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Electric generator

In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts motive power into electrical power for use in an external circuit. Sources of mechanical energy include steam turbines, gas turbines, water turbines, internal combustion engines, wind turbines and hand cranks; the first electromagnetic generator, the Faraday disk, was invented in 1831 by British scientist Michael Faraday. Generators provide nearly all of the power for electric power grids; the reverse conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy is done by an electric motor, motors and generators have many similarities. Many motors can be mechanically driven to generate electricity and make acceptable manual generators. Electromagnetic generators fall into one of two broad categories and alternators. Dynamos generate pulsing direct current through the use of a commutator. Alternators generate alternating current. Mechanically a generator consists of a rotating part and a stationary part: Rotor The rotating part of an electrical machine.

Stator The stationary part of an electrical machine, which surrounds the rotor. One of these parts generates a magnetic field, the other has a wire winding in which the changing field induces an electric current: Field winding or field magnets The magnetic field producing component of an electrical machine; the magnetic field of the dynamo or alternator can be provided by either wire windings called field coils or permanent magnets. Electrically-excited generators include an excitation system to produce the field flux. A generator using permanent magnets is sometimes called a magneto, or permanent magnet synchronous generators. Armature The power-producing component of an electrical machine. In a generator, alternator, or dynamo, the armature windings generate the electric current, which provides power to an external circuit; the armature can be on either the rotor or the stator, depending on the design, with the field coil or magnet on the other part. Before the connection between magnetism and electricity was discovered, electrostatic generators were invented.

They operated on electrostatic principles, by using moving electrically charged belts and disks that carried charge to a high potential electrode. The charge was generated using either of two mechanisms: electrostatic induction or the triboelectric effect; such generators generated high voltage and low current. Because of their inefficiency and the difficulty of insulating machines that produced high voltages, electrostatic generators had low power ratings, were never used for generation of commercially significant quantities of electric power, their only practical applications were to power early X-ray tubes, in some atomic particle accelerators. The operating principle of electromagnetic generators was discovered in the years of 1831–1832 by Michael Faraday; the principle called Faraday's law, is that an electromotive force is generated in an electrical conductor which encircles a varying magnetic flux. He built the first electromagnetic generator, called the Faraday disk, it produced a small DC voltage.

This design was inefficient, due to self-cancelling counterflows of current in regions of the disk that were not under the influence of the magnetic field. While current was induced directly underneath the magnet, the current would circulate backwards in regions that were outside the influence of the magnetic field; this counterflow limited the power output to the pickup wires, induced waste heating of the copper disc. Homopolar generators would solve this problem by using an array of magnets arranged around the disc perimeter to maintain a steady field effect in one current-flow direction. Another disadvantage was that the output voltage was low, due to the single current path through the magnetic flux. Experimenters found that using multiple turns of wire in a coil could produce higher, more useful voltages. Since the output voltage is proportional to the number of turns, generators could be designed to produce any desired voltage by varying the number of turns. Wire windings became a basic feature of all subsequent generator designs.

Independently of Faraday, Ányos Jedlik started experimenting in 1827 with the electromagnetic rotating devices which he called electromagnetic self-rotors. In the prototype of the single-pole electric starter both the stationary and the revolving parts were electromagnetic, it was the discovery of the principle of dynamo self-excitation, which replaced permanent magnet designs. He may have formulated the concept of the dynamo in 1861 but didn't patent it as he thought he wasn't the first to realize this. A coil of wire rotating in a magnetic field produces a current which changes direction with each 180° rotation, an alternating current; however many early uses of electricity required direct current. In the first practical electric generators, called dynamos, the AC was converted into DC with a commutator, a set of rotating switch contacts on the armature shaft; the commutator reversed the connection of the armature winding to the circuit every 180° rotation of the shaft, creating a pulsing DC current.

One of the first dynamos was built by Hippolyte Pixii in 1832. The dynamo was the first electrical generator capable of delivering power for industry; the Woolrich Electrical Generator of 1844, now in Thinktank, Birmingham Science Museum, is the earliest electrical generator used in an industrial process. It was used by the firm of Elkingtons for commercial electroplating; the modern dynamo, fit for use in industrial applications, was invented independently by Sir Charle

Fake Songs

Fake Songs is an album by American musician Liam Lynch, released on April 1, 2003 through S-Curve Records and distributed worldwide by Capitol Records. The album is known for featuring his best-known song "United States of Whatever", released as a single in 2002; the album features a bonus DVD that compiles two-hours of various shorts and skits created by Lynch in his home studio. An early version of the album, containing an alternative track list with songs unique to that version, was released in 2000 through Lynch's 111 Productions imprint. During the first two seasons of Liam Lynch's show The Sifl and Olly Show, Lynch wrote and recorded comedic tracks, some of which not only appearing on Fake Songs but being featured on the show itself, such as "United States of Whatever"; the track was featured on a sampler album, where fans burned CD-R copies of it. One burned disc got into the hands of the Los Angeles radio station KROQ, in which the track grew in popularity through repeated requests. Lynch would soon give Global Warming Records the right to release the track as a single in the UK in 2002.

The sudden popularity of the single resulted in Lynch getting a one-album deal with S-Curve Records. As the title suggests, some songs on this record are parodies of specific artists. Liam describes these songs as being "musical caricatures"; the tracks "Try Me" and "Cuz You Do" were re-recorded for this album, featuring Ringo Starr, of The Beatles fame, on drums. The track "Rock and Roll Whore" is a duet song between Lynch and Jack Black of Tenacious D, a band with whom Lynch is friends. Lynch directed the music video for the band's music video for their song "Tribute" as well as their 2006 feature-length film Tenacious D in The Pick of Destiny. "Electrician's Day" was taken from Lynch's 2000 comedy album History of America? with Matt Crocco, creator of The Sifl and Olly Show Four other post-Fake Songs parodies by Liam Lynch are known to exist. They are as follows: "Fake White Stripes Song" - 2:49 "Fake Beatles Song" - 1:41 "Fake Dylan Melody" - 2:13 "Fake Dylan - Gears of Wear" - 1:13Both of the fake Bob Dylan songs have been featured on his Podcast, along with appearing on the corresponding album, More Songs From Lynchland.

"Fake Beatles Song" was never meant to be part of the collection of fake songs. Liam had made the song with intent of showing it to Beatles cover band, The Fab Four so that when they played it live, the audience would think it was a never before heard song by The Beatles. A music video was produced for the album's lead single "United States of Whatever". Lynch was invited to perform the track on the British TV show Top of the Pops, however was unable to attend the show, so instead he produced a music video for the show to use instead in a single day. A second single, released as a promo, was made of the track "Still Wasted from the Party Last Night" in 2003; the single was released with little to no airplay and did not had a video produced for it. A video was produced years for Lynch's online podcast Lynchland. With the exception of a few live TV show performances, Lynch did not tour to support the album. According to Lynch, S-Curve did offer him a budget to use for touring, however he instead ask them to use the budget to produce short television commercials for the album as well as package the album with the Fake Movies bonus DVD.

Fake Songs has received mixed reviews. On the review aggregate site Metacritic, the album has a score of 52 out of 100, indicating "Mixed or average reviews." Some critics praised the album's humor. MacKenzie Wilson of Allmusic stated that the album "is a hilarious effort loaded with satirical song parodies and rock n' roll spoofs" and gave the record a 4 out of 5 rating. Ink19 writer Aaron Shaul on the other hand found the humor to be flat and criticized the use of non-comedic songs and the Fake Movies bonus DVD. All tracks are written by Liam Lynch. Liam Lynch - performance, production, design Jennifer Robbins - design Bruce Sugar - engineering Brian Hardin - mixing Allen Scott - photography Jack Black - vocals on "Rock and Roll Whore" Ringo Starr - drums on "Try Me" and "Cuz You Do" 2000 edition of Fake Songs official website

Gastón Montero

Gastón Eduardo Montero is an Argentine professional footballer who plays as a defender for Deportivo Riestra. Montero started his career with Primera División side Vélez Sarsfield. After five top-flight appearances for the club, Montero moved across the division in 2008 to Gimnasia y Esgrima, he participated in five fixtures in both 2008 -- 09 campaigns. Montero departed midway through the latter, he scored on his debut for them, netting in a 3–2 victory over Defensa y Justicia on 13 February 2009. A further goal against Instituto arrived in eighteen total appearances. Montero split his time in the 2009–10 season with San Martín namesakes from San Juan and San Miguel de Tucumán. After spending twelve months with Platense in Primera B Metropolitana, Montero completed a move to Estudiantes on 13 July 2011, his first goal for them came in a 1–1 draw on 14 October 2012 with Brown, a fixture that saw him sent off in stoppage time. Deportivo Morón became Montero's eighth team in mid-2014, though the defender would depart in the succeeding January to fellow third tier outfit Deportivo Riestra.

Eighty-seven matches and three goals came across 2015, 2016 and 2016–17, with the latter concluding with promotion via the play-offs. As of 2 June 2019. Gastón Montero at Soccerway

Kentucky Route 2155

Kentucky Route 2155 is an urban secondary north–south state highway located in Owensboro in northwest Kentucky. KY 2155 begins at an interchange with Wendell H. Ford Expressway and US 231 on the south side of Owensboro, it follows New Hartford Road north of the expressway follows a one-way couplet. Northbound lanes follow Breckinridge Street, while KY 2155 southbound follows Triplet Street, it intersects Parrish Avenue. It continues as a one-way couplet. There, KY 2155 follows Fifth Street until it reaches its northern terminus at the junction with J. R. Miller Boulevard in downtown Owensboro; the state assigned KY 71 to follow this alignment on Hartford Road, along with the current alignment of KY 298 throughout Daviess County from its 1929 inception until 1952, when US 231 took over all of KY 71's original alignment. The KY 2155 designation came to the road in the 2001–02 fiscal year, when US 231 was rerouted onto the Wendell H. Ford Expressway and US 60 south and east of town to follow a new alignment to the then-new William H. Natcher Bridge into Spencer County, Indiana.

From 2002 until 2011, KY 2155 followed the J. R. Miller Boulevard onto the Owensboro Bridge to terminate at the Kentucky-Indiana state line and the Ohio River. KY 2262 was newly designated onto that route in 2011; the entire route is in Daviess County. US 231 at

Wawatam Lighthouse

Wawatam Lighthouse is an automated, modern lighthouse that guards the harbor of St. Ignace, Michigan in the Straits of Mackinac, it was erected near Monroe, Michigan as an iconic roadside attraction in 1998, was first lit as an aid to navigation in St. Ignace in August 2006; the current lighthouse was built in 1998 as an architectural folly at the Monroe Welcome Center on Interstate 75 near Monroe, Michigan in the southeastern corner of the state near the Ohio border. It was a functional lighthouse structure, constructed far away from navigational waters as an element of the tourist heritage of the state. In 2004, the Michigan Department of Transportation decided to renovate the center and declared the structure obsolete, it was scheduled to be demolished. After concerns were raised about this decision, the state government agreed that the structure should be dismantled and moved to a location where it would be useful. Serendipitously, while attending a conference for municipal officials, St. Ignace civic leaders learned of its availability.

They applied to serve as the location of the small tower, the lighthouse was disassembled into five pieces and trucked more than 330 miles from Monroe to East Moran Bay in St. Ignace; when it was at the Welcome Center, the hexagonal tower was painted red trim. The original lighthouse was welded by a single man: Ed Morris, owner of the Morris Machine Shop in Bay City, was chosen because of his skill as a welder; the original plans called for a 36 foot tall structure, but he went to the larger height of 52 foot to "challenge himself". The lighthouse was one of three; the other two were at New Buffalo and Clare, Michigan. Morris worked with eight men and it took about three months to complete the projects; as Morris explained to the St. Ignace News, "His lighthouses were to be designed as museum-quality attractions at welcome centers... to make an imposing first impression on visitors." They had a 12 foot diameter base. Morris opined, he suggested that its steel structure should make it resistant to storms.

Transporting the structure by truck north from Monroe to St. Ignace cost $20,000; the move and erection cost $50,000. Half was provided by the Michigan Waterways Commission. Small community donations paid the rest; the lighthouse was reassembled using a crane in 2006. Based upon a survey of residents, it was named Wawatam Lighthouse in honor of a railroad car ferry, home-ported in St. Ignace for many decades, SS Chief Wawatam. After reassembly, the Wawatam Lighthouse was relit on August 20, 2006; the lighthouse is now an official United States Coast Guard maintained aid to navigation, USCG 7-12608, on Lake Huron. Maintenance is by the city of St. Ignace. Public access is by walking the pier; the chosen location for the rebuilt lighthouse was the former St. Ignace railroad pier built in the 1800s as the home port of a train ferry. Operated by a joint venture that included St. Ignace's Duluth, South Shore and Atlantic Railway, the ferry shuttled railroad cars across the Straits of Mackinac. Starting soon after its launch date in 1911, these duties were fulfilled by the 338 foot long Chief Wawatam.

Designed by Frank E. Kirby and built by the Toledo Shipbuilding Company, the Chief "carried as many as 28 rail cars per trip between Mackinaw City and St. Ignace." The ferry boat, in turn, had been named in honor of a leading Straits of Mackinac local resident of the 1700s, the Odawa clan leader Wawatam. The St. Ignace dock collapsed in 1984, in 1986 the successor railroad abandoned the last rail link to St. Ignace; this ended the ferry era. A truncated stretch of tracks and the track elevator are still visible. On the dock, within a short distance from the light, is a 6 foot tall wooden statue honoring Chief Wawatam. Erected in 2012 by the city, it was designed and carved by Tom Paquin and Sally Paquin, local artists; the new Lighthouse is duly noted on newer navigational charts. The light operates year-round, it not only guides mariners, but is a beacon for snowmobilers traveling across the frozen Straits of Mackinac to and from Mackinac Island in winter. The lighthouse and harbor serve Coast Guard ice breakers, e.g. the tug Katmai Bay and heavy duty breaker Mackinaw.

The lighthouse was the featured lighthouse of the Michigan Lighthouse festival in 2015. It is the subject of a jig saw puzzle; as of 2017, this was the latest addition to Michigan's 150 listed lighthouses. Prior to that, the Tricentennial Lighthouse in Detroit's William G. Milliken State Park was opened in 2003; the Wawatam Lighthouse is located in downtown St. Ignace, at the eastern end of McCann Street near its intersection with North State Street, St. Ignace's main waterfront highway. "Wawatam Lighthouse". Michigan Lighthouse Guide. Retrieved April 25, 2017. Roach, Jerry; the Ultimate Guide to Upper Michigan Lighthouses. Durand, Michigan: Bugs Pub. p. 113. ISBN 9780974797724. Ellison, Garret. "The freeze is on: Coast Guard begins ice-breaking on western Great Lakes". Mlive. Retrieved April 30, 2017. Final survey, Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway Navigation Extension: Environmental Impact Statement. 5. Detroit, Michigan: U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. August 1979. P. 95. Retrieved April 30, 2017. "USCG Cutter Mackinaw Icebreaker Moored in Sault Ste.

Marie, Michigan". March 20, 2014. Retrieved April 30, 2017 – via YouTube. Brey, James. "Boat cruises passed scenic Wawatam Lighthouse in colorful light of dawn, Sain

737 Naval Air Squadron

737 Naval Air Squadron was a squadron of the Fleet Air Arm which operated Westland Wessex HAS.3 rescue helicopters from their land base at RNAS Portland, Dorset. The squadron was formed on 22 February 1943; the squadron reformed on 30 March 1949. From 28 August 1959 the squadron only used helicopters. 737 NAS was assigned to operate from Helicopter Support Ship RFA Engadine and from the flight decks of the eight County Class guided missile destroyers, including HMS Glamorgan, HMS Antrim and HMS Norfolk. 737 Squadron supported flights on these destroyers in addition to providing aircrew training at RNAS Portland. In their ship-borne, anti-submarine role, the HAS.3s could carry two Mark 44 torpedoes or Mark 46 torpedoes or four Mk.11 Depth Charges in addition to their Plessey dipping Sonar. They could be fitted with a door-mounted Machine gun and act as a self-contained unit, handling all operations of Anti-submarine warfare. Throughout the late 1970s most of the Wessex HAS.3 helicopters at RNAS Portland were being replaced by Westland Sea Kings, which could carry more torpedoes or depth charges and had the security of twin engines, with extended endurance.

A few HAS.3s, remained in service until after the Falklands War period in 1982. One of these, XP142, was damaged near San Carlos Water, was replaced by XM328, on HMS Antrim, in November 1982. XM328 sailed with HMS Antrim on her second deployment to the South Atlantic. HMS Antrim was the Flagship of Operation Paraquet, the recovery of South Georgia in April 1982, her helicopter, the Westland Wessex HAS.3 XP142, nicknamed "Humphrey", was responsible for the remarkable rescue of 16 SAS men from Fortuna Glacier and the subsequent detection and disabling of the Argentinian submarine Santa Fe. Another HAS.3, XM837, was lost in June 1982 when an Exocet missile hit the hangar on the destroyer HMS Glamorgan. XM328 was transferred to 772 Naval Air Squadron when 737 Squadron disbanded on 4 February 1983; the squadron operated a variety of different aircraft and versions: Supermarine Walrus Fairey Swordfish II Avro Anson I Fairey Barracuda TR.3 Supermarine Seafire F.15 & F.17 Fairey Firefly FR.1/T.1/T.2/FR.4/AS.5 & AS.6 Fairey Gannet AS.1 & T.2 Westland Whirlwind HAR.3, HAS.7 & HAS.22 Westland Wessex HAS.1 & HAS.3 Westland Sea King HAS.1 Sturtivant, R.

The Squadrons of The Fleet Air Arm. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain Ltd. ISBN 0-85130-223-8