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Elizabeth Boleyn, Countess of Wiltshire

Elizabeth Boleyn, Countess of Wiltshire was an English noblewoman, noted for being the mother of Anne Boleyn and as such the maternal grandmother of Elizabeth I of England. The eldest daughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk and his first wife Elizabeth Tilney, she married Thomas Boleyn sometime in the 15th century. Elizabeth became Viscountess Rochford in 1525 when her husband was elevated to the peerage, subsequently becoming Countess of Ormond in 1527 and Countess of Wiltshire in 1529. Elizabeth was born c. 1480 into the wealthy and influential Howard family, as the eldest of the two daughters of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk and his first wife Elizabeth Tilney. Her paternal grandfather, John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk, was created Duke of Norfolk in 1483 following the death of John de Mowbray, 4th Duke of Norfolk, with no legitimate male heirs, her family managed to survive the fall of their patron, King Richard III, killed at Bosworth in 1485 and supplanted by the victor, King Henry VII, when she was about five years old.

Elizabeth became a part of the royal court as a young girl. It was while she was at court, that she wed Thomas Boleyn, an ambitious young courtier, sometime before 1500 in 1498. According to Thomas, his wife was pregnant many times in the next few years but only three children lived to adulthood; the three children were: mistress of Henry VIII of England. Anne Boleyn, Queen consort of Henry VIII of England George Boleyn, Viscount Rochford. Throughout this time, Elizabeth was a lady-in-waiting at the royal court. Based on gossip, Elizabeth Boleyn must have been a attractive woman. Rumours circulated when Henry was involved with Anne Boleyn that Elizabeth had once been his mistress, with the suggestion being made that Anne Boleyn might be the daughter of Henry VIII. However, despite recent attempts by one or two historians to rehabilitate this myth, it was denied by Henry and never mentioned in the dispensation he sought in order to make his union with Anne lawful. Most historians believe it is that this rumour began by confusing Elizabeth with Henry's more famous mistress Elizabeth Blount, or from the growing unpopularity of the Boleyn family after 1527.

In 1519, Elizabeth's daughters and Mary, were living in the French royal court as Ladies-in-waiting to the French Queen consort Claude. According to the papal nuncio in France fifteen years the French King Francis I had referred to Mary as "my English mare", in his life described her as "a great whore, the most infamous of all". In the words of historian M. L. Bruce, both Thomas and Elizabeth "developed feelings of dislike" for their daughter Mary. In years, Mary's romantic involvements would only further strain this relationship. Around 1520, the Boleyns managed to arrange Mary's marriage to William Carey, a respected and popular man at court, it was sometime after the wedding that Mary became mistress to Henry VIII, although she never held the title of "official royal mistress," as the post did not exist in England. It has long been rumoured that one or both of Mary Boleyn's children were fathered by Henry and not Carey; some historians, such as Alison Weir, now question. Few of Henry's mistresses were publicly honoured, except Elizabeth Blount, mentioned in Parliament and whose son, Henry Fitzroy, was created Duke of Richmond and Somerset in an elaborate public ceremony in 1525.

Henry's relationship with Mary was so discreet that within ten years, some observers were wondering if it had taken place. In contrast to Mary, Elizabeth's other daughter, Anne, is thought to have had a close relationship with her mother. Elizabeth had been in charge of her children's early education, including Anne's, she had taught her to play on various musical instruments, to sing and to dance, as well as embroidery, good manners, reading and some French. In 1525, Henry VIII fell in love with Anne, Elizabeth became her protective chaperone, she accompanied Anne to Court, since Anne was attempting to avoid a sexual relationship with the King. Elizabeth travelled with Anne to view York Place after the fall of the Boleyn family's great political opponent, Cardinal Thomas Wolsey – an intrigue which had given Anne her first real taste of political power, she was crowned queen four years later. Elizabeth remained in her daughter's household throughout her time as queen consort. Tradition has it that Elizabeth I, was named after her maternal grandmother.

However, it is more that she was named after Henry's mother, Elizabeth of York, although the possibility that she was named after both grandmothers cannot be ruled out. Elizabeth Boleyn sided with the rest of the family when her eldest daughter, was banished in 1535 for eloping with a commoner, William Stafford. Mary had expected her sister's support, but Anne was furious at the breach of etiquette and refused to receive her. Only a year the family was overtaken by a greater scandal. Elizabeth's younger daughter and her only living son, were executed on charges of treason and incest. Anne's two chief biographers, Eric Ives and Retha Warnicke, both concluded that these charges were fabricated, they agree that the King wanted to marry Jane Seymour. Beyond this obvious fact, the sequence of events is unclear and historians are divided about whether the key motivation for Anne's downfall was he

Rogers Island (New York)

Rogers Island is an island on the Hudson River, in Washington County, New York, that once formed part of the third largest "city" in colonial North America, is considered the "spiritual home" of the United States Special Operations Forces the United States Army Rangers. Rogers Island is located in the middle of the Hudson River, in the south-western area of Washington County, New York, it is a part of the Village of Fort Edward, which itself is part of the Town of Fort Edward, north of Albany and east of Syracuse. Archaeological discoveries on Rogers Island show Native American hunting and fishing activities dating back to 4000 BC. Native Americans remained in the area until the arrival of Europeans in the 18th century; the archaeological site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on 1973. The Royal Blockhouse site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2012. Due to its strategic location on the Hudson, Rogers Island and Fort Edward opposite became a fortress operated by the British Empire, involved in the French and Indian War with invasions into French Canada to the north beginning from the area.

Due to the expansion required to house such large numbers of troops, estimated to be 16,000, Fort Edward and Rogers Island became the third largest community in North America, after New York City and Boston. From 1756 to 1759, Rogers Island was used as a training ground for Major Robert Rogers, from which the island takes its name. Here, Rogers composed his 28 ranging rules. Captain Israel Putnam was stationed on the island in 1756; the following February, he sustained injuries in putting out a fire in a row of barracks nearest the magazine, which kept Putnam out of active service for a month. Fort Edward and Rogers Island were evacuated in 1766 and left to ruin during the American War of Independence, though it was garrisoned until 1777. Evidence found in seven unmarked graves unearthed on Rogers Island in 2006 suggest that the site contains a military cemetery from the time of the French and Indian War; the Island was home to a British army smallpox hospital during the war, although some of the deaths could have resulted from wounds incurred in skirmishes with the French.

During the 1800s, the island was used to train militia for the American Civil War, with the northern tip being inhabited by civilians. On July 6, 2001, the Rogers Island Visitors Center was opened on the island. Exhibits at the Visitors Center tell the story of the Fort Edward area, from the earliest Native Americans that lived here through the Revolutionary War; the Visitors Center serves as the home base of operations for the Adirondack Community College Archeological Field School for six weeks each summer. The Rogers Island Visitors Center hosts an annual French & Indian War Encampment each September that has proven to be popular with reenactors and the general public. Living history demonstrations and skirmishes are conducted along the banks of the Hudson River. Fort Edward, New York United States Army Rangers Robert Rogers' 28 "Rules of Ranging" "Rogers Island". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved November 12, 2010

Low Isles Light

Low Isles Light known as Low Islets Light or Low Island Light, is an active lighthouse located on Low Island, a coral cay which together with Woody Island forms the Low Isles group, about 13 kilometres northeast of Port Douglas, Australia. The island is situated on the western edge of the main shipping channel into the harbour of Port Douglas, it marks the entrance to the channel. Built in 1878, it was the first lighthouse in Far North Queensland and more the first to light the Inner Passage of the Great Barrier Reef, its construction is typical to Queensland lighthouses of the time, timber frame clad with galvanized iron, it is the fourth lighthouse of this type constructed in Queensland, though it is the first of them to use portholes. The lighthouse was recommended in February 1876 but construction of the lighthouse and cottages, by W. P. Clark, started more than a year later; the structures were ready and the light was lit in late 1878. The original oil wick light was upgraded to kerosene in 1923, to electricity in 1963 and converted to solar power in 1993, when the station was demanned.

The size of the island mandated a rather compact circular pattern of structures. Other than the lighthouse, none of the original structures survived, the keeper residences being rebuilt in the 1960s. One of the residences now serves as a research station; the station is managed by the Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service. The site can be visited but the tower is closed; the need for lights in the Inner Passage inside the Great Barrier Reef arose with the development of ports in the north of Queensland such as Mackay in 1860 and Bowen in 1864. Access to these ports from the north necessitates the negotiation of the Inner Passage, unlit; the need was noted by a Legislative Council committee in 1864 noting shipping from India and other countries to the north which would avoid the northern ports due to the dangerous navigation required, but no official recommendation was made. A station on Low Island was established 1874. A recommendation for the construction of a permanent lighthouse was made in February 1876 by Commander George Poynter Heath, the first Portmaster of Queensland and the Chairman of the Queensland Marine Board, Commander George Heath, in a letter to the Colonial Treasurer.

While the recommendation was accepted for immediate action, the preparation of plans for the lighthouse was delayed from an unknown reason and tenders were called in March 1877. The contract, for £3,195, was awarded in May 1877 to W. P. Clark, who constructed Queensland's first lighthouse since the separation, Bustard Head Light, in 1868, and, to be awarded the contracts for Cape Cleveland Light and Dent Island Light, Double Island Point Light and Pine Islet Light. Clark committed to completing the lighthouse and cottages in seven months, starting in June 1877. Constructed commenced in Brisbane in July 1877 and by December 1877 the lighthouse was being moved to Low Island. Construction completed by August of that year and light was displayed on 17 September 1878; the lens was a Chance Brothers 3rd order revolving dioptric supported by a roller bearing pedestal and the characteristic mentioned was "attains its greatest brilliancy every minute", with visibility of 14 nautical miles. The tower was painted white.

The original light source was oil wick burners with an intensity of 13,000 cd. Construction included three lighthouse keeper cottages, which were prefabricated elsewhere and brought to the site. In March 1911 the island was hit by a cyclone, stripping it of soil and vegetation, damaging the station buildings; as preparation for transferring the light from the Queensland Government to the Commonwealth Lighthouse Service, an evaluation was made by Commander Brewis in 1912, which recommended an upgrade of the light to incandescent mantle and a change of the characteristic to one flash every ten seconds, as well as the installation of a fog signal. The station was transferred to the Commonwealth in 1915, it was only in 1923 that the recommendation was acted upon, the light source was upgraded to vapourised kerosene with an intensity of 100,000 cd. At the same time, the characteristic was altered, again in 1930. In 1960 two of the three residences were replaced with modern structures. Upgrade to electric operation occurred in 1963 and in the same year three structures were constructed.

The original boathouse, constructed in 1920, was replaced with a new structure, relieving quarters were built and a fuel store was constructed. In 1972 a powerhouse and a bulk fuel store were constructed. In 1992 the Australian Maritime Safety Authority announced its plans to automate the station, remove the light keepers, transfer the island to the responsibility of the Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service; this prompted the foundation of the Low Isles Preservation Society, a community organization with the purpose of protecting the island and the lighthouse. The light was converted to solar power on March 1993, as planned the station was demanned and the site was transferred to the QPWS; the lens, removed at the time is now on display in the Court House Museum of Port Douglas. The last keeper left the island in 1994; the current light characteristic is a white flash every ten seconds visible for a distance of 17 nautical miles. The apparatus is a VRB-25 rotating at 1 rpm; the light source is a 12 Volt 20 Watt Halogen lamp with an intensity of 49,212 cd.

The tower stands on a concrete base. It is conical in shape, built of an internal timber frame, clad with galvanized iron plates riveted together, painted white. Sunlight is provided through

Luca della Robbia

Luca della Robbia was an Italian sculptor from Florence. Della Robbia is noted for his colorful, tin-glazed terracotta statuary, a technique which he invented and passed on to his nephew Andrea della Robbia and great-nephews Giovanni della Robbia and Girolamo della Robbia. Though a leading sculptor in stone, he worked in terracotta after developing his technique in the early 1440s, his large workshop produced both cheaper works cast from molds in multiple versions, more expensive one-off individually modeled pieces. The vibrant, polychrome glazes made his creations expressive, his work is noted for its charm rather than the drama of the work of some of his contemporaries. Two of his famous works are Child. In stone his most famous work is his first major commission, the choir gallery, Cantoria in the Florence Cathedral. Della Robbia was praised by his compatriot Leon Battista Alberti for genius comparable to that of the sculptors Donatello and Lorenzo Ghiberti, the architect Filippo Brunelleschi, the painter Masaccio.

By ranking him with contemporary artists of this stature, Alberti reminds us of the interest and strength of Luca's work in marble and bronze, as well as in the terra-cottas always associated with his name. Vasari and several other early writers give contradictory accounts of Luca della Robbia's youth and early works, he was born in the son of a member of the Arte della Lana. He may have trained as a goldsmith under Leonardo di Ser Giovanni according to Vasari, before working with Ghiberti on the famous doors of the Florence Baptistry, he was influenced by Donatello, in the 1420s was used by the architect Filippo Brunelleschi for sculpture on his buildings. His important commission for the Cantoria of Florence Cathedral came before he joined the sculptor's guild Arte dei Maestri di Pietra e Legname in 1432. According to Vasari, the Medici family were responsible for securing him the commission, his first documented commission was the Cantoria for the organ loft of Cathedral of Florence. During the seven years it took della Robbia to carve the reliefs under the supervision of Brunelleschi, his style developed.

While the earliest carved panels are symmetric and lack movement, in panels the movement of the singers becomes much more evident and dynamic. The Singing Gallery shows children singing and making music to "praise the Lord" in the words of Psalm 150, their figures are at once lively, finely observed, gracefully combined in groups designed to fit the ten panels of the gallery. The advanced nature of the work has been seen to establish Luca della Robbia's skill in stone as well as secure his place as a major Florentine artist and student of Renaissance naturalism. In the next two decades della Robbia executed important commissions in marble and bronze: a series of marble reliefs for the bell tower of the Cathedral of Florence; these doors were not finished until 1469. Arguably the one of the most important existing works in marble by Luca is the tomb of Benozzo Federighi, bishop of Fiesole placed in the church of San Pancrazio, but removed to San Francesco di Paola on the Bellosguardo road outside the city in 1783.

In 1898 it was again removed to the church of Santa Trinita in Florence. An effigy of the bishop in a restful pose lies on a sarcophagus sculptured with graceful reliefs of angels holding a wreath which contains the inscription. Above are three-quarter length figures of Christ between St John and the Virgin, of conventional type; the whole is surrounded by a rectangular frame formed of painted tiles. On each tile is painted, with enamel pigments, a bunch of flowers and fruit in brilliant realistic colors. Though the bunch of flowers on each is painted on one slab, the ground of each tile is formed of separate pieces because the pigment of the ground required a different degree of heat in firing from that needed for the enamel painting of the center. Della Robbia's earliest surviving freestanding sculpture is the white tin-glazed terracotta Visitation in the church of San Giovanni Fuoricivitas of Pistoia, dating to 1445. Although the date of della Robbia's first work in colored glazed terra-cotta is not known, his demonstrated control of this medium secured him two major commissions for the duomo of Florence: the large reliefs of the Resurrection and the Ascension of Christ.

The pliant medium of baked clay covered with a "slip" of vitrified lead and refined minerals permitted a lustrous, polished surface capable of reflecting light and color, beautifully appropriate for architectural sculpture. Whether animating the vast, somber space of the Cathedral or in the series Twelve Apostles gracing the pristine surfaces of the small Pazzi Chapel in Florence, della Robbia's reliefs in this medium achieved a high level of mastery. Working with assistants, including members of his own family, della Robbia produced a number of decorative reliefs and altarpieces until the end of his life. One of the arguably finest examples is the enameled terra-cotta ceiling of the Chapel of th


Campinaçu is a municipality in north Goiás state, Brazil. Campinaçu is surrounded by the following municipalities: north: Minaçu east: Colinas do Sul west: Campinorte and Uruaçu south: Niquelândia Distance to Goiânia: 462 km. Highway connections from Goiânia: GO-080 / Nerópolis / São Francisco de Goiás / BR-153 / Jaraguá / GO-080 / Goianésia / Barro Alto / GO-342 / BR-080 / BR-153 / Uruaçu / Santa Tereza de Goiás / GO-241 / Formoso. In 2007 the population density was 1.91 inhabitants/km2. The population growth rate for 2000/2007 was 0.22.%. The urban population in 2007 was 2,119 while the rural population was 1,646; the main economic activities are cattle raising with 64,500 head and plantations of rice, corn and sugar cane. In 2006 there were 545 farms with 75,511 of pasture. There were 1,600 persons connected to agriculture, the vast majority members of the farm owner's family. Retail units: 33 Financial institutions: none Automobiles in 2007: 116 The infant mortality rate was 14.32 while the literacy rate was 80.5%.

In 2007 there was one hospital with 19 beds. Public health clinics: 02 hospitals: 01 with 19 bedsWith a score of 0.733 Campinaçu occupies 132nd place out of 242 municipalities in the state on the Municipal Human Development Index. State ranking: 132 National ranking: 2,345 List of municipalities in Goiás Microregions of Goiás Frigoletto

2018–19 Aston Villa F.C. season

The 2018–19 season was Aston Villa's third consecutive season in the Championship following their relegation from the Premier League during the 2015–16 season, they finished in fifth place and were the winners of the subsequent play-offs to achieve promotion to the Premier League. It was their 144th year in existence. Villa announced friendlies with AFC Telford United, Kidderminster Harriers and Dynamo Dresden. On 21 June 2018, the Championship fixtures for the forthcoming season were announced. On 22 April 2019, Aston Villa confirmed their place in this year’s EFL Championship playoffs. On 30 April 2019, Aston Villa confirmed 5th place in this year’s Championship and would therefore play their first leg at home; the date is set for Saturday 11 May 2019 at 12:30pm. The third round draw was made live on BBC by Ruud Gullit and Paul Ince from Stamford Bridge on 3 December 2018. On 15 June 2018, the draw for the first round was made in Vietnam; the second round was drawn by Chris Waddle and Mick McCarthy on 16 August 2018.

^a Given one Red Card, rescinded. Based on matches played until 28 May 2019 Based on matches played until 28 May 2019