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Eli Whitney

Eli Whitney was an American inventor best known for inventing the cotton gin. This was one of the key inventions of the Industrial Revolution and shaped the economy of the Antebellum South. Whitney's invention made upland short cotton into a profitable crop, which strengthened the economic foundation of slavery in the United States. Despite the social and economic impact of his invention, Whitney lost many profits in legal battles over patent infringement for the cotton gin. Thereafter, he turned his attention into securing contracts with the government in the manufacture of muskets for the newly formed United States Army, he continued making arms and inventing until his death in 1825. Whitney was born in Westborough, Massachusetts, on December 8, 1765, the eldest child of Eli Whitney Sr. a prosperous farmer, his wife Elizabeth Fay of Westborough. Although the younger Eli, born in 1765, could technically be called a "Junior", history has never known him as such, he was famous during his lifetime and afterward by the name "Eli Whitney".

His son, born in 1820 named Eli, was well known during his lifetime and afterward by the name "Eli Whitney, Jr." Whitney's mother, Elizabeth Fay, died in 1777, when he was 11. At age 14 he operated a profitable nail manufacturing operation in his father's workshop during the Revolutionary War; because his stepmother opposed his wish to attend college, Whitney worked as a farm laborer and school teacher to save money. He prepared for Yale at Leicester Academy and under the tutelage of Rev. Elizur Goodrich of Durham, Connecticut, he entered in the fall of 1789 and graduated Phi Beta Kappa in 1792. Whitney expected to study law but, finding himself short of funds, accepted an offer to go to South Carolina as a private tutor. Instead of reaching his destination, he was convinced to visit Georgia. In the closing years of the 18th century, Georgia was a magnet for New Englanders seeking their fortunes; when he sailed for South Carolina, among his shipmates were the widow and family of the Revolutionary hero Gen. Nathanael Greene of Rhode Island.

Mrs. Greene invited Whitney to visit Mulberry Grove, her plantation manager and husband-to-be was Phineas Miller, another Connecticut migrant and Yale graduate, who would become Whitney's business partner. Whitney is most famous for two innovations which came to have significant impacts on the United States in the mid-19th century: the cotton gin and his advocacy of interchangeable parts. In the South, the cotton gin revolutionized the way cotton was reinvigorated slavery. Conversely, in the North the adoption of interchangeable parts revolutionized the manufacturing industry, contributing to the U. S. victory in the Civil War. The cotton gin is a mechanical device that removes the seeds from cotton, a process, labor-intensive; the word gin is short for engine. While staying at Mulberry Grove, Whitney constructed several ingenious household devices which led Mrs Greene to introduce him to some businessmen who were discussing the desirability of a machine to separate the short staple upland cotton from its seeds, work, done by hand at the rate of a pound of lint a day.

In a few weeks Whitney produced a model. The cotton gin was a wooden drum stuck with hooks; the cotton seeds fell outside. Whitney told a story wherein he was pondering an improved method of seeding the cotton when he was inspired by observing a cat attempting to pull a chicken through a fence, able to only pull through some of the feathers. A single cotton gin could generate up to 55 pounds of cleaned cotton daily; this contributed to the economic development of the Southern United States, a prime cotton growing area. Whitney received a patent for his cotton gin on March 14, 1794, but it was not validated until 1807. Whitney and his partner, did not intend to sell the gins. Rather, like the proprietors of grist and sawmills, they expected to charge farmers for cleaning their cotton – two-fifths of the value, paid in cotton. Resentment at this scheme, the mechanical simplicity of the device and the primitive state of patent law, made infringement inevitable. Whitney and Miller could not build enough gins to meet demand, so gins from other makers found ready sale.

Patent infringement lawsuits consumed the profits and their cotton gin company went out of business in 1797. One oft-overlooked point is. There is significant evidence that the design flaws were solved by his sponsor, Mrs. Greene, but Whitney gave her no public credit or recognition. After validation of the patent, the legislature of South Carolina voted $50,000 for the rights for that state, while North Carolina levied a license tax for five years, from which about $30,000 was realized. There is a claim that Tennessee paid $10,000. While the cotton gin did not earn Whitney the fortune he had hoped for, it did give him fame, it has been argued by some historians that Whitney's cotton gin was an important if unintended cause of the American Civil War. After Whitney's invention, the plantation slavery industry was rejuvenated culminating in the Civil War; the cotton gin transforme

Appoquinimink School District

The Appoquinimink School District is a public school district in southern New Castle County, Delaware. The district office is located in the Odessa Park Building, 223 South Fifth Street, in Odessa, with Matthew Burrows as the current superintendent. Former superintendent Tony Marchio retired in June 2011; the district is growing by nearly 600 students every year, making it the fastest growing school district in Delaware. Appoquinimink Early Childhood Center has over 200 students. Cedar Lane Early Childhood Center has over 260 students. Townsend Early Childhood Center has over 160 students. Spring Meadow Early Childhood Center Brick Mill Elementary has over 730 students. Bunker Hill Elementary opened in September 2009; this school features movable classroom walls that can be reconfigured to support a variety of learning needs, learning pods anchoring each wing with technology stations and tiered reading nooks and outdoor stages, a broadcast and recording room, a cafeteria design that features smaller seating groups and improved acoustics.

It is the district's first two-story elementary school. Cedar Lane Elementary has 33 classrooms and over 650 students Old State Elementary Olive B. Loss Elementary has over 670 students. Silver Lake Elementary has 36 classrooms and over 710 students Townsend Elementary has 24 classrooms and over 570 students. Alfred G. Waters Middle School served as a 9th grade-only school for one year while Appoqunimink High School was being built, opened as a 6-8th grade school in fall 2008, it has a population of over 730. It is divided into each with a learning center, it has wireless internet access. There are a 500 seat auditorium. Everett Meredith Middle School has a population of over 1,100 students in grades 6 through 8, it was a high school but was reopened as a middle school. It houses an adult high school during the night, it has 53 classrooms. Louis L. Redding Middle School served African-American students prior to desegregation of the Delaware public schools, it now has a population of over 770 students.

It went through a major renovation which lobby. It has 45 classrooms. Appoquinimink High School opened in the fall of 2008, it has 56 classrooms. There are over 400 students per grade. Middletown High School was the only high school in the district until September 2008; the building is networked for computers, with Internet access in all classrooms, four computer labs, a computer-aided drafting lab. The school houses a state service center as well as an 830-seat auditorium and 1,200-seat gymnasium, it has over 60 classrooms. District webpage Department of Education school profiles Appoquinimink High School Everett Meredith Middle School Middletown High School Louis L. Redding Middle School Alfred G. Waters Middle School

Nasukarasuyama

Nasukarasuyama is a city located in Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. As of June 1, 2019, the city had an estimated population of 25,313, a population density of 145 persons per km², its total area is 174.35 km². The area began as a castle town for Karasuyama Domain in the Edo period, centered on Karasuyama Castle, a fortification dating to the Kamakura period. Karasuyama Town was established with the creation of the municipalities system on April 1, 1889, it merged with the neighboring villages of Mukada and Nanago on March 31, 1954. The modern city of Nasukarasuyama was established on October 1, 2005, from the merger of the towns of Karasuyama and Minaminasu. Nasukarasuyama is located in the eastern of Tochigi Prefecture. Tochigi Prefecture Sakura Nakagawa Takanezawa Ichikai Mooka Ibaraki Prefecture Hitachiōmiya

Brainerd Lakes Area Lunkers

The Brainerd Lakes Area Lunkers were a baseball team that played in the Northwoods League, a collegiate summer baseball league. Their home games were played at Mills Field in Minnesota; the Lunkers were not the first Northwoods League team to play in Brainerd. From 1998 to 2002, the Brainerd Mighty Gulls played in Brainerd; the Gulls folded after the 2002 season and the current franchise entered the league as an expansion team in 2005. The Blue Thunder ended operations after the 2008 season and on December 23, 2008, the Northwoods League announced that St. Cloud River Bats Owner Joel Sutherland had purchased the Brainerd Blue Thunder. Sutherland has owned the St. Cloud River Bats since the team’s inception into the Northwoods League in 1997, he started the Alexandria Beetles franchise as owner in 2001, but sold the Beetles following the 2001 season. Both of those franchises continue their longstanding success in central Minnesota; the River Bats have won three Northwoods League championships in 14 seasons and have averaged better than 1,850 fans per game since 2000.

The Bats boast the most wins in the playoffs of any team in the Northwoods League. Alexandria, a city of 10,000 people, has averaged better than 1,000 fans per game in their 11-year history. Assisting Sutherland in turning the Brainerd franchise into a thriving Northwoods League affiliate will be a staff headed by General Manager Dustin Anaas. Anaas has been involved with the Northwoods League since 2008 when he was an intern with the Madison Mallards, he joined the Lunkers for their inaugural season in 2009 as the promotional coordinator and was promoted to Assistant GM following the 2009 campaign. Following a successful second season, he was the promoted to General Manager following the 2010 season; this will be Anaas' third season with the Lunkers and his fourth overall season in the Northwoods League. On January 22, 2009, the Lunkers announced their new name and blue and orange color scheme; the term “lunker”, used to describe a game fish, large for its kind, was submitted twice out of the more than 800 entries in Brainerd’s name-the-team contest.

In 1874, a lunker was found in the Baltic sea by a one Norwegian captain Oden. It weighed 724 pounds. On the morning of December 19, 2011, the day the 2012 Northwoods League schedule was to be released, the league announced that the Lunkers had folded, citing low attendance; the Lunkers were last in the league in attendance each year from 2009 to 2011, averaging 555, 515, 528 fans, respectively. Https://web.archive.org/web/20090203154023/http://northwoodsleague.com/Newsroom.asp Official site Northwoods League

Gislöv Church

Gislöv Church is a medieval Lutheran church east of Trelleborg, Sweden. It belongs to the Diocese of Lund. Gislöv Church is one of the best-preserved medieval churches in Söderslätt in the south of the Swedish province of Skåne, it is one of the oldest brick churches in Skåne. It dates from the late 12th or early 13th century, it can be deduced. Some of the details point to artistic influence coming directly from contemporary church architecture in Norway; this has led to the hypothesis that the church was made for a Norwegian archbishop in exile, named Eirik Ivarsson, known to have stayed in Skåne between 1190 and 1202. The presently visible church may however have been preceded by an older, wooden church; the earliest stone church consisted of a nave and apse. The tower was built during the 15th century; the tower was enlarged in 1824, as building material stones from ancient dolmens were used. This may in part have been done in an attempt to eradicate vestiges of pagan practices that still survived in the area.

Internally, the original, wooden church ceiling was replaced during the 15th century with the presently visible, richly painted vaults. The frescos depict date from the 15th and 16th centuries. Restorative work to preserve the frescos was carried out in 1936. Among the church furnishings, the triumphal cross is from the 13th century while the altarpiece and pulpit are from the 17th century. Official site Media related to Gislöv Church at Wikimedia Commons

Public good (economics)

In economics, a public good is a good, both non-excludable and non-rivalrous, in that individuals cannot be excluded from use or could benefit from without paying for it, where use by one individual does not reduce availability to others or the good can be used by more than one person. This is in contrast to a common good such as wild fish stocks in the ocean, non-excludable but is rivalrous to a certain degree, as if too many fish are harvested, the stocks will be depleted. Public goods include knowledge, official statistics, national security, common language, flood control systems and street lighting. Public goods that are available everywhere are sometimes referred to as global public goods. Examples of public good knowledge is men's, women's and youth health awareness, environmental issues, maintaining biodiversity and interpreting contemporary history with a cultural lexicon about protected cultural heritage sites and monuments and entertaining tourist attractions and universities. Many public goods may at times be subject to excessive use resulting in negative externalities affecting all users.

Public goods problems are closely related to the "free-rider" problem, in which people not paying for the good may continue to access it. Thus, the good may be overused or degraded. Public goods may become subject to restrictions on access and may be considered to be club goods. There is a good deal of debate and literature on how to measure the significance of public goods problems in an economy, to identify the best remedies. Paul A. Samuelson is credited as the first economist to develop the theory of public goods. In his classic 1954 paper The Pure Theory of Public Expenditure, he defined a public good, or as he called it in the paper a "collective consumption good", as follows: which all enjoy in common in the sense that each individual's consumption of such a good leads to no subtractions from any other individual's consumption of that good... This is the property. A pure public good exhibits a second property called non-excludability: that is, it is impossible to exclude any individuals from consuming the good.

However, many goods may satisfy the two public good conditions only to a certain extent or only some of the time. These goods are known as impure public goods; the opposite of a public good is a private good. A loaf of bread, for example, is a private good. A good, rivalrous but non-excludable is sometimes called a common-pool resource; such goods raise similar issues to public goods: the mirror to the public goods problem for this case is the'tragedy of the commons'. For example, it is so difficult to enforce restrictions on deep-sea fishing that the world's fish stocks can be seen as a non-excludable resource, but one, finite and diminishing. Elinor Ostrom proposed additional modifications to the classification of goods to identify fundamental differences that affect the incentives facing individuals Replacing the term "rivalry of consumption" with "subtractability of use". Conceptualizing subtractability of use and excludability to vary from low to high rather than characterizing them as either present or absent.

Overtly adding a important fourth type of good—common-pool resources—that shares the attribute of subtractability with private goods and difficulty of exclusion with public goods. Forests, water systems and the global atmosphere are all common-pool resources of immense importance for the survival of humans on this earth. Changing the name of a "club" good to a "toll" good since many goods that share these characteristics are provided by small scale public as well as private associations; the definition of non-excludability states that it is impossible to exclude individuals from consumption. Technology now allows radio or TV broadcasts to be encrypted such that persons without a special decoder are excluded from the broadcast. Many forms of information goods have characteristics of public goods. For example, a poem can be read by many people without reducing the consumption of that good by others; the information in most patents can be used by any party without reducing consumption of that good by others.

Official statistics provide a clear example of information goods that are public goods, since they are created to be non-excludable. Creative works may be excludable in some circumstances, however: the individual who wrote the poem may decline to share it with others by not publishing it. Copyrights and patents both encourage the creation of such non-rival goods by providing temporary monopolies, or, in the terminology of public goods, providing a legal mechanism to enforce excludability for a limited period of time. For public goods, the "lost revenue" of the producer of the good is not part of the definition: a public good is a good whose consumption does not reduce any other's consumption of that good. Debate has been generated among economists. Steven Shavell has suggested the following: when professional economists talk about public goods they do not mean that there are a general category of goods that share the same economic characteristics, manifest the same dysfunctions, that may thus benefit from pretty similar correcti