In military telecommunications, the terms electronic support or electronic support measures describe the division of electronic warfare involving actions taken under direct control of an operational commander to detect, identify, record, and/or analyze sources of radiated electromagnetic energy for the purposes of immediate threat recognition or longer-term operational planning. Thus, electronic support provides a source of information required for decisions involving electronic protection, electronic attack, avoidance and other tactical employment of forces. Electronic support data can be used to produce signals intelligence, communications intelligence and electronics intelligence. Electronic support measures gather intelligence through passive "listening" to electromagnetic radiations of military interest. Electronic support measures can provide initial detection or knowledge of foreign systems, a library of technical and operational data on foreign systems, tactical combat information utilizing that library.
ESM collection platforms can remain electronically silent and detect and analyze RADAR transmissions beyond the RADAR detection range because of the greater power of the transmitted electromagnetic pulse with respect to a reflected echo of that pulse. United States airborne ESM receivers are designated in the AN/ALR series. Desirable characteristics for electromagnetic surveillance and collection equipment include wide-spectrum or bandwidth capability because foreign frequencies are unknown, wide dynamic range because signal strength is unknown, narrow bandpass to discriminate the signal of interest from other electromagnetic radiation on nearby frequencies, good angle-of arrival measurement for bearings to locate the transmitter; the frequency spectrum of interest ranges from 30 MHz to 50 GHz. Multiple receivers are required for surveillance of the entire spectrum, but tactical receivers may be functional within a specific signal strength threshold of a smaller frequency range. Electronic warfare Electronic countermeasure Low-probability-of-intercept radar AWACS Boeing E-3 Sentry Boeing E-4 Lockheed Orion
The Tribune is an Indian English-language daily newspaper published from Amritsar, Chandigarh, New Delhi and Ludhiana. It was founded on 2 February 1881, in Lahore, by Sardar Dyal Singh Majithia, a philanthropist, is run by a trust comprising five persons as trustees, it is a major Indian newspaper with a worldwide circulation. In India, it is among the leading English daily for Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, the Union Territory of Chandigarh; the present editor of The Tribune is Rajesh Ramachandran. He was appointed on 14 May 2018, he was editor-in-chief of Outlook magazine. Ramachandran succeeded Harish Khare, appointed editor-in-chief of the Tribune Group of newspapers on 1 June 2015, serving until 15 March 2018; the Tribune has two sister publications: Punjabi Tribune. R. K. Singh is the Editor of Dainik Tribune and Sahitya Akademi Award winner and prominent Punjabi playwright Swaraj Bir Singh is the editor of the Punjabi Tribune; the online edition of The Tribune was launched in July 1998, the online editions of the Punjabi Tribune and Dainik Tribune were launched on 16 August 2010.
All three newspapers are published by the Tribune Trust. Narinder Nath Vohra is the president of the Tribune Trust, which comprises S. S. Sodhi, S. S. Mehta, Naresh Mohan, Gurbachan Jagat as trustees; the Tribune has had Kali Nath Roy, Prem Bhatia, Hari Jai Singh, H. K. Dua, Raj Chengappa among others, as its editors-in-chief in the past. Similar to most Indian newspapers, The Tribune receives the majority of its revenue from advertisements over subscriptions. Yog Joy Official website Facebook - The Tribune Twitter - The Tribune Instagram - The Tribune YouTube Channel - The Tribune
Abdülhamid I, Abdul Hamid I or Abd Al-Hamid I was the 27th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning over the Ottoman Empire from 1774 to 1789. He was born on 20 March 1725 in Constantinople, a younger son of Sultan Ahmed III and his consort Şermi Kadın. Ahmed III abdicated in favor of his nephew Mahmud I, succeeded by his brother Osman III, Osman by Ahmed's elder son Mustafa III; as a potential heir to the throne, Abdul Hamid was imprisoned in comfort by his cousins and older brother, as was customary. This lasted until 1767. During this period, he received his early education from his mother Rabia Şermi, who taught him history and calligraphy. On the day of Mustafa's death on 21 January 1774, Abdul Hamid ascended to the throne with a ceremony held in the palace; the next day Mustafa III's funeral procession was held. The new sultan sent a letter to the Grand Vizier and Serdar-ı Ekrem Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha on the front and informed him to continue his duty. On 27 January 1774, the sword was armed in Eyup Sultan.
At the time, the Ottoman-Russian front wars continued, the army was at once, there was a shortage of food in Istanbul. Abdul Hamid's long imprisonment had left him indifferent to state affairs and malleable to the designs of his advisors, yet he was very religious and a pacifist by nature. At his accession the financial straits of the treasury were such that the usual donative could not be given to the Janissary Corps; the new Sultan told the Janissaries "There are no longer gratuities in our treasury, as all of our soldier sons should learn." Abdul Hamid now sought to reform the Empire's armed forces. He enumerated the Janissary corps and tried to renovate it, the navy, he established a new artillery corps. He was credited with the creation of the Imperial Naval Engineering School. Abdul Hamid tried to strengthen Ottoman rule over Syria and Iraq. However, slight successes against rebellions in Syria and the Morea could not compensate for the loss of the Crimean Peninsula, which had become nominally independent in 1774, but was in practice now controlled by Russia.
Russia exploited its position as protector of Eastern Christians to interfere in the Ottoman Empire, explicitly. The Ottomans declared war against Russia in 1787. Austria soon joined Russia. Turkey held its own in the conflict, at first, it is said. In spite of his failures, Abdul Hamid was regarded as the most gracious Ottoman Sultan, he directed the fire brigade during the Constantinople fire of 1782. He was admired by the people for his religious devotion, was called a Veli, he outlined a reform policy, supervised the government and worked with statesmen. Despite his pacific inclinations, the Ottoman Empire was forced to renew the ongoing war with Russia immediately; this led to complete Turkish defeat at Kozludzha and the humiliating Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, signed on 21 July 1774. The Ottomans ceded territory to Russia, the right to intervene on behalf of the Orthodox Christians in the Empire. With the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, the territory left, as well as Russia's ambassador at Istanbul level and an authorized representative, this ambassador's participation in other ceremonies at the state ceremonies, the right to pass through the Straits to Russia, as the envoys of the Russian envoy were given immunity.
Marketing opportunities for all kinds of commodities in Istanbul and other ports, as well as the full commercial rights of England and France were given. It was in the treaty that the Russian state had a church built in Ga lata. Under the circumstances, this church would be open to the public, referred to as the Russo-Greek Church, forever under the protection of Russian ambassadors in Istanbul. In 1789, Tipu Sultan, ruler of the Sultanate of Mysore sent an embassy to Abdul Hamid, urgently requesting assistance against the British East India Company, proposed an offensive and defensive alliance. Abdul Hamid informed the Mysori ambassadors that the Ottomans were still entangled and exhausted from the ongoing war with Russia and Austria, he wrote down the troubles he saw before, to the governor of his empire. He accepted the invitations of the and his grand vizier and went to his mansions, followed by the reading of Quran, he was humble and a religious Sultan. It is known that Abdul Hamid I was fond of his children, was interested in family life, spent the summer months in Karaağaç, Beşiktaş with his consorts and sons.
His daughter Esma Sultan's dressing styles, her passion for entertainment, her journey to the objects with her journeymen and concubines have set an example for Istanbul ladies. Among the works brought in Istanbul by Abdul Hamid I the Hamidiye İrem. Again, in the Hamidiye Tomb, named after him, some of the dynasty members of his descendants are visual; the fountain, which complemented the complex, was moved to Sogukcesrne. The reconstruction and library have been constructed. Around 1500 manuscripts in his library are still in the Süleymaniye Library. In Beylerbeyi, on behalf of his mother Şermi Kadın, he built a mosque with a mosque and a sanctuary on the plot of the Cardigan-i Şerif room of the former Beylerbeyi Palace, as well as a fountain in Çınarönü, Havuzbaşı, Araba Meydam and Kısıklı, a mosque in Ernirgan. Hamarn and shops have established a fountain in İstinye and Dolrnabahçe on the Rumeli side of the Bosphorus. In 1784, the School of Employment was put into operation, in these
The Varna Archaeological Museum is an archaeological museum in the city of Varna on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria. Founded on 3 June 1888, when a museum, part of the City Library was established, the Varna Archaeological Museum is situated in a historic building designed in the Neo-Renaissance style by the noted architect Petko Momchilov and built in 1892–1898 for the Varna Girls' School, it became state property in 1945 and since 1993 the museum occupies all of the building, parts of which it has used since 1895. One of the largest museums in Bulgaria, it features 2,150 m² of exhibition area and displays objects from the prehistoric, Ancient Greek and Ancient Roman periods of the region's history, as well as from the times of the medieval Bulgarian and Byzantine Empires, the Ottoman rule and the Bulgarian National Revival; the Museum's arguably most celebrated exhibit is the Gold of Varna, the oldest gold treasure in the world, excavated in 1972 and dating to 4600-4200 BCE, which occupies three separate exhibition halls.
The museum manages two open-air archaeological sites, the large Roman baths in the city centre and the medieval grotto of Aladzha Monastery at Golden Sands Nature Park. Four other sites are undergoing conservation and will be added to the museum roster: the 4th-5th-century episcopal basilica on Khan Krum Street; the museum has a library, a children's study museum, a gift shop, a cafeteria. Its courtyard lapidarium hosts the annual Varna Summer International Jazz Festival. Varna Archaeological Museum website
Joseph-Alexis Stoltz was a French obstetrician. In 1829 he became an associate professor at the University of Strasbourg, where in 1834 he was appointed professor of accouchements. In 1867 he was appointed dean to the faculty of medicine at Strasbourg. Due to consequences of the Franco-Prussian War, the medical faculty relocated to Nancy in 1872, where Stoltz resumed his role as dean. Stoltz is credited for introducing into French obstetrics the technique of induced premature labor in cases of dangerous parturition, he made improvements to the obstetrical forceps. He was the author of many papers in the fields of obstetrics and pediatrics, penned the introduction to Hermann Franz Naegele's Traité pratique de l'art des accouchements; the following are a few of his principal writings: Considérations sur quelques points relatifs à l'art des accouchements, 1826 De la délivrance, 1834 Mémoire et observations sur la provocation de l'accouchement prématuré dans des cas de rétrécissements du bassin, 1835
Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era is a Pulitzer Prize-winning work on the American Civil War, published in 1988, by James M. McPherson, it is the sixth volume of the Oxford History of the United States series. An abridged, illustrated version of the book was published in 2003. Battle Cry of Freedom covers two decades, the period from the outbreak of the Mexican–American War to the Civil War's ending at Appomattox. Thus, it examined the Civil War era, not just the war, as it combined the social and political events of the period within a single narrative framework. Historian Hugh Brogan, reviewing the book, commends McPherson for describing "the republic at midcentury" as "a divided society and a violent one, but not one in which so appalling a phenomenon as civil war is likely. So it must have seemed to most Americans at the time; the remote possibility became horrible actuality. In an interview, McPherson claimed: "Both sides in the Civil War professed to be fighting for the same'freedoms' established by the American Revolution and the Constitution their forefathers fought for in the Revolution—individual freedom, democracy, a republican form of government, majority rule, free elections, etc.
For Southerners, the Revolution was a war of secession from the tyranny of the British Empire, just as their war was a war of secession from Yankee tyranny. For Northerners, their fight was to sustain the government established by the Constitution with its guaranties of rights and liberties." The book was an immediate commercial and critical success, an unexpected achievement for a 900-page narrative. It spent 16 weeks on The New York Times hardcover bestseller list with an additional 12 weeks on the paperback list. Writing for The New York Times, Brogan described it as "...the best one-volume treatment of its subject I have come across. It may be the best published." McPherson, James M.. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-503863-7. For Cause and Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War The Civil War: A Narrative Bibliography of Ulysses S. Grant Quotations related to James M. McPherson at Wikiquote Discussion with McPherson on Battle Cry of Freedom, July 10, 2000, C-SPAN Presentation by McPherson on the illustrated version of Battle Cry of Freedom, November 3, 2003, C-SPAN