Bartholomew Gosnold was an English barrister and privateer, instrumental in founding the Virginia Company of London, Jamestown in colonial America. He led the first recorded European expedition to Cape Cod, he is considered by Preservation Virginia to be the "prime mover of the colonization of Virginia". Gosnold was born in Grundisburgh in Suffolk, England in 1571, his family seat was at Otley, Suffolk, his parents were Dorothy Bacon of Hessett. Henry Gosnold, the judge and friend of Francis Bacon, was his cousin. Bartholomew had a younger brother Anthony, born sometime between 1573 and 1578, who accompanied him to Virginia as well as a cousin named Anthony Gosnold, alive and still living in Virginia in 1615. In 1578, the will of Bartholomew's great-grandmother Ann Doggett Gosnold shows five sisters to Bartholomew and Anthony. Gosnold graduated from Jesus College at the University of Cambridge and studied law at the Middle Temple, he sailed with Walter Raleigh. He married Mary Goldinge, daughter of Robert Goldinge of Bury St Edmunds and his wife Martha Judd, at Latton, Essex in 1595.
Mary's mother, was daughter of Sir Andrew Judd a wealthy London merchant who, among other offices, was Lord Mayor of London, 1550–51. More for Gosnold's story, Sir Andrew Judd was grandfather to Thomas Smith, one of the founders of the Virginia Company. "Bartholomew's marriage, which has the appearance of one arranged with foresight, brought together a young man of high standing among the landed gentry and a young lady whose antecedents were found chiefly among the wealthier merchants of the city of London." Together and Mary Gosnold had seven children, six of whom were baptized at Bury St Edmunds, between 1597 and 1607. Daughter Mary married great-uncle of the diarist Samuel Pepys. There is no record of Gosnold's early maritime experiences, but given that he was entrusted with a ship to attempt a colonizing project in southern New England in 1602, he must have had significant experience, his biographer has suggested, based on circumstantial evidence, that in 1597–98 he served under the Earl of Essex on his Azores voyages.
Many of those involved in that voyage afterwards became involved in the colonization of Virginia. Gosnold early became a principal proponent of English New World settlement, John Smith attested to it in 1612: Captaine Bartholomew Gosnold, the first mover of this plantation, having many years solicited his friends, but found small assistants, but it could as describe Gosnold's effort to interest his "friends" in a colonizing effort at the beginning of the 17th century. In the Elizabethan ages and colonization was a private endeavor. While the crown did not defray any of the expenses of these enterprises, it granted monopolies to an individual or corporation to exploit a particular area that the crown claimed; this made the efforts profit-driven, much like privateering. So a would-be colonizer, like Gosnold, had to raise the capital for the expedition among private sources; as these ventures became more common great corporations would arise, much like the corporations which exploited the trading routes.
Substantial obstacles stood in the way of organizing a commercial colonizing venture to the New World. In the first place, Ireland beckoned as an alternate prospect for colonization, one, less expensive, at least with respect to shipping expenses. Most of the venture capitalists who were considering New World ventures were involved in Irish ventures. Thomas Smith's son, for example, was involved in the first substantial effort to colonize Ulster. There was the substantial financial risk involved in colonizing projects. Sir Walter Raleigh had lost 40 thousand pounds in founding Roanoke colony, he pledged still more to attempt to find and rescue the lost settlers. There was, however, a new colonial plan that seemed to have garnered general acceptance since it was written in the mid-1590s, it was in the report written by Edward Hayes to Lord Burghley setting forth the rationale and procedure for settlement. The argument was that colonization efforts should begin in northern Virginia because, compared with the locations tried in the lower latitudes the area's climate better comported with English comfort and produced agriculture much like England's.
The coast of New England produced a wealth of fish prized in Europe which could support a small foothold establishment and produce a profit with growth provided when more settlers were added later. Gosnold obtained backing to attempt to found an English colony in the New World and in 1602 he sailed from Falmouth, Cornwall in a small Dartmouth bark, the Concord, with thirty-two on board, they intended to establish a colony in New England. Gosnold pioneered a direct sailing route due west from the Azores to what became New England, arriving in May 1602 at Cape Elizabeth in Maine; the next day, on 15 May 1602, he sailed into Provincetown Harbor, where he is credited with naming Cape Cod. Following the coastline for several days, he discovered Martha's Vineyard and named it after his deceased daughter and the wild grapes that covered much of the land. Gos
Martha's Vineyard is an island located south of Cape Cod in Massachusetts, known for being an affluent summer colony. Martha's Vineyard includes the smaller Chappaquiddick Island, connected to the Vineyard, though storms and hurricanes have separated them, as in 2007, it is the 58th largest island in the United States, with a land area of about 96 square miles, the third-largest on the East Coast of the United States, after Long Island and Mount Desert Island. Martha's Vineyard constitutes the bulk of Dukes County, which includes the Elizabeth Islands and the island of Nomans Land; the Vineyard was home to one of the earliest known deaf communities in the United States. The 2010 census reported a year-round population of 16,535 residents, although the summer population can swell to more than 100,000 people. About 56 percent of the Vineyard's 14,621 homes are seasonally occupied. Martha's Vineyard is known as a summer colony, it is accessible only by boat and air. However, its year-round population has increased since the 1960s.
The island's year-round population increased about a third each decade from 1970 to 2000, for a total of 145 percent or about 3 percent to 4 percent per year. The population of the Vineyard was 14,901 in the 2000 Census and was estimated at 15,582 in 2004.. Dukes County includes the six towns on Gosnold; the Island's population increased from 14,987 to 16,535. A study by the Martha's Vineyard Commission found that the cost of living on the island is 60 percent higher than the national average, housing prices are 96 percent higher. A study of housing needs by the Commission found that the average weekly wage on Martha's Vineyard was "71 percent of the state average, the median home price was 54 percent above the state's and the median rent exceeded the state's by 17 percent". Inhabited by the Wampanoag people, Martha's Vineyard was known in the Massachusett language as Noepe, or "land amid the streams". In 1642, the Wampanoag numbered somewhere around 3,000 on the island. By 1764, that number had dropped to 313.
A smaller island to the south was named "Martha's Vineyard" by the English explorer Bartholomew Gosnold, who sailed to the island in 1602. The name was transferred to the main island, it is the eighth-oldest surviving English place-name in the United States. The island's namesake is not definitively known, but it is thought that the island was named after Gosnold's mother-in-law or his daughter, both named Martha; the island was known as Martin's Vineyard. The United States Board on Geographic Names worked to standardize placename spellings in the late 19th century, including the dropping of apostrophes, thus for a time Martha's Vineyard was named Marthas Vineyard, but the Board reversed its decision in the early 20th century, making Martha's Vineyard one of the five placenames in the United States that takes a possessive apostrophe. English settlement began with the purchase of Martha's Vineyard and the Elizabeth Islands by Thomas Mayhew of Watertown, Massachusetts from two English "owners".
He had friendly relations with the Wampanoags on the island, in part because he was careful to honor their land rights. His son named Thomas Mayhew, began the first English settlement in 1642 at Great Harbor; the younger Mayhew began a relationship with Hiacoomes, a Native American neighbor, which led to Hiacoomes' family converting to Christianity. Many of the tribe became Christian, including the pow-wows and sachems. During King Philip's War in the century, the Martha's Vineyard band did not join their tribal relatives in the uprising and remained armed, a testimony to the good relations cultivated by the Mayhews as the leaders of the English colony. In 1657, the younger Thomas Mayhew was drowned when a ship he was travelling in was lost at sea on a voyage to England. Mayhew's grandsons Matthew Mayhew, John Mayhew, other members of his family assisted him in running his business and government. In 1665, Mayhew's lands were included in a grant to the Duke of York. In 1671, a settlement was arranged which allowed Mayhew to continue in his position while placing his territory under the jurisdiction of the Province of New York.
In 1682, Matthew Mayhew succeeded his grandfather as Governor and Chief Magistrate, preached to the Native Americans. He was appointed judge of the Court of Common Pleas for Dukes county in 1697, remained on the bench until 1700, he was judge of probate from 1696 to 1710. In 1683, Dukes County, New York was incorporated, including Martha's Vineyard. In 1691, at the collapse of rule by Sir Edmund Andros and the reorganization of Massachusetts as a royal colony, Dukes County was transferred back to the Province of Massachusetts Bay, split into the county of Dukes County and Nantucket County, Massachusetts. Native American literacy in the schools founded by Thomas Mayhew Jr. and taught by Peter Folger, the grandfather of Benjamin Franklin, was such that the first Native American graduates of Harvard were from Martha's Vineyard, including the son of Hiacoomes, Joel Hiacoomes. "The ship Joel Hiacoomes was sailing
Watertown is a city in Middlesex County, is part of the Greater Boston area. The population was 31,915 in the 2010 census, its neighborhoods include Bemis, Coolidge Square, East Watertown, Watertown Square, the West End. It is one of thirteen Massachusetts municipalities that retain the title of “town” while functioning under state law as cities. Watertown was one of the first Massachusetts Bay Colony settlements organized by English Puritans in 1630; the city is home to the Perkins School for the Blind, the Armenian Library and Museum of America, the historic Watertown Arsenal, which produced military armaments from 1816 through World War II. Archeological evidence suggests that Watertown was inhabited for thousands of years before the arrival of settlers from England. Two tribes of Massachusett, the Pequossette and the Nonantum, had settlements on the banks of the river called the Charles; the Pequossette built a fishing weir to trap herring at the site of the current Watertown Dam. The annual fish migration, as both alewife and blueback herring swim upstream from their adult home in the sea to spawn in the fresh water where they were hatched, still occurs every spring.
Watertown, first known to settlers as Saltonstall Plantation, was one of the earliest of the Massachusetts Bay Colony settlements. Founded in early 1630 by a group of settlers led by Richard Saltonstall and George Phillips, it was incorporated that same year; the alternate spelling "Waterton" is seen in some early documents. The first buildings were upon land now included within the limits of Cambridge known as Gerry's Landing. For its first quarter century Watertown ranked next to Boston in area. Since its limits have been reduced. Thrice portions have been added to Cambridge, it has contributed territory to form the new towns of Weston, Waltham and Belmont. In 1632 the residents of Watertown protested against being compelled to pay a tax for the erection of a stockade fort at Cambridge; as early as the close of the 17th century, Watertown was the chief horse and cattle market in New England and was known for its fertile gardens and fine estates. Here about 1632 was erected the first gristmill in the colony, in 1662 one of the first woolen mills in America was built here.
Much excitement was generated in Watertown towards the start of the American Revolutionary War period. In 1773, many of its citizens were engaged with the Sons of Liberty in another tax protest, this time against the British Tea Tax which resulted in the famous Boston Tea Party rebellion; some 134 Watertown minutemen responded to the alarm from Lexington to rout the British redcoats from their march to Concord. Thereafter many of these citizen soldiers were part of the first battle line formed at the Siege of Boston. Another Watertown citizen, Israel Bissel, was the first rider to take the news of the British attack and rode all the way to Connecticut, New York and Philadelphia; the Massachusetts Provincial Congress, after adjournment from Concord, met from April to July 1775 in the First Parish Church, the site of, marked by a monument. The Massachusetts General Court held its sessions here from 1775 to 1778. Committees met in the nearby Edmund Fowle House. Boston town meetings were held here during the siege of Boston, when many Boston families made their homes in the neighborhood.
For several months early in the American Revolution the committees of safety and committee of correspondence made Watertown their headquarters and it was from here that General Joseph Warren set out for Bunker Hill. Here, the Treaty of Watertown, the first treaty signed between the newly formed United States of America and a foreign power, the St. John's and Mi'kmaq First Nations of Nova Scotia, was signed in this house. From 1832 to 1834 Theodore Parker conducted a private school here and his name is still preserved in the Parker School, though the building no longer operates as a public school; the Watertown Arsenal operated continuously as a military munitions and research facility from 1816 until 1995, when the Army sold the property, by known as the Army Materials Technology Laboratory, to the town of Watertown. The Arsenal is notable for being the site of a 1911 strike prompted by the management methods of operations research pioneer Frederick Winslow Taylor. Taylor's method, which he dubbed "Scientific Management," broke tasks down into smaller components.
Workers no longer completed whole items. The strike and its causes were controversial enough that they resulted in Congressional hearings in 1911. Taylor's methods spread influencing such industrialists as Henry Ford, the idea is one of the underlying inspirations of the factory line industrial method; the Watertown Arsenal was the site of a major superfund clean-up in the 1990s, has now become a center for shopping and the arts, with the opening of several restaurants and a new theatre. The site includes the Arsenal Center for the Arts, a regional arts center that opened in 2005; the Arsenal is now owned by athenahealth. Arsenal Street features two shopping malls across the street from one another, with the Watertown Mall on one side and Arsenal Yards on the other; the Perkins School for the Blind, founded in 1829, has been located in Watertown since 1912. The Stanley Brothers built th
Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the last of the five monarchs of the House of Tudor. Elizabeth was the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, his second wife, executed two-and-a-half years after Elizabeth's birth. Anne's marriage to Henry VIII was annulled, Elizabeth was declared illegitimate, her half-brother, Edward VI, ruled until his death in 1553, bequeathing the crown to Lady Jane Grey and ignoring the claims of his two half-sisters and the Roman Catholic Mary, in spite of statute law to the contrary. Edward's will was set aside and Mary became queen, deposing Lady Jane Grey. During Mary's reign, Elizabeth was imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels. In 1558 upon Mary's death, Elizabeth succeeded her half-sister to the throne and set out to rule by good counsel, she depended on a group of trusted advisers, led by William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley.
One of her first actions as queen was the establishment of an English Protestant church, of which she became the Supreme Governor. This Elizabethan Religious Settlement was to evolve into the Church of England, it was expected that Elizabeth would produce an heir. She was succeeded by her first cousin twice removed, James VI of Scotland, she had earlier been responsible for the imprisonment and execution of James's mother, Queen of Scots. In government, Elizabeth was more moderate. One of her mottoes was "video et taceo". In religion, she was tolerant and avoided systematic persecution. After the pope declared her illegitimate in 1570 and released her subjects from obedience to her, several conspiracies threatened her life, all of which were defeated with the help of her ministers' secret service. Elizabeth was cautious in foreign affairs, manoeuvring between the major powers of Spain, she only half-heartedly supported a number of ineffective, poorly resourced military campaigns in the Netherlands and Ireland.
By the mid-1580s, England could no longer avoid war with Spain. England's defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 associated Elizabeth with one of the greatest military victories in English history; as she grew older, Elizabeth became celebrated for her virginity. A cult grew around her, celebrated in the portraits and literature of the day. Elizabeth's reign became known as the Elizabethan era; the period is famous for the flourishing of English drama, led by playwrights such as William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe, for the seafaring prowess of English adventurers such as Francis Drake. Some historians depict Elizabeth as a short-tempered, sometimes indecisive ruler, who enjoyed more than her share of luck. Towards the end of her reign, a series of economic and military problems weakened her popularity. Elizabeth is acknowledged as a charismatic performer and a dogged survivor in an era when government was ramshackle and limited, when monarchs in neighbouring countries faced internal problems that jeopardised their thrones.
After the short reigns of her half-siblings, her 44 years on the throne provided welcome stability for the kingdom and helped forge a sense of national identity. Elizabeth was born at Greenwich Palace and was named after her grandmothers, Elizabeth of York and Elizabeth Howard, she was the second child of Henry VIII of England born in wedlock to survive infancy. Her mother was Anne Boleyn. At birth, Elizabeth was the heir presumptive to the throne of England, her older half-sister, had lost her position as a legitimate heir when Henry annulled his marriage to Mary's mother, Catherine of Aragon, to marry Anne, with the intent to sire a male heir and ensure the Tudor succession. She was baptised on 10 September 1533. A canopy was carried at the ceremony over the three-day old child by her uncle Viscount Rochford, Lord Hussey, Lord Thomas Howard, Lord Howard of Effingham. Elizabeth was two years and eight months old when her mother was beheaded on 19 May 1536, four months after Catherine of Aragon's death from natural causes.
Elizabeth was deprived of her place in the royal succession. Eleven days after Anne Boleyn's execution, Henry married Jane Seymour, who died shortly after the birth of their son, Edward, in 1537. From his birth, Edward was undisputed heir apparent to the throne. Elizabeth was placed in his household and carried the chrisom, or baptismal cloth, at his christening. Elizabeth's first governess, Margaret Bryan, wrote that she was "as toward a child and as gentle of conditions as I knew any in my life". Catherine Champernowne, better known by her married name of Catherine "Kat" Ashley, was appointed as Elizabeth's governess in 1537, she remained Elizabeth's friend until her death in 1565. Champernowne taught Elizabeth four languages: French, Flemish and Spanish. By the time William Grindal became her tutor in 1544, Elizabeth could write English and Italian. Under Grindal, a talented and skilful tutor, she progressed in French and Greek. After Grindal died in 1548, Elizabeth received her education under Roger Ascham, a sympathetic teacher who believed that learning should be engaging.
By the time her formal education ended in 1550, Elizabeth was one of the best educated women of her generation. At the end of her life, Elizabeth was believed to speak Welsh, Cornish and Irish in addition to the languages men
An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land, surrounded by water. Small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, cays or keys. An island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait, a small island off the coast may be called a holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago, such as the Philippines. An island may be described despite the presence of an artificial land bridge; some places may retain "island" in their names for historical reasons after being connected to a larger landmass by a land bridge or landfill, such as Coney Island and Coronado Island, though these are speaking, tied islands. Conversely, when a piece of land is separated from the mainland by a man-made canal, for example the Peloponnese by the Corinth Canal or Marble Hill in northern Manhattan during the time between the building of the United States Ship Canal and the filling-in of the Harlem River which surrounded the area, it is not considered an island.
There are two main types of islands in the sea: oceanic. There are artificial islands; the word island derives from Middle English iland, from Old English igland. However, the spelling of the word was modified in the 15th century because of a false etymology caused by an incorrect association with the etymologically unrelated Old French loanword isle, which itself comes from the Latin word insula. Old English ieg is a cognate of Swedish ö and German Aue, related to Latin aqua. Greenland is the world's largest island, with an area of over 2.1 million km2, while Australia, the world's smallest continent, has an area of 7.6 million km2, but there is no standard of size that distinguishes islands from continents, or from islets. There is a difference between continents in terms of geology. Continents are the largest landmass of a particular continental plate. By contrast, islands are either extensions of the oceanic crust, or belong to a continental plate containing a larger landmass. Continental islands are bodies of land.
Examples are Borneo, Sumatra, Sakhalin and Hainan off Asia. A special type of continental island is the microcontinental island, created when a continent is rifted. Examples are Madagascar and Socotra off Africa, New Caledonia, New Zealand, some of the Seychelles. Another subtype is an island or bar formed by deposition of tiny rocks where water current loses some of its carrying capacity; this includes: barrier islands, which are accumulations of sand deposited by sea currents on the continental shelves fluvial or alluvial islands formed in river deltas or midstream within large rivers. While some are transitory and may disappear if the volume or speed of the current changes, others are stable and long-lived. Islets are small islands. Oceanic islands are islands; the vast majority are volcanic in origin, such as Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean. The few oceanic islands that are not volcanic are tectonic in origin and arise where plate movements have lifted up the ocean floor above the surface.
Examples are Saint Paul Rocks in the Atlantic Ocean and Macquarie Island in the Pacific. One type of volcanic oceanic island is found in a volcanic island arc; these islands arise from volcanoes. Examples are the Aleutian Islands, the Mariana Islands, most of Tonga in the Pacific Ocean; the only examples in the Atlantic Ocean are some of the Lesser Antilles and the South Sandwich Islands. Another type of volcanic oceanic island occurs. There are two examples: Iceland, the world's second largest volcanic island, Jan Mayen. Both are in the Atlantic. A third type of volcanic oceanic island is formed over volcanic hotspots. A hotspot is more or less stationary relative to the moving tectonic plate above it, so a chain of islands results as the plate drifts. Over long periods of time, this type of island is "drowned" by isostatic adjustment and eroded, becoming a seamount. Plate movement across a hot-spot produces a line of islands oriented in the direction of the plate movement. An example is the Hawaiian Islands, from Hawaii to Kure, which continue beneath the sea surface in a more northerly direction as the Emperor Seamounts.
Another chain with similar orientation is the Tuamotu Archipelago. The southernmost chain is the Austral Islands, with its northerly trending part the atolls in the nation of Tuvalu. Tristan da Cunha is an example of a hotspot volcano in the Atlantic Ocean. Another hotspot in the Atlantic is the island of Surtsey, formed in 1963. An atoll is an island formed from a coral reef that has grown on an eroded and submerged volcanic island; the reef forms a new island. Atolls are ring-shaped with a central lagoon. Examples are the Line Islands
Governor Thomas Mayhew, the Elder established the first English settlement of Martha's Vineyard and adjacent islands in 1642. He is one of the editors of the first book published in British North America, his assistant Peter Foulger was the grandfather of Benjamin Franklin. Thomas Mayhew was born in the county of Wiltshire in England, he married Anna Parkhurst, born about 1600, in Hampshire, daughter of Matthew Parkhurst. In 1621 they had a son, the Younger, baptised in Hanna's home town of Southampton. Two years they had another child, Robert Mayhew, baptized in Tisbury; the family left England in 1631/2 during the Great Migration of Puritans that brought 20,000 settlers to Massachusetts in thirteen years. Through the agency of Matthew Cradock of London, Mayhew had been appointed to manage properties in Medford, to engage in trade and shipbuilding. In or about 1633, Mayhew's wife Anna died, about 1634 he returned to England for a business meeting with Cradock. While in England, he married Jane Gallion, brought her back to New England with him.
Their daughter Hannah was born in 1635, three more daughters, Mary and Bethiah, followed. Martha is songwriter Taylor Swift's 7th Great-Grandmother. In 1641, Thomas secured Martha's Vineyard, the Elizabeth Islands, other islands as a proprietary colony from Sir Ferdinando Gorges and the Earl of Sterling; this enabled him to transfer his business operations there. With the help of his son Thomas, a settlement was established and farming and whaling enterprises were begun; the Mayhews had great success in regard to Indian policy. Because of the fair treatment of the Indians there, the colony was protected from the bloodshed that occurred elsewhere, in King Philip's War. In 1646, the General Court of Massachusetts directed the religious leaders of the colony to select two among them to serve as missionaries to the natives. So great was the interest aroused by this venture that a society was formed in England to support the missionaries. A massive conflict broke out, called King Philip's War, which resulted in many deaths of both the settlers and the natives.
However, three prominent names appear. They are: John Eliot. In 1657, the younger Thomas Mayhew was drowned when a ship he was travelling in was lost at sea on a voyage to England. Mayhew's three grandsons Matthew Mayhew, John Mayhew, other members of his family assisted him in running his business and government. In 1641, while engaged in business ventures in the vicinity of Boston, Mayhew succeeded in acquiring the rights to the islands that now constitute Dukes County and Nantucket County: Martha's Vineyard and the Elizabeth Islands, he bought the County for 40 pounds and two beaverskin hats from William Alexander, the 2nd Earl of Sterling. To resolve a conflicting ownership claim, he paid off Sir Ferdinando Gorges, thereby acquiring a clear title. Mayhew established himself as governor of Martha's Vineyard in 1642 and sent his son, Thomas the Younger, with about forty English families to settle there, he himself followed four years later. Together he and the younger Thomas established Martha's Vineyard's first settlement and called it Great Harbor, now Edgartown.
Mayhew and his fellow settlers found a large and economically stable native population of about 3,000 living in permanent villages, led by four sachems. Relations between the first settlers and their Wampanoag neighbors were courteous. Under the leadership of his son, a minister, they instituted a policy of respect and fair dealing with the Wampanoag natives, unequaled anywhere. One of the first of Mayhew's orders was that no land was to be taken from the native islanders, the Wampanoags, without their consent or without fair payment. From this time forward, the colonial settlers and Indians lived without the bloodshed that marked the history of European colonies elsewhere in the New World. From the beginning, Mayhew had worked to preserve the original political institutions of the Indians. Religion and government were distinct matters, he told the Indian chiefs; when one of your subjects becomes a Christian, he is still under your jurisdiction. Indian land was guarded against further encroachment by white settlers.
So successful were these policies that during the bloody battles of King Philip's War, in 1675-1676, the Vineyard Indians never stirred, although they outnumbered the English on the island by twenty to one. By 1660 there were about 85 white people living peaceably among the natives, earning their living by farming and fishing; the Mayhew family, which from that time forth became an integral part of island history, wanted to share its religion with the natives, but the Wampanoags were not too interested, having their own spiritual faith. However, once it was clear that, though Mayhew was the governor, the sachems remained in charge of their people, some became curious about the white man's God; when a native named Hiacoomes expressed an interest, Mayhew invited him into his home and instructed him in English and Christianity. Hiacoomes, in return, taught Mayhew the native language; as soon as Mayhew could converse with the natives, he would some days "walk 20 miles through uncut forests to preach the Gospel...in wigwam or open field".
There is a stained glass window in the baptismal fo
Cuttyhunk Island is the outermost of the Elizabeth Islands in Massachusetts. A small outpost for the harvesting of sassafras was occupied for a few weeks in 1602, arguably making it the first English settlement in New England. Cuttyhunk is located between Buzzards Bay to Vineyard Sound to the south. Penikese Island and Nashawena Island are located to the east respectively; the island has a land area of 580 acres, a population of 52 persons as of the 2000 census. It is the fourth largest in home to the village of Cuttyhunk, it lies within the town of Gosnold. Cuttyhunk is about a mile and a half long, three-quarters of a mile wide, with a large natural harbor at the eastern end of the island. Half of the main part of the island is set apart as a nature preserve, it is home to a wide variety of birds such as piping plovers, least terns and Massachusetts' American oystercatchers, as well as White-tailed deer, White-footed mice, Eastern cottontails. It has a small population of coyotes. Cuttyhunk has most varieties of New England's wildflowers, as well as bayberry, sweet peas, a host of other plant life.
Two large peninsular arms extend from the main body of the island, named Canapitsit and Copicut Neck. The shore is made up of rocks, testimony to Cuttyhunk's glacial origins. Cuttyhunk is covered with rocks and stones that are elsewhere found only in the mountains of Vermont and New Hampshire. There are three stretches of sandy beach: along the channel that leads to the harbor, around the sunken barges that connect Canapitsit to the main body of land, at "Church's beach," which connects Copicut to the main island. Much of Cuttyhunk's rocky shore is bounded by steep cliffs made of rock and clay; the western end of the island is taken up by the West End Pond, much of, used for shellfish farming. A monument to Bartholomew Gosnold's 1602 landing stands on a small island in the Pond; the highest point on the island is Lookout Hill, standing at 154 feet above sea level. The Lookout is home to one of the six defensive bunkers built by the United States Coast Guard in 1941 to watch the surrounding ocean for Nazi U-boats.
Stripped of their observation equipment and weaponry at the end of World War II, the bunkers are now picnic areas. They offer views of its surrounding waters; the Coast Guard station has not been active since 1964. Cuttyhunk has been a popular site for large striped bass. In 1913 Charles Church caught a world-record striped bass of 73 pounds; that record lasted many years. Charles Cinto duplicated the effort, landing a 73-pound striper near Cuttyhunk in 1967. Cuttyhunk has been the home port to many notable fishing guides. Many of these guides troll secret lures attached by stainless-steel or nickel-alloy wire along the rocky reefs near the island where large female stripers reside from the spring through the autumn; the most notable reef and Pigs Reef, was where Mr. Cinto caught his striper; the island was named Poocuohhunkkunnah by the native Wampanoag tribe. In 1602 English explorer Bartholomew Gosnold renamed the island. On March 6, 1602, Gosnold set out aboard the barque The Concord from Falmouth, England to plant a colony in the New World of America.
Gosnold and his men landed near Kennebunkport, Maine explored Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, Cuttyhunk. They established a modest fort on Cuttyhunk where they planned to harvest sassafras, a valuable commodity in Europe at the time. After exploring the islands for less than a month, the men returned with The Concord to England. In 1606 the King granted the Elizabeth Islands to the Council of New England, which dissolved in 1635. After this, they became the property of 1st Earl of Stirling. Sterling sold the islands to Thomas Mayhew in 1641, in 1663 James Stuart, Duke of York assumed proprietorship over them. In 1668, Mayhew sold Cuttyhunk to Philip Smith, Peleg Sanford, Thomas Ward of Newport, Rhode Island. In 1688, Peleg Sanford acquired his partners' rights in the island, sold half of it to Ralph Earle of Dartmouth, he in turn sold his property to his son, Ralph Jr. who became the island's first permanent English settler. He and other colonists harvested the island of all of its timber, leaving it wind-swept.
In 1693, Peleg Slocum purchased all of the holdings on Cuttyhunk, became its sole owner. The Slocum family continued to live on Cuttyhunk for the next two hundred years. Several generations were slaveholders of Africans transported to the English colony for labor. In 1858, William C. N. Swift, Thomas Nye, Eben Perry bought Cuttyhunk from Otis Slocum for fifty dollars. In 1864, the town of Gosnold was incorporated. 1872–73 Cuttyhunk school was built 1874 First town meeting 1889 Town cemetery established 1892 Town library established 1976 WTG Energy Systems erected a prototype 200 kW wind turbine generator to supply a portion of the island's electric power. Paul Cuffee In 1864 some members of The West Island Club in Sakonnet Point, Rhode Island grew dissatisfied with that club's regulations, they looked for a place to start their own fishing club. After a visit to Cuttyhunk, these powerful New York gentlemen decided. In 1865, they purchased a large portion of the island, built 26 "fishing stands"—long, wooden platforms that stretched out from rock to rock into the surf—all around the island.
They limited initial membership to fifty men, with a single negative vote of the active members sufficient to bar a man from membership. T