An electric multiple unit or EMU is a multiple-unit train consisting of self-propelled carriages using electricity as the motive power. An EMU requires no separate locomotive, as electric traction motors are incorporated within one or a number of the carriages. An EMU is formed of two or more semi-permanently coupled carriages, but electrically powered single-unit railcars are generally classed as EMUs; the great majority of EMUs are passenger trains, but versions exist for carrying parcels and mail. EMUs are popular on commuter and suburban rail networks around the world due to their fast acceleration and pollution-free operation. Being quieter than diesel multiple units and locomotive-hauled trains, EMUs can operate at night and more without disturbing nearby residents. In addition, tunnel design for EMU trains is simpler as no provision is needed for exhausting fumes, although retrofitting existing limited-clearance tunnels to accommodate the extra equipment needed to transmit electric power to the train can be difficult.
Multiple unit train control was first used in the 1890s. The Liverpool Overhead Railway opened in 1893 with two car electric multiple units, controllers in cabs at both ends directly controlling the traction current to motors on both cars; the multiple unit traction control system was developed by Frank Sprague and first applied and tested on the South Side Elevated Railroad in 1897. In 1895, derived from his company's invention and production of direct current elevator control systems, Frank Sprague invented a multiple unit controller for electric train operation; this accelerated the construction of electric traction railways and trolley systems worldwide. Each car of the train has its own traction motors: by means of motor control relays in each car energized by train-line wires from the front car all of the traction motors in the train are controlled in unison; the cars that form a complete EMU set can be separated by function into four types: power car, motor car, driving car, trailer car.
Each car can have more than one function, such as power-driving car. A power car carries the necessary equipment to draw power from the electrified infrastructure, such as pickup shoes for third rail systems and pantographs for overhead systems, transformers. Motor cars carry the traction motors to move the train, are combined with the power car to avoid high-voltage inter-car connections. Driving cars are similar to a cab car. An EMU will have two driving cars at its outer ends. Trailer cars are any cars that carry little or no traction or power related equipment, are similar to passenger cars in a locomotive-hauled train. On third rail systems, the outer vehicles carry the pick up shoes with the motor vehicles receiving the current via intra-unit connections. Many modern 2-car EMU sets are set up as "married pair" units. While both units in a married pair are driving motors, the ancillary equipment are shared between the two cars in the set. Since neither car can operate without its "partner", such sets are permanently coupled and can only be split at maintenance facilities.
Advantages of married pair units include weight and cost savings over single-unit cars while allowing all cars to be powered, unlike a motor-trailer combination. Each car has only one control cab, located at the outer end of the pair, saving space and expense over a cab at both ends of each car. Disadvantages include a loss of operational flexibility, as trains must be multiples of two cars, a failure on a single car could force removing both it and its partner from service; some of the more famous electric multiple units in the world are high-speed trains: the TGV in France, Italian Pendolino, Shinkansen in Japan, the China Railway High-speed in China and ICE 3 in Germany. The retired New York–Washington Metroliner service, first operated by the Pennsylvania Railroad and by Amtrak featured high-speed electric multiple-unit cars, see Budd Metroliner. EMUs powered by fuel cells are under development. If successful, this would avoid the need for third rail. An example is Alstom’s hydrogen-powered Coradia iLint.
Michael Hutchence is the only solo posthumous album by INXS frontman Michael Hutchence. It was released on 14 December 1999, just over two years after Hutchence's death. Hutchence began work on, he phoned Gang of Four guitarist Andy Gill and asked him to play on the album. Ten minutes he phoned back and asked Gill to co-write the album. Gill joined Hutchence at his house and home studio in Roquefort-les-Pins and over a five-month period continued to write and record in France and London, they were fans of Black Grape and decided to enlist Black Grape producer Danny Saber as co-producer with Gill of the album. After Hutchence's death in 1997, Gill asked U2 singer, Hutchence's friend, Bono to record additional lyrics which were added to the track "Slide Away"; this album was dedicated to "Tiger" in reference to Hutchence's daughter, Heavenly Hiraani Tiger Lily Hutchence. The last song that Hutchence worked on before his death was "Possibilities", track 2 on the album. In the singer's native Australia, the album entered and peaked at number three on the Australian Albums Chart on the week of 24 October 1999, spent a total of three weeks in the charts.
The album was certified Gold by the Australian Recording Industry Association. In the UK, the album lasted one week in the charts; the album received positive reviews upon its release and was noted by some critics for being dark and moody. Rolling Stone staff writer David Fricke gave the album three and a half out of five stars, stating "Much of the music on this record has a gray chill", he admired the singer's motivation on the record saying "Hutchence was as serious about his craft as he was intoxicated by rock-star living" and that "he set his arena-rock torch singing in a provocative landscape of melancholy-machine music." In his AllMusic review, journalist Carlo Wolff rated the album three stars out of five and wrote "there is enough good material here to warrant a listen even shed a tear." He added, "this curious exciting collection showcases the more vulnerable side of Hutchence" and that "this autobiographical album resonates beyond its sad, faintly kinky pedigree". Editor and writer Patrick Schabe scored the album 8 out of 10 stars in his review for PopMatters writing "On Michael Hutchence's eponymously titled solo album, it's not a disappointing pastime" and that "this piece is thankfully an incredible success."
Michael Hutchence – vocals Kenny Aronoff – drums on "Possibilities", "Baby It's Alright", "Breathe" Bono – vocals on "Slide Away" Harry Borden – photography Jason Clift – assistant engineer at Nomis Studios, London, UK Jonathan Cohen – cello on "Flesh and Blood" and "Slide Away" Kevin Cummins – photography Gail Ann Dorsey – backing vocals on "Flesh and Blood" and "Slide Away" Bernard Fowler – backing vocals on "Baby It's Alright" Joanna Gammie – viola on "Flesh and Blood" and "Slide Away" Andy Gill – guitar on "Let Me Show You", "Get on the Inside", "Fear", "All I'm saying", "A Straight Line", "Don't Save Me from Myself", "She Flirts for England", "Flesh and Blood", "Put the Pieces Back Together", "Slide Away".
The Strata-Domes were a fleet of five streamlined dome cars operated by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The term referred both to a pair of dome cars constructed by Pullman-Standard and three Budd Company domes the B&O acquired from the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway, they were the first dome cars operated in the Eastern United States, following on the success of the Chicago and Quincy Railroad's "Vista-Domes" in the west. The cars entered service in 1949 and were all out of regular service by 1981. Several have been preserved. Pullman-Standard built the two original Strata-Domes; the dome area seated 24, while the lower level contained two lounges and coach seating for 42. To accommodate the lower clearances on railroads in the Eastern United States the dome sat lower on the Strata Dome than on other dome cars, 21 inches instead of the standard 28 inches; these cars were given the names High Dome and Sky Dome. At the front of the car the B&O installed a speedometer, clock and barometer. In December 1950 the B&O acquired three dome-sleepers from the C&O.
The Budd Company had built these cars for the Chessie, a Washington, D. C.–Cincinnati, Ohio luxury streamliner, cancelled before it entered service. Each of these had 24 dome seats, with 3 drawing rooms, 5 roomettes, 1 bedroom in the lower level; the B&O numbered these 7600–7602, with the names Moonlight Dome, Starlight Dome, Sunlight Dome. In 1952 the B&O would mount floodlights on the Strata-Domes to enable viewing the passing scenery at night; the two original Strata-Domes entered service on the new Columbian, which debuted on May 5, 1949. They were the first domes in regular service on the East Coast; the B&O placed the acquired C&O dome-sleepers on Shenandoah. Contemporary advertising referred to "Strata-Dome" service on all three services, despite the mixed origin of the equipment. In the 1960s the B&O would lease the three Budd-built dome-sleepers to other railroads, including the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, Canadian National Railway, Seaboard Coast Line Railroad; the Atlantic Coast Line used the domes on its Florida Special, although operation was limited to Richmond, Virginia–Miami, Florida because of tunnel clearances in Washington.
They were the first domes to operate on the Florida route. The Seaboard Coast Line, successor to the Atlantic Coast Line, purchased the three domes from the B&O in September 1969; the domes returned to the Florida Special. The B&O modified the two dome coaches to include a snack bar in one of the lower-level lounges; the two cars operated on other B&O trains such as the Cincinnatian. The High Dome, painted blue and lettered "American Railroads 1869–1969", was part of the 1969 Golden Spike Centennial Limited to mark the centennial of the first transcontinental railroad in the U. S. Both cars ran on the final Capitol Limited run April 30, 1971 when the train was discontinued at the start of Amtrak. Amtrak operated them on various services in the 1970s. High Dome was wrecked in 1975 and scrapped in 1980. Amtrak retired its last, Starlight Dome, in October 1981; the four surviving domes are owned
SM UB-128 was a German Type UB III submarine or U-boat in the German Imperial Navy during World War I. She was commissioned into the German Imperial Navy on 11 May 1918 as SM UB-128. UB-128 was surrendered on 3 February 1919 in accordance with the requirements of the Armistice with Germany and broken up in Falmouth in 1921, she was built by AG Weser of Bremen and following just under a year of construction, launched at Bremen on 10 April 1918. UB-128 was commissioned the same year under the command of Kptlt. Wilhelm Canaris. Like all Type UB III submarines, UB-128 was armed with a 10.5 cm deck gun. UB-128 would carry a crew of up to 3 officer and 31 men and had a cruising range of 7,280 nautical miles. UB-128 had a displacement of 512 t while 643 t when submerged, her engines enabled her to travel at 13.9 knots when surfaced and 7.6 knots when submerged
Stanley Bartlett Smullen Jr. was a Philadelphia businessman who served on the Philadelphia City Council as a Republican. Smullen was born in 1906 in Point Breeze, the eldest child of Stanley and Mabel Smullen; the family moved to the city's Mount Airy neighborhood where Smullen's father was worked in real estate. Smullen graduated from the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School joined his father's business. In 1928, he married Charlotte E. Greenwood. Smullen got involved in Republican politics and became the leader of the 59th Ward. In 1961, the Democratic city councilman for the 8th district, Alfred Leopold Luongo, was appointed to the federal bench, Republican ward leaders chose Smullen to run in the special election to replace him, he defeated John A. Geisz, to take the seat for the Republicans. Smullen's term was just over a year, Republican ward leaders backed him for the nomination to a full term in 1963. In the 1963 election, redistricting added the 49th ward to Smullen's district. In 1964, Smullen ran for the Pennsylvania House of Representatives, but fell short of victory, losing to Democrat Walter H. Morley.
Journey to the 5th Echelon is the second mixtape by Odd Future sub-group The Jet Age of Tomorrow. It was released on December 31, 2010, it contains guest appearances from Hodgy Beats, Mike G, Vince Staples, JQ, Kilo Kish, Om'Mas Keith, Casey Veggies, Tyler, the Creator. On February 4, 2011, a music video for "Wonderland" was posted on the official Odd Future YouTube channel. All credits adapted from Discogs; the Jet Age of Tomorrow/The Super 3 - primary artist, executive producer, producer on tracks 1-10 and 12-19 Hodgy Beats - featured artist on track 5 Mike G - featured artist on track 5 Left Brain - co-producer on track 7 Tyler Major - co-producer on track 8 Vince Staples - featured artist on track 9 JQ - featured artist on track 9 Tyler, the Creator - producer on track 11, featured artist on track 17 Kilo Kish - featured artist on track 12 Michael Uzowuru - co-producer on track 12 Om'Mas Keith - featured artist on track 13 Casey Veggies - featured artist on track 17 Kream Team - co-producer on track 18