Edmund of Abingdon
Edmund of Abingdon was a 13th-century Archbishop of Canterbury in England. Today he is remembered for his connection to St Edmund Hall, Oxford, St Edmunds College, Cambridge, St Edmunds School, Canterbury and St Edmunds College, Ware. Edmund was born circa 1174, possibly on 20 November, in Abingdon in Berkshire,7 miles south of Oxford and he was the oldest of four children. Rich was an epithet given to his wealthy merchant father. It was never applied to Edmund or his siblings in their lifetimes, Edmund may have been educated at the monastic school in Abingdon. His early studies were in England, but he completed his learning in France at the University of Paris. About 1195, in company with his brother Richard, he was sent to the schools of Paris and he studied at the universities of Oxford and Paris and became a teacher about 1200, or a little earlier. For six years he lectured on mathematics and dialectics, apparently dividing his time between Oxford and Paris, and helped introduce the study of Aristotle.
Edmund became one of Oxfords first lecturers with a Master of Arts, long hours at night spent in prayer had the result that he often nodded off during his lectures. There is a tradition that he utilised his lecture-fees to build the Lady Chapel of St Peters in the East at Oxford. The site where he lived and taught was formed into an academic hall in his name. His mother influenced him towards self-denial and austerity, and this led to his taking up the study of theology, though for some time Edmund resisted the change, he finally entered upon his new career between 1205 and 1210. He received ordination, took a doctorate in divinity and soon known as a lecturer on theology. Some time between 1219 and 1222 he was appointed vicar of the parish of Calne in Wiltshire and treasurer of Salisbury Cathedral and he held this position for eleven years, during which time he engaged in preaching. In 1227 he preached the sixth crusade through a part of England. In 1233 came the news of Edmunds appointment, by Pope Gregory IX, the chapter had already made three selections which the pope had declined to confirm.
Edmunds name had been proposed as a compromise by Gregory, perhaps on account of his work for the crusade and he was consecrated on 2 April 1234. Before his consecration Edmund became known for supporting independence from Rome, maintenance of the Magna Carta
Beaulieu Abbey, grid reference SU389026, was a Cistercian abbey located in Hampshire, England. It was founded in 1203–1204 by King John and peopled by 30 monks sent from the abbey of Cîteaux in France, the Medieval Latin name of the monastery was Bellus Locus Regis or more verbose monasterium Belli loci Regis Two other names of this location are and Beaulie. The first Abbot of Beaulieu was Hugh, a man who stood high in the kings favour and he was to become Bishop of Carlisle. Johns son and successor, King Henry III was equally generous to Beaulieu, with the result that the abbey became very wealthy, the abbeys buildings were of a scale and magnificence reflecting its status as an important royal foundation. The church was a vast cruciform structure in early gothic style and heavily influenced by French churches of the order, especially those of Cîteaux, the church was 102-metre long and had a semi-circular apse with 11 radiating chapels. The building took more than four decades to complete and was dedicated in 1246, in the presence of King Henry III and his queen, Earl of Cornwall.
South of the church stood a cloister, ranged around which were the house, kitchens and quarters for the monks, lay brothers. A separate infirmary complex lay to the east of the main buildings, the abbey was surrounded by workshops, farm buildings, guesthouses, a mill, and extensive gardens and fishponds. Strongly fortified gatehouses controlled entry to the enclosure, which was defended by a wall. A water gate allowed access to ships in the river, Pope Innocent III constituted Beaulieu an exempt abbey, meaning that the abbot had to answer to no bishop save the Pope himself. Among these latter were Anne Neville, wife of Warwick the King-maker, after the battle of Barnet, twenty-six years Perkin Warbeck fled to Beaulieu from the pursuing armies of Henry VII. Monks from Beaulieu founded four daughter houses, Netley Abbey, Hailes Abbey, Newenham Abbey, the last abbot of Beaulieu was Abbot Thomas Stevens, elected in 1536. Stevens was the abbot of the recently dissolved abbey of Netley. Beaulieu managed to survive until April 1538, at which point it was forced to surrender to the government.
Many of the monks were granted pensions, the abbot receiving 100 marks per year, Abbot Thomas ended his days as treasurer of Salisbury Cathedral. Pardons were given to some of the criminals too, including one Thomas Jeynes, as soon as he took over, Wriothesley set about building himself a house on the site. He demolished the church, as was common practice but and this survives — much extended — as the modern country house at Beaulieu known as Palace House. Lord Southampton preserved the monks refectory, which he gave to the people of Beaulieu village to be their parish church, the west range of the abbey, known as the Domus was saved
Beatrice of Savoy
Beatrice of Savoy was the daughter of Thomas I of Savoy and Margaret of Geneva. She was Countess consort of Provence by her marriage to Ramon Berenguer IV and her paternal grandparents were Humbert III, Count of Savoy, and Beatrice of Viennois. Her maternal grandparents were William I, Count of Geneva and Beatrice de Faucigny, Beatrice of Savoys mother, Margaret was betrothed to Philip II of France. While Margaret was travelling to France for her wedding, she was captured by Beatrices father and he took her back to Savoy and married her himself. Thomas excuse was that Philip II was already married, which was true, Beatrice was the tenth of fourteen children born to her parents. Beatrice betrothed on 5 June 1219 to Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence and she was a shrewd and politically astute woman, whose beauty was likened to that of a second Niobe by Matthew Paris. Ramon and Beatrice of Savoy had four daughters, who all lived to adulthood and their only son, Raymond died in early infancy.
Another brother, escorted Beatrice and Sanchia to the English court in Gascony, there they joined Henry and their baby, Beatrice of England. Henry was very happy at this occasion and gave gifts to the various relatives. In November 1243, Beatrice and Sanchia travelled to England for the wedding and this wedding did much to strengthen the bond between Richard and Henry III. In January 1244, Beatrice negotiated a loan for her husband from Henry of four thousand marks, when Ramon Berenguer died on 19 August 1245, he left Provence to his youngest daughter, and his widow was granted the usufruct of the county of Provence for her lifetime. Beatrices daughter and namesake became one of the most attractive heiresses in medieval Europe, the Pope was a target for Fredericks military incursions in France. In Cluny during December 1245, a discussion, between Pope Innocent IV, Louis IX of France, his mother Blanche of Castile, and his brother Charles of Anjou. It was decided that in return for Louis IX supporting the Pope militarily and daughter were satisfied with this selection.
But Provence was to never go to France outright through Charles and it was agreed that if Charles and Beatrice had children, the county would go to them, if there was no issue, the county would go to Sanchia of Provence. If Sanchia died without an heir, Provence would go to the King of Aragon, Henry protested the selection, arguing that he had not yet received the full dowry for Eleanor nor his brother for Sanchia. He still had the castles in Provence against the loan he had made to the former count, when Charles took over the administration of Provence in 1246, he did not respect Beatrices rights within the county. She sought the aid of Barral of Baux and the Pope in protecting her rights within the area, the citizens of Marseille and Arles joined this resistance to Capetian control
It is one of the United Kingdoms most notable religious buildings and the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English and, British monarchs. Between 1540 and 1556, the abbey had the status of a cathedral, since 1560, the building is no longer an abbey nor a cathedral, having instead the status of a Church of England Royal Peculiar—a church responsible directly to the sovereign. The building itself is the abbey church. According to a tradition first reported by Sulcard in about 1080, a church was founded at the site in the 7th century, at the time of Mellitus, construction of the present church began in 1245, on the orders of King Henry III. Since the coronation of William the Conqueror in 1066, all coronations of English and British monarchs have held in Westminster Abbey. There have been at least 16 royal weddings at the abbey since 1100, two were of reigning monarchs, before 1919, there had been none for some 500 years. The first reports of the abbey are based on a tradition claiming that a young fisherman called Aldrich on the River Thames saw a vision of Saint Peter near the site.
This seems to be quoted to justify the gifts of salmon from Thames fishermen that the abbey received in years, in the present was, the Fishmongers Company still gives a salmon every year. The proven origins are that in the 960s or early 970s, Saint Dunstan, assisted by King Edgar, between 1042 and 1052, King Edward the Confessor began rebuilding St Peters Abbey to provide himself with a royal burial church. It was the first church in England built in the Romanesque style, the building was completed around 1090 and was consecrated on 28 December 1065, only a week before Edwards death on 5 January 1066. A week later, he was buried in the church, nine years and his successor, Harold II, was probably crowned in the abbey, although the first documented coronation is that of William the Conqueror the same year. The only extant depiction of Edwards abbey, together with the adjacent Palace of Westminster, is in the Bayeux Tapestry, construction of the present church was begun in 1245 by Henry III who selected the site for his burial.
The abbot and monks, in proximity to the royal Palace of Westminster, the abbot often was employed on royal service and in due course took his place in the House of Lords as of right. The abbey built shops and dwellings on the west side, encroaching upon the sanctuary, the abbey became the coronation site of Norman kings. The Confessors shrine subsequently played a part in his canonisation. The work continued between 1245 and 1517 and was finished by the architect Henry Yevele in the reign of Richard II. Henry III commissioned the unique Cosmati pavement in front of the High Altar, Henry VII added a Perpendicular style chapel dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary in 1503. Much of the came from Caen, in France, the Isle of Portland
Hampshire is a county on the southern coast of England in the United Kingdom. The county town of Hampshire is Winchester, the capital city of England. The larger South Hampshire metropolitan area has a population of 1,547,000, Hampshire is notable for housing the birthplaces of the Royal Navy, British Army, and Royal Air Force. It is bordered by Dorset to the west, Wiltshire to the north-west, Berkshire to the north, Surrey to the north-east, the southern boundary is the coastline of the English Channel and the Solent, facing the Isle of Wight. At its greatest size in 1890, Hampshire was the fifth largest county in England and it now has an overall area of 3,700 square kilometres, and measures about 86 kilometres east–west and 76 kilometres north–south. Hampshires tourist attractions include many seaside resorts and two parks, the New Forest and the South Downs. Hampshire has a maritime history and two of Europes largest ports and Southampton, lie on its coast. The county is famed as home of writers Jane Austen and Charles Dickens, Hampshire takes its name from the settlement that is now the city of Southampton.
Southampton was known in Old English as Hamtun, roughly meaning village-town, the old name was recorded in the Domesday book as Hantescire, and it is from this spelling that the modern abbreviation Hants derives. From 1889 until 1959, the county was named the County of Southampton and has been known as Southamptonshire. The region is believed to have continuously occupied since the end of the last Ice Age about 12,000 BCE. At this time Britain was still attached to the European continent and was covered with deciduous woodland. The first inhabitants came overland from Europe, these were anatomically and behaviourally modern humans, notable sites from this period include Bouldnor Cliff. Agriculture had arrived in southern Britain by 4000 BCE, and with it a neolithic culture, some deforestation took place at that time, although it was during the Bronze Age, beginning in 2200 BCE, that this became more widespread and systematic. Hampshire has few monuments to show from early periods, although nearby Stonehenge was built in several phases at some time between 3100 BCE and 2200 BCE.
It is maintained that by this period the people of Britain predominantly spoke a Celtic language, hillforts largely declined in importance in the second half of the second century BCE, with many being abandoned. Julius Caesar invaded southeastern England briefly in 55 and again in 54 BCE, notable sites from this period include Hengistbury Head, which was a major port. There is a Museum of the Iron Age in Andover, the Romans invaded Britain again in 43 CE, and Hampshire was incorporated into the Roman province of Britannia very quickly
Eleanor of Castile
Eleanor of Castile was an English queen, the first wife of Edward I, whom she married as part of a political deal to affirm English sovereignty over Gascony. The marriage was known to be close, and Eleanor travelled extensively with her husband. She was with him on the Eighth Crusade, when he was wounded at Acre, when she died, near Lincoln, her husband famously ordered a stone cross to be erected at each stopping-place on the journey to London, ending at Charing Cross. Eleanor was better educated than most medieval queens and exerted a strong influence on the nation. She was a patron of literature, and encouraged the use of tapestries and tableware in the Spanish style. She was a businesswoman, endowed with her own fortune as Countess of Ponthieu. Eleanor was born in Burgos, daughter of Ferdinand III of Castile and Joan and her Castilian name, became Alienor or Alianor in England, and Eleanor in modern English. She was named after her paternal great-grandmother, Eleanor of England, Eleanor was the second of five children born to Ferdinand and Joan.
Her elder brother Ferdinand was born in 1239/40, her younger brother Louis in 1242/43, for the ceremonies in 1291 marking the first anniversary of Eleanors death,49 candlebearers were paid to walk in the public procession to commemorate each year of her life. Since the custom was to have one candle for each year of the life,49 candles would date Eleanors birth to the year 1241. The courts of her father and her half-brother Alfonso X of Castile were known for their literary atmosphere and she was at her fathers deathbed in Seville in 1252. Eleanors marriage in 1254 to the future Edward I of England was not the first marriage her family planned for her. To avoid Castilian control, Margaret of Bourbon in August 1253 allied with James I of Aragon instead, Henry III of England swiftly countered Alfonsos claims with both diplomatic and military moves. The young couple married at the monastery of Las Huelgas, following the marriage they spent nearly a year in Gascony, with Edward ruling as lord of Aquitaine.
During this time Eleanor, aged thirteen and a half, almost certainly gave birth to her first child and she journeyed to England alone in late summer of 1255. Edward followed her a few months later, Henry III took pride in resolving the Gascon crisis so decisively, but his English subjects feared that the marriage would bring Eleanors kinfolk and countrymen to live off Henrys ruinous generosity. A few of her relatives did come to England soon after her marriage and she was too young to stop them or prevent Henry III from supporting them, but she was blamed anyway and her marriage soon became unpopular. Interestingly enough, Eleanors mother had been spurned in marriage by Henry III and her great-grandmother, Alys of France, there is little record of Eleanors life in England until the 1260s, when the Second Barons War, between Henry III and his barons, divided the kingdom
Henry III of England
Henry III, known as Henry of Winchester, was King of England, Lord of Ireland and Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death. The son of King John and Isabella of Angoulême, Henry assumed the throne when he was nine in the middle of the First Barons War. Cardinal Guala declared the war against the barons to be a religious crusade and Henrys forces, led by William Marshal, defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln. Henry promised to abide by the Great Charter of 1225, which limited royal power and his early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh and Peter des Roches, who re-established royal authority after the war. In 1230 the King attempted to reconquer the provinces of France that had belonged to his father. A revolt led by William Marshals son, broke out in 1232, following the revolt, Henry ruled England personally, rather than governing through senior ministers. He travelled less than previous monarchs, investing heavily in a handful of his palaces and castles. He married Eleanor of Provence, with whom he had five children, in a fresh attempt to reclaim his familys lands in France, he invaded Poitou in 1242, leading to the disastrous Battle of Taillebourg.
After this, Henry relied on diplomacy, cultivating an alliance with Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. Henry supported his brother Richard in his bid to become King of the Romans in 1256 and he planned to go on crusade to the Levant, but was prevented from doing so by rebellions in Gascony. The baronial regime collapsed but Henry was unable to reform a stable government, in 1263 one of the more radical barons, Simon de Montfort, seized power, resulting in the Second Barons War. Henry persuaded Louis to support his cause and mobilised an army, the Battle of Lewes occurred in 1264, where Henry was defeated and taken prisoner. Henrys eldest son, escaped captivity to defeat de Montfort at the Battle of Evesham the following year. Henry initially enacted a harsh revenge on the rebels, but was persuaded by the Church to mollify his policies through the Dictum of Kenilworth. Reconstruction was slow and Henry had to acquiesce to various measures, including suppression of the Jews, to maintain baronial.
Henry died in 1272, leaving Edward as his successor and he was buried in Westminster Abbey, which he had rebuilt in the second half of his reign, and was moved to his current tomb in 1290. Some miracles were declared after his death but he was not canonised, Henry was born in Winchester Castle on 1 October 1207. He was the eldest son of King John and Isabella of Angoulême, little is known of Henrys early life
Canterbury Cathedral in Canterbury, Kent, is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England. It forms part of a World Heritage Site and its formal title is the Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of Christ at Canterbury. Founded in 597, the cathedral was rebuilt from 1070 to 1077. The Norman nave and transepts survived until the fourteenth century. Christianity had started to become powerful in the Roman Empire around the third century, following the conversion of Augustine of Hippo in the 4th century, the influence of Christianity grew steadily. The cathedrals first bishop was Augustine of Canterbury, previously abbot of St. Andrews Benedictine Abbey in Rome and he was sent by Pope Gregory the Great in 596 as a missionary to the Anglo-Saxons. Augustine founded the cathedral in 597 and dedicated it to Jesus Christ, Augustine founded the Abbey of St. Peter and Paul outside the city walls. This was rededicated to St. Augustine himself and was for centuries the burial place of the successive archbishops.
The abbey is part of the World Heritage Site of Canterbury, along with the cathedral, bede recorded that Augustine reused a former Roman church. The oldest remains found during excavations beneath the present nave in 1993 were, parts of the foundations of an Anglo-Saxon building and they indicate that the original church consisted of a nave, possibly with a narthex, and side-chapels to the north and south. A smaller subsidiary building was found to the south-west of these foundations, during the ninth or tenth century this church was replaced by a larger structure with a squared west end. It appears to have had a central tower. During the reforms of Dunstan, archbishop from 960 until his death in 988, but the formal establishment as a monastery seems to date only to c.997 and the community only became fully monastic from Lanfrancs time onwards. Dunstan was buried on the side of the high altar. The cathedral was damaged during Danish raids on Canterbury in 1011. The Archbishop, Ælfheah, was taken hostage by the raiders and eventually killed at Greenwich on 19 April 1012, after this a western apse was added as an oratory of St.
Mary, probably during the archbishopric of Lyfing or Aethelnoth. The 1993 excavations revealed that the new apse was polygonal. It housed the archbishops throne, with the altar of St Mary just to the east, at about the same time that the westwork was built, the arcade walls were strengthened and towers added to the eastern corners of the church
Amesbury /ˈeɪmzbəri/ is a town and civil parish in Wiltshire, England. It is most famous for the monument of Stonehenge which is in its parish. It has been confirmed by archaeologists that it is the oldest continuously occupied settlement in the United Kingdom, King Alfred the Great left it in his will, a copy of which is in the British Library, to his youngest son Aethelweard. Eleanor of Provence, queen of England, died in Amesbury on 24 or 25 June 1291, the parish includes the hamlets of Ratfyn and West Amesbury, and most of Boscombe Down military airfield. Amesbury is located in southern Wiltshire,7 miles north of Salisbury on the A345 and it sits in the River Avon valley on the southern fringes of Salisbury Plain and has historically been considered an important river crossing area on the road from London to Warminster and Exeter. This has continued into the present with the building of the A303 across the Avon next to the town, the nearest railway station is located at nearby Grateley, on the London to Salisbury line.
The land around Amesbury has been settled since prehistoric times, evidenced by the monument of Stonehenge and they are now on display at Salisbury and South Wiltshire Museum. Amesbury is recognized as the oldest continuously occupied UK settlement, during the Iron Age a large hill fort now known as Vespasians Camp was built alongside the Avenue and overlooking the River Avon. The fort could easily have catered for up to 1000 people and it is likely that there was a large Romano-British settlement overlooking the River Avon at this point. It has been suggested that the name of Amesbury is derived from Ambrosius Aurelianus, if this is the case he is likely to have used the hill fort as a stronghold. It is possible that an order of monks established a monastery in the area that was destroyed by the Saxons before they settled the area in the 7th century. Amesbury is associated with the Arthurian legend, the convent to which Guinevere retired was said to have been the one at Amesbury. In 979 AD a Benedictine abbey, the Abbey of St Mary, in 1177 the abbey was dissolved by Henry II and replaced with a double priory of the Fontevrault order.
Eleanor of Provence was buried in the abbey on 11 September 1291, Amesbury became an estate and was given to Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford by the crown. On John Speeds map of Wiltshire, the name is spelt both Amesbury and Ambersbury. The Seymour family held Amesbury estate until 1675 and had several homes built, including Kent and Diana houses. The estate subsequently passed to the Bruce family, and to Lord Carleton and it remained in the Queensberry family until 1824. The mansion remained in their hands until 1979, by a decree in Chancery of 1831, the freedom of the grammar school was extended to children of mechanics and small tradesmen
Edward II of England
Edward II, called Edward of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until he was deposed in January 1327. The fourth son of Edward I, Edward became the heir to the following the death of his older brother Alphonso. Beginning in 1300, Edward accompanied his father on campaigns to pacify Scotland, Edward succeeded to the throne in 1307, following his fathers death. In 1308, he married Isabella of France, the daughter of the powerful King Philip IV, Edward had a close and controversial relationship with Piers Gaveston, who had joined his household in 1300. The precise nature of Edward and Gavestons relationship is uncertain, they may have been friends, Gavestons arrogance and power as Edwards favourite provoked discontent both among the barons and the French royal family, and Edward was forced to exile him. On Gavestons return, the barons pressured the King into agreeing to wide-ranging reforms called the Ordinances of 1311, the newly empowered barons banished Gaveston, to which Edward responded by revoking the reforms and recalling his favourite.
Led by Edwards cousin, the Earl of Lancaster, a group of the barons seized and executed Gaveston in 1312, English forces were pushed back in Scotland, where Edward was decisively defeated by Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. Widespread famine followed, and criticism of the Kings reign mounted, in response, Edward led a short military campaign and executing Lancaster. Edward and the Despensers strengthened their grip on power, revoking the 1311 reforms, executing their enemies, unable to make progress in Scotland, Edward finally signed a truce with Robert. Opposition to the regime grew, and when Isabella was sent to France to negotiate a treaty in 1325, she turned against Edward. Isabella allied herself with the exiled Roger Mortimer, and invaded England with an army in 1326. Edwards regime collapsed and he fled into Wales, where he was captured in November, Edwards relationship with Gaveston inspired Christopher Marlowes 1592 play Edward II, along with other plays, films and media.
Many of these have focused on the sexual relationship between the two men. Debate has continued into the 21st century as to whether Edward was a lazy and incompetent king, or simply a reluctant, Edward II was the fourth son of Edward I and his first wife, Eleanor of Castile. His father was the King of England, and had inherited Gascony in south-western France, which he held as the vassal of the King of France. His mother was from the Castilian royal family, and held the County of Ponthieu in northern France, Edward I proved to be a successful military leader, leading the suppression of the baronial revolts in the 1260s, and joining the Ninth Crusade. During the 1280s he conquered North Wales, removing the native Welsh princes from power and he was considered an extremely successful ruler by his contemporaries, largely able to control the powerful earls that formed the senior ranks of the English nobility. The historian Michael Prestwich describes Edward I as a king to inspire fear and respect, despite his successes, when Edward I died in 1307 he left a range of challenges for his son to resolve
Beatrice of England
Beatrice of England, known as Beatrice de Dreux, was a Princess of England as the daughter of King Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence. She and her family were members of the Royal house of Plantagenet, Beatrice was the second eldest daughter of King Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence. According to Matthew Paris, she was born in Bordeaux, France on the Nativity of St. John the Baptist, Beatrices childhood was plagued by tragedy, and the stresses of her fathers reign coupled with her mothers unpopularity with the English people. Her oldest brother Edward became dangerously ill when she was very young, though he recovered, Beatrices youngest sister Katharine died at a very young age leaving Beatrices parents grief-stricken. Katharine, who possibly had a disease that had caused her to become deaf. The English were unhappy with King Henry III owing to the influence that Eleanor and her Savoyard kinsmen exercised on the monarchy, in 1263, Eleanor was sailing on a barge that was attacked by London citizens.
This harsh, bitter dislike created several problems for Henry III, on the other hand and Henry enjoyed a happy marriage, and Beatrice grew up in a loving environment, close to her siblings. At one point, Henry conducted negotiations for Beatrice to marry the king of France, when she was eighteen she married John de Dreux, heir to the duchy of Brittany. Her death was said to have occurred in childbirth, but the dates do not bear out this theory. John II honoured his wife with a chantry, a chapel on private land or within a greater church. Beatrice was buried at Grey Friars Church in Greenwich and her husband succeeded as duke 11 years after her death, therefore Beatrice was never styled Duchess of Brittany. Though little information is available concerning Beatrices activities, she was an important part of English history and her marriage to John II helped forge an alliance with France, thus placing the Earldom of Richmond under the so-called shield of England. During Henrys reign, there was opposition to him in England.
At a time when Simon de Montfort wanted to strip the king of some of his power to give more say to the barons, it was necessary for Henry to strengthen his rule via family marriages to useful people. His first daughter had married the King of Scotland, and Beatrices marriage to John II, moreover, a substantial number of French nobles came to England and could be appointed to political positions. When Henry was crowned, very few areas within the Angevin empire, the marriage of Beatrice and John II would prove to be useful for Henry III, if only to help Henry recover Poitou. Now Henry had English security and influence on the border. Though Henry was planning on regaining Poitou, he was defeated after his campaign, because he could not regain Poitou, his domains were small compared to the Angevin empire
Edmund Crouchback, a member of the House of Plantagenet, was the second surviving son of Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence. In his childhood he had a claim on the Kingdom of Sicily, in 1265 he was granted all the lands of Simon de Montfort and from 1267 he was titled Earl of Leicester. In that year he began to rule Lancashire, but he did not take the title Earl of Lancaster until 1276. Between 1276 and 1284 he governed the counties of Champagne and Brie with his wife, Blanche of Artois. His nickname, refers to his participation in the Ninth Crusade and he was a younger brother of Edward I, and Beatrice, and an older brother of Catherine. In 1255 he was invested ruler of the Kingdom of Sicily by the Bishop of Romania, in return his father undertook to pay the papacy 135,541 marks and fight a war to dislodge the Hohenstaufen king Manfred. Upon Innocents death, Pope Alexander IV confirmed Edmunds grant of Sicily, henrys barons refused to contribute to what they called the Sicilian business and ultimately Henry was only able to pay 60,000 marks.
Stephen Runciman says the grant of the kingdom was revoked by Pope Alexander IV on 18 December 1258, Baines and he was granted the honour of the Stewardship of England and the lands of Nicolas de Segrave. He acquired the titles and estates of Lord Ferrers, that included the earldom of Derby, in 1267 he was granted the lordship of Builth Wells in opposition to the holder, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd. To help him conquer the land he was granted his elder brothers lordships of the Trilateral of Skenfrith, Grosmont. After the civil war in 1267, he was appointed High Sheriff of Lancashire, Henry III created his second son Earl of Leicester in 1267, granting the honour and privileges of that city. The following year, he was made Constable of Leicester Castle, by now Crouchback had a reputation for being a ruthless and ferocious warrior, but he was not in England fighting de Montfort. In 1271 he accompanied his elder brother Edward on the Ninth Crusade to Palestine. Edmund remained loyal to his brother, Edward I, who confirmed the Charter grants of 1265,1267, and 1268-9, in a document of Inspeximus in 1284 and he frequently acted as an ambassador abroad.
In 1291, he was sent as Governor of Ponthieu, on behalf of his second wife, on his return from the Crusade of 1271-2 he seems to have made Grosmont Castle his favoured home and undertook much rebuilding there. His son Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster was apparently born there in 1281, Edmunds duty to the church included the foundation of a Nuns of Clara or Poor Clares nunnery at Minories, St Aldates. In 1291, his estate paid for the establishment for the Chapel of Savoy, in memory of his mother, filial piety was part of the chivalric code of an honourable knight. He was a benefactor to the monastery of Grace Dieu in Leicestershire