with dossiers of about 16,000 people from business, science and society. More than 1400 sources have been evaluated for the press archives, their broad international distribution provides access to the history of political thought and receptive history of the covered topics.
The collected publications go back as far as 1826. While the persons archive was only available in paper form until its partial digitization, the holdings of the topics and companies archives have been saved every ten years on roll film or microfiche since the 1960s and the paper clippings were pulped; the holdings of the Kiel Wirtschaftsarchiv are less comprehensively documented. They are subdivided into a topics archive, which served the research and teaching of the IfW and, microfilmed up to 1945, a personal archive, only in paper form, which contains publications of these persons, a home archive with publications about the IfW itself in paper; the archive on corporate bodies, which in 1958 comprised 4800 companies and more than 5600 German and international scientific and cultural societies and institutions, political parties and trade associations. And represented "one of the most complete collections for twentieth-century business history" is not mentioned any more in the archive's profile.
The "war archive" of 1914-1918, which comprehended one million clippings, was destroyed by a bomb strike in 1942. For 1958, when six scientific experts and more than 30 employees in total were collecting and organizing the material, the total extent of the archive was estimated a