Thomas Cranmer was a leader of the English Reformation and Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and, for a short time, Mary I. He helped build the case for the annulment of Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon, one of the causes of the separation of the English Church from union with the Holy See. Along with Thomas Cromwell, he supported the principle of Royal Supremacy, in which the king was considered sovereign over the Church within his realm. During Cranmer's tenure as Archbishop of Canterbury, he was responsible for establishing the first doctrinal and liturgical structures of the reformed Church of England. Under Henry's rule, Cranmer did not make many radical changes in the Church, due to power struggles between religious conservatives and reformers. However, he succeeded in publishing the first authorised vernacular service, the Exhortation and Litany; when Edward came to the throne, Cranmer was able to promote major reforms. He wrote and compiled the first two editions of the Book of Common Prayer, a complete liturgy for the English Church.
With the assistance of several Continental reformers to whom he gave refuge, he changed doctrine or discipline in areas such as the Eucharist, clerical celibacy, the role of images in places of worship, the veneration of saints. Cranmer promulgated the new doctrines through the Homilies and other publications. After the accession of the Roman Catholic Mary I, Cranmer was put on trial for treason and heresy. Imprisoned for over two years and under pressure from Church authorities, he made several recantations and reconciled himself with the Roman Catholic Church. However, on the day of his execution, he withdrew his recantations, to die a heretic to Roman Catholics and a martyr for the principles of the English Reformation. Cranmer's death was immortalised in Foxe's Book of Martyrs and his legacy lives on within the Church of England through the Book of Common Prayer and the Thirty-Nine Articles, an Anglican statement of faith derived from his work. Cranmer was born in 1489 at Aslockton in England.
He was a younger son of Thomas Cranmer by his wife Agnes Hatfield. Thomas Cranmer was of modest wealth but was from a well-established armigerous gentry family which took its name from the manor of Cranmer in Lincolnshire. Thomas was lord of the manor of Whatton, which had come to his great grandfather Edmund Cranmer by marriage with the heiress of the Aslactons, who held it from the reign of Henry II, it passed by an heiress of Cranmer, to Sir John Molyneux, who sold it to the Marquis of Dorchester, in 1792 was owned by the representative of the Duke of Kingston. A ledger stone to one of his relatives in Whatton Church, near Aslockton is inscribed as follows: Hic jacet Thomas Cranmer, qui obiit vicesimo septimo die mensis Maii, anno dni. MD centesimo primo, cui aie ppcietur Deus Amen; the arms on it are: A chevron between three cranes and Argent, five fusils in fesse gules each charged with an escallop or. The figure is that of a man in flowing hair and gown, a purse at his right side, their oldest son, John Cranmer, inherited the family estate, whereas Thomas and his younger brother Edmund were placed on the path to a clerical career.
Today historians know nothing definite about Cranmer's early schooling. He attended a grammar school in his village. At the age of fourteen, two years after the death of his father, he was sent to the newly created Jesus College, Cambridge, it took him a long eight years to reach his Bachelor of Arts degree following a curriculum of logic, classical literature and philosophy. During this time, he began to collect medieval scholastic books, which he preserved faithfully throughout his life. For his master's degree he took a different course of study, concentrating on the humanists, Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples and Erasmus; this time he progressed with no special delay. Shortly after receiving his Master of Arts degree in 1515, he was elected to a Fellowship of Jesus College. Sometime after Cranmer took his MA, he married. Although he was not yet a priest, he was forced to forfeit his fellowship, resulting in the loss of his residence at Jesus College. To support himself and his wife, he took a job as a reader at Buckingham Hall.
When Joan died during her first childbirth, Jesus College showed its regard for Cranmer by reinstating his fellowship. He began studying theology and by 1520 he had been ordained, the university having named him as one of their preachers, he received his Doctor of Divinity degree in 1526. Not much is known about Cranmer's experiences during his three decades at Cambridge. Traditionally, he has been portrayed as a humanist whose enthusiasm for biblical scholarship prepared him for the adoption of Lutheran ideas, which were spreading during the 1520s. However, a study of his marginalia reveals an early antipathy to Martin Luther and an admiration for Erasmus; when Cardinal Wolsey, the king's Lord Chancellor, selected several Cambridge scholars, including Edward Lee, Stephen Gardiner and Richard Sampson, to be diplomats throughout Europe, Cranmer was chosen to take a minor role in the English embassy in Spain. Two discovered letters written by Cranmer describe an early encounter with the king, Henry VIII of England: upon Cranmer's return from Spain, in June 1527, the king interviewed Cranmer for half an hour.
Cranmer described the king as "the kindest of princes". Henry VIII's first marriage had
Stephen Murray (actor)
Stephen Umfreville Hay Murray was an English cinema, radio and television actor. A member of Clan Murray headed by the Duke of Atholl, he was born in Partney, the son of the Reverend Charles Murray, Rector of Kirby Knowle, North Riding of Yorkshire, Mabel, he was the great-grandson of the Right Reverend George Murray, Bishop of Rochester, while the diplomat Sir Ralph Murray was his elder brother. He was educated at Brentwood School and the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, London, he was the great uncle of the comedian Al Murray. Murray found his greatest fame as the new Number 1 promoted to Lieutenant Commander in The Navy Lark on BBC Radio, his film debut was as the second police officer who interrupts an amorous Eliza and Freddy in Pygmalion. He was Gladstone to John Gielgud's Disraeli in The Prime Minister in 1941, he played Dr. Stephan Petrovitch in the 1943 Ealing war film Undercover. Among his other larger film roles were Uncle Henry in London Belongs to Me and the lead in Terence Fisher's Four Sided Triangle.
He once again appeared under heavy make-up as the elderly Dr Manette in A Tale of Two Cities. Murray made his stage debut at Stratford-upon-Avon in 1933, he played such parts as Seyton in Macbeth, among smaller roles, he did seasons at the Malvern Festival and at the Birmingham Repertory Theatre, where he played Hamlet. He worked at the Old Vic in London with Tyrone Guthrie, he played at the Open Air Theatre in Regent's Park, in the West End. At the Westminster Theatre in 1940 he portrayed the title character in John Drinkwater's Abraham Lincoln, he was in many of the plays of George Bernard Shaw, he did engagements at the Mermaid Theatre in London and at Stratford, Canada. His leading roles on television included Svengali. In 1952 he returned to the Old Vic to play King Lear, toured Europe in that production. Several years he played Lear on radio. Radio became one of Murray's most triumphant acting areas, with appearances in over 300 plays, he played Macbeth in 1949 with Flora Robson, a month after playing the part on television, so different were the two medium's audiences deemed to be.
He played the part again on radio in 1960. He was a fine Leontes in The Winter's Tale in 1951 with Elspeth March and Fay Compton, again in 1966 with Rachel Gurney and Edith Evans, he played Shakespeare's Timon of Athens both in 1961 and in 1975. In 1964, he played the title role in the monumental BBC Radio production of Marlowe's Tamburlaine with Sheila Allen as Zenocrate with Timothy West, Andrew Sachs, Joss Ackland, Gabriel Woolf, Bruce Condell and other leading Shakespearian actors of the day, he did two versions of the BBC radio epic The Rescue by Edward Sackville-West, where he played Odysseus. Other classic'50s roles included Marlowe's Doctor Faustus, John Gabriel Borkman and Brand as well as Calderon's The Mayor of Zalamea. However, his longest running part was that of "No 1" in The Navy Lark in which he starred from 1960 to 1977. In 1970 Murray played alongside Glenda Jackson in the BBC drama series Elizabeth R about the life and reign of Queen Elizabeth I. In this he played Sir Francis Walsingham, head of Elizabeth's secret service, a noted Puritan, whose work exposed the Babington Plot which led to the trial and execution of Mary, Queen of Scots.
In the 1970s he enjoyed the difficult roles, like August Strindberg's To Damascus with Zena Walker. His expressive voice was anguished and uncertain in his roles, so he was ideal for A Hospital Case by Dino Buzatti, a play which Albert Camus had translated and adapted for the Paris stage, he did new radio work like Peter Tegel's Rocklife. In 1970 he was the old Prince Bolkonsky in BBC radio's Peace, he tried his hand at science fiction in radio's The Tor Sands Experience by Bruce Stewart. Murray married Joan Alestha, daughter of John Joseph Moy Butterfield, in 1937, he died in London on 31 March 1983, aged 70. Pygmalion - Second Policeman The Prime Minister - Mr. W. E. Gladstone The Next of Kin - Mr. Barratt Undercover - Dr. Stephan Petrovitch Master of Bankdam - Zebediah Crowther My Brother Jonathan - Dr. Craig London Belongs to Me - Uncle Henry Silent Dust - Robert Rawley For Them That Trespass - Christopher Drew Alice in Wonderland - Lewis Carroll / The Knave of Hearts Now Barabbas - Chaplain The Magnet - Dr. Brent Four Sided Triangle - Bill The Stranger's Hand - British Consul in Venice The End of the Affair - Father Crompton At the Stroke of Nine - Stephen Garrett A Tale of Two Cities - Dr. Manette The Nun's Story - Chaplain Six Candles - British Insurance Association road safety public information film - Narrator Master Spy - Boris Turganev Stephen Murray on IMDb www.imdb.com/title/tt4868338/
Mary, Queen of Scots (1971 film)
Mary, Queen of Scots is a 1971 British Universal Pictures biographical film based on the life of Mary, Queen of Scots, written by John Hale and directed by Charles Jarrott. Leading an all-star cast are Vanessa Redgrave as the title character and Glenda Jackson as Elizabeth I. Jackson had played the part of Elizabeth in the BBC TV drama Elizabeth R, screened in February and March 1971, the first episode of, written by Hale; the screenplay was written by the film directed by Charles Jarrott. Like the play by Friedrich Schiller and the opera by Gaetano Donizetti, it takes considerable liberties with history in order to achieve increased dramatic effect, in particular two fictitious face-to-face encounters between the two queens; the film received a less than enthusiastic review from the New York Times, but was nominated for several awards. Following the death of her husband Francis II of France in 1560, Queen of Scots returns to her native land. Though fearless and beautiful, the young queen faces many challenges.
As in neighbouring England, the Protestant faith has been embraced by many nobles of Scotland. He suggests that Mary enjoy herself in Scotland, pass the time with dancing and feasting. Moray wants to rule Scotland while the inexperienced Mary becomes a figurehead. Fearing that Mary has ambitions for England's throne, Elizabeth I of England decides to weaken her claim by sending her favourite, the ambitious Robert Dudley, to woo and marry Mary, she promises. Sly Elizabeth sends the younger, dashing but weak and spoiled Lord Darnley from a powerful Catholic family. Tempted by the handsome Darnley, Mary impulsively chooses him for marriage. Lord Moray, a Protestant, opposes the marriage, she exiles Moray to strengthen her own authority. Elizabeth is satisfied that reckless, passionate Mary's romantic misadventures will keep her busy in Scotland and give shrewd, practical Elizabeth less to worry about. Soon after the wedding, spoiled brat Darnley throws a childish temper tantrum, complaining that he has no real power and is Mary's king consort.
A disillusioned Mary soon banishes Darnley from her bed and consults with the gentle, soft-spoken Italian courtier David Riccio. Darnley had him as a lover and accuses him of fathering Mary's expected child. A group of Scottish lords persuade Darnley to help get rid of Riccio, whom they murder in Mary's presence. To escape, she persuades Darnley that the plotters will turn against him, they flee to the safety of Lord Bothwell, he has been an ally of Mary since her arrival in Scotland. After he defeats the plotters, Mary forces a truce among their leader Moray and Bothwell. Mary gives birth to a son, expected to succeed both Mary and the unmarried, childless Elizabeth; the peace is short-lived. The weak, selfish Darnley still wants power, though by now he is hideously scarred and dying of syphilis. Mary finds herself falling in love with the rough but loyal Bothwell. With Moray's help, they arrange for Darnley to be killed in a gunpowder explosion at his manor. Bothwell marries Mary, their few brief nights together are blissful.
But Moray leads a rebellion against them. He forces Mary to abdicate, she and her husband are driven into exile, Mary to England and Bothwell to Denmark. Mary's young son James is to be raised as a Protestant. In England, Mary begs an army to regain her throne. Instead Elizabeth takes her prisoner, keeping her locked away in luxurious captivity in a remote castle. Elizabeth's closest advisor, Sir William Cecil, is anxious to get rid of Mary, but Elizabeth fears to set a precedent by putting an anointed monarch to death, she fears that Mary's death might spark a rebellion by her Catholic subjects and cause problems with powerful France and Spain. As a result, Mary is doomed to an open-ended captivity. Over time, the once proud queen of Scots succumbs to an empty routine, plotting half-heartedly to escape but growing comfortable in her luxurious seclusion, she occupies herself with a lazy daily schedule of cards and gossip, talking vaguely of escape yet sleeping and each morning. Yet while the helpless imprisoned queen has lost all will to harm her enemies, they continue to plot her final destruction.
With the help of his associate Walsingham, Cecil finds evidence of Mary's involvement in the conspiracy to assassinate Elizabeth known as the Babington Plot. Elizabeth confronts Mary, who regains her royal pride and behaves defiantly at their secret meeting. Although Elizabeth offers her mercy if she begs for forgiveness, Mary will not beg for mercy in public, she endures the trial and execution. She knows her son James will succeed to the English throne. For dramatic effect, the film presents two meetings between the queens, although they never met in life. Moreover, the film depicts Mary as enjoying a late-morning cup of hot chocolate in bed when this was not a popular drink in the British Isles until well into the 18th century; the film implies a homosexual liaison between Darnley and Riccio. The film was shot in Scotland.
Thomas Radclyffe, 3rd Earl of Sussex
Thomas Radclyffe, 3rd Earl of Sussex KG, was Lord Deputy of Ireland during the Tudor period of English history, a leading courtier during the reign of Elizabeth I. He was the eldest son of Henry Radclyffe, 2nd Earl of Sussex, his first wife Elizabeth Howard, his maternal grandparents were Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, his second wife, Agnes Tilney. His maternal uncles included, among Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, Lord Edmund Howard, his aunt, Elizabeth Boleyn, was the mother of Queen Anne Boleyn. He was born about 1525, after his father's succession to the earldom in 1542 was styled Viscount Fitzwalter. After serving in the army abroad, he was employed in 1551 to negotiate a marriage between King Edward VI of England and a daughter of Henry II of France. Radclyffe's prominence in the kingdom was shown by his inclusion among the signatories to the letters patent of 16 June 1553 settling the crown on Lady Jane Grey as Edward's successor. Returning to England from a mission to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, in April 1556, Fitzwalter was appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland.
The prevailing anarchy in Ireland, a country which, nominally subject to the English Crown, was torn by feuds among its independent native chieftains, made the task of the lord deputy a difficult one. Fitzwalter effected Queen Mary's policy for Ireland: the reversal of the partial attempts, made during the short reign of Edward VI to promote Protestantism there, the "plantation" by English settlers in the midlands and the shiring of King's County and Queen's County in 1556, named after Mary and her husband Philip, but before Fitzwalter could attend to such matters he had to make an expedition into Ulster, being kept in a constant state of disturbance by the Highland Scots from Kintyre and the Islands who were making settlements along the Antrim coast in the district of the "Glynnes", by the efforts of Shane O'Neill to dominate more territory in Ulster. Brutal methods were deployed, as Sussex sent the earl of Ormond, Sir Nicholas Bagenal and other captains to Rathlin Island on 3 September 1557.
They stayed for three days and hunted down the occupants of the island, it was noted that the killed'as many as they might come by or get out of caves, both man, woman and beasts'. Having defeated O'Neill and his allies, the MacDonnells, the lord deputy, who by the death of his father in February 1557 became Earl of Sussex, returned to Dublin, where he summoned a parliament in June of that year. Statutes were passed declaring the legitimacy of Mary I of England as Queen of the Kingdom of Ireland, reviving the laws for the suppression of heresy and forbidding the immigration of Scots. Having carried this legislation, Sussex endeavoured to give forcible effect to it, first by taking the field against Donough O'Conor, whom he failed to capture, afterwards against Shane O'Neill, whose lands in Tyrone he ravaged, restoring to their nominal rights the Earl of Tyrone and his reputed son Matthew O'Neill, Baron of Dungannon. In June of the following year Sussex turned his attention to the west, where the head of the O'Brien clan had ousted his nephew Conor O'Brien, Earl of Thomond, from his possessions, refused to pay allegiance to the Crown.
In the autumn of 1558 the continued inroads of the Scottish islanders in the Antrim glens called for drastic treatment by the lord deputy. Sussex laid waste Kintyre and some of the southern Hebridean isles, landing at Carrickfergus he fired and plundered the settlements of the Scots on the Antrim coast before returning to Dublin for Christmas. Far from being reluctant to employ scorched earth tactics because of the high civilian mortality that it wrought, the government forces resorted to land and crop-burning during the mid-Tudor and early Elizabethan years, did so because it promised to wreak the most havoc, kill the most people. Once in Ulster's Gaelic heartland Sussex's army moved about, burning at will; because he could not linger in the province for as long as he would have liked, the earl prioritised the fastest route to a lasting impact: famine. Hence his ordering the slaughter of 4,000 captured cows in Tyrone; as early as 1558 large parts of the country were destroyed by war, whole areas depopulated.
According to Archbishop Dowdall, it was possible to ride 30 miles across much of central and southern Ulster without seeing any sign of life. Famine stalked the province. In the metropolis the news reached him of the queen's death. Crossing to England, he took part in the ceremonial of Queen Elizabeth's coronation in January 1559. Shane O'Neill refused to meet Sussex without security for his safety, having established his power in Ulster he demanded terms of peace which Elizabeth was unwilling to grant. Sussex faile
Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance: a play, mime, etc, performed in a theatre, or on radio or television. Considered as a genre of poetry in general, the dramatic mode has been contrasted with the epic and the lyrical modes since Aristotle's Poetics —the earliest work of dramatic theory; the term "drama" comes from a Greek word meaning "action", derived from "I do". The two masks associated with drama represent the traditional generic division between comedy and tragedy. In English, the word "play" or "game" was the standard term used to describe drama until William Shakespeare's time—just as its creator was a "play-maker" rather than a "dramatist" and the building was a "play-house" rather than a "theatre"; the use of "drama" in a more narrow sense to designate a specific type of play dates from the modern era. "Drama" in this sense refers to a play, neither a comedy nor a tragedy—for example, Zola's Thérèse Raquin or Chekhov's Ivanov. It is this narrower sense that the film and television industries, along with film studies, adopted to describe "drama" as a genre within their respective media.
"Radio drama" has been used in both senses—originally transmitted in a live performance, it has been used to describe the more high-brow and serious end of the dramatic output of radio. The enactment of drama in theatre, performed by actors on a stage before an audience, presupposes collaborative modes of production and a collective form of reception; the structure of dramatic texts, unlike other forms of literature, is directly influenced by this collaborative production and collective reception. Mime is a form of drama. Drama can be combined with music: the dramatic text in opera is sung throughout. Musicals include songs. Closet drama describes a form, intended to be read, rather than performed. In improvisation, the drama does not pre-exist the moment of performance. Western drama originates in classical Greece; the theatrical culture of the city-state of Athens produced three genres of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Their origins remain obscure, though by the 5th century BC they were institutionalised in competitions held as part of festivities celebrating the god Dionysus.
Historians know the names of many ancient Greek dramatists, not least Thespis, credited with the innovation of an actor who speaks and impersonates a character, while interacting with the chorus and its leader, who were a traditional part of the performance of non-dramatic poetry. Only a small fraction of the work of five dramatists, has survived to this day: we have a small number of complete texts by the tragedians Aeschylus and Euripides, the comic writers Aristophanes and, from the late 4th century, Menander. Aeschylus' historical tragedy The Persians is the oldest surviving drama, although when it won first prize at the City Dionysia competition in 472 BC, he had been writing plays for more than 25 years; the competition for tragedies may have begun as early as 534 BC. Tragic dramatists were required to present a tetralogy of plays, which consisted of three tragedies and one satyr play. Comedy was recognized with a prize in the competition from 487 to 486 BC. Five comic dramatists competed at the City Dionysia.
Ancient Greek comedy is traditionally divided between "old comedy", "middle comedy" and "new comedy". Following the expansion of the Roman Republic into several Greek territories between 270–240 BC, Rome encountered Greek drama. From the years of the republic and by means of the Roman Empire, theatre spread west across Europe, around the Mediterranean and reached England. While Greek drama continued to be performed throughout the Roman period, the year 240 BC marks the beginning of regular Roman drama. From the beginning of the empire, interest in full-length drama declined in favour of a broader variety of theatrical entertainments; the first important works of Roman literature were the tragedies and comedies that Livius Andronicus wrote from 240 BC. Five years Gnaeus Naevius began to write drama. No plays from either writer have survived. While both dramatists composed in both genres, Andronicus was most appreciated for his tragedies and Naevius for his comedies. By the beginning of the 2nd century BC, drama was established in Rome and a guild of writers had been formed.
The Roman comedies that have survived are all fabula palliata (comedies b
Luchino Visconti di Modrone, Count of Lonate Pozzolo, was an Italian theatre and cinema director, as well as a screenwriter. He is best known for his films Ossessione, Senso and His Brothers, The Leopard and Death in Venice. Luchino Visconti was born into a prominent noble family in Milan, one of seven children of Giuseppe Visconti di Modrone, Duke of Grazzano Visconti and Count of Lonate Pozzolo, his wife Carla, he was formally known as Count don Luchino Visconti di Modrone, his family is a branch of the Visconti of Milan. In his early years, he was exposed to art and theatre: he studied cello with the Italian cellist and composer Lorenzo de Paolis and met the composer Giacomo Puccini, the conductor Arturo Toscanini and the writer Gabriele D'Annunzio. During World War II, Visconti joined the Italian Communist Party. Visconti made no secret of his homosexuality, his last partner was the Austrian actor Helmut Berger, who played Martin in Visconti's film The Damned. Berger appeared in Visconti's Ludwig in 1973 and Conversation Piece in 1974, along with Burt Lancaster.
Other lovers included Franco Zeffirelli, who worked as part of the crew in production design, as assistant director, other roles in a number of Visconti's films and theatrical productions. Visconti smoked 120 cigarettes a day, he continued to smoke heavily. He died in Rome of another stroke at the age of 69. There is a museum dedicated to the director's work in Ischia, he began his filmmaking career as an assistant director on Jean Renoir's Toni and Partie de campagne through the intercession of their common friend Coco Chanel. After a short tour of the United States, where he visited Hollywood, he returned to Italy to be Renoir's assistant again, this time for La Tosca, a production, interrupted and completed by German director Karl Koch. Together with Roberto Rossellini, Visconti joined the salotto of Vittorio Mussolini. Here he also met Federico Fellini. With Gianni Puccini, Antonio Pietrangeli and Giuseppe De Santis, he wrote the screenplay for his first film as director: Ossessione, the first neorealist movie and an unofficial adaptation of the novel The Postman Always Rings Twice.
In 1948, he directed La terra trema, based on the novel I Malavoglia by Giovanni Verga. Visconti continued working throughout the 1950s, but he veered away from the neorealist path with his 1954 film, shot in colour. Based on the novella by Camillo Boito, it is set in Austrian-occupied Venice in 1866. In this film, Visconti combines romanticism as a way to break away from neorealism. However, as one biographer notes, "Visconti without neorealism is like Lang without expressionism and Eisenstein without formalism", he describes the film as the "most Viscontian" of all Visconti's films. Visconti returned to neorealism once more with Rocco e i suoi fratelli, the story of Southern Italians who migrate to Milan hoping to find financial stability. In 1961, he was a member of the jury at the 2nd Moscow International Film Festival. Throughout the 1960s, Visconti's films became more personal. Il Gattopardo is based on Lampedusa's novel of the same name about the decline of the Sicilian aristocracy at the time of the Risorgimento.
It starred American actor Burt Lancaster in the role of Prince Don Fabrizio. This film was distributed in America and Britain by Twentieth-Century Fox, which deleted important scenes. Visconti repudiated the Twentieth-Century Fox version, it was not until The Damned that Visconti received a nomination for an Academy Award for Best Screenplay. The film, one of Visconti's better known works, concerns a German industrialist's family which begins to disintegrate during the Nazi consolidation of power in the 1930s, its decadence and lavish beauty are characteristic of Visconti's aesthetic. Visconti's final film was The Innocent, in which he returns to his recurring interest in infidelity and betrayal. Visconti was a celebrated theatre and opera director. During the years 1946 to 1960 he directed many performances of the Rina Morelli-Paolo Stoppa Company with actor Vittorio Gassman as well as many celebrated productions of operas. Visconti's love of opera is evident in the 1954 Senso, where the beginning of the film shows scenes from the fourth act of Il trovatore, which were filmed at the Teatro La Fenice in Venice.
Beginning when he directed a production at Milan's Teatro alla Scala of La vestale in December 1954, his career included a famous revival of La traviata at La Scala in 1955 with Maria Callas and an famous Anna Bolena in 1957 with Callas. A significant 1958 Royal Opera House production of Verdi's five-act Italian version of Don Carlos followed, along with a Macbeth in Spoleto in 1958 and a famous black-and-white Il trovatore with scenery and costumes by Filippo Sanjust at the Royal Opera House in 1964. In 1966 Visconti's luscious Falstaff for the Vienna State Opera conducted by Leonard Bernstein was critically acclaimed. On the other hand, his austere 1969 Simon Boccanegra with the singers clothed in geometrical costumes provoked controversy. Giorni di gloria, documentary, 1945 Appunti su un fatto di cronaca, short film, 1951 Siamo donne, 1953, episode Anna Magnani Boccaccio'70, 1962, based on the episode Il lavoro in Boccaccio's Decameron Le streghe, 1967, episode La strega bruciata viva Alla ricerca di Tadzio, TV movie, 1970 Notes Sources Ardoin, The Calla
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but one using the electromagnetic spectrum, in a one-to-many model. Broadcasting began with AM radio, which came into popular use around 1920 with the spread of vacuum tube radio transmitters and receivers. Before this, all forms of electronic communication were one-to-one, with the message intended for a single recipient; the term broadcasting evolved from its use as the agricultural method of sowing seeds in a field by casting them broadly about. It was adopted for describing the widespread distribution of information by printed materials or by telegraph. Examples applying it to "one-to-many" radio transmissions of an individual station to multiple listeners appeared as early as 1898. Over the air broadcasting is associated with radio and television, though in recent years, both radio and television transmissions have begun to be distributed by cable; the receiving parties may include the general public or a small subset.
The field of broadcasting includes both government-managed services such as public radio, community radio and public television, private commercial radio and commercial television. The U. S. Code of Federal Regulations, title 47, part 97 defines "broadcasting" as "transmissions intended for reception by the general public, either direct or relayed". Private or two-way telecommunications transmissions do not qualify under this definition. For example and citizens band radio operators are not allowed to broadcast; as defined, "transmitting" and "broadcasting" are not the same. Transmission of radio and television programs from a radio or television station to home receivers by radio waves is referred to as "over the air" or terrestrial broadcasting and in most countries requires a broadcasting license. Transmissions using a wire or cable, like cable television, are considered broadcasts but do not require a license. In the 2000s, transmissions of television and radio programs via streaming digital technology have been referred to as broadcasting as well.
The earliest broadcasting consisted of sending telegraph signals over the airwaves, using Morse code, a system developed in the 1830s by Samuel F. B. Morse, physicist Joseph Henry and Alfred Vail, they developed an electrical telegraph system which sent pulses of electric current along wires which controlled an electromagnet, located at the receiving end of the telegraph system. A code was needed to transmit natural language using only these pulses, the silence between them. Morse therefore developed the forerunner to modern International Morse code; this was important for ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore communication, but it became important for business and general news reporting, as an arena for personal communication by radio amateurs. Audio broadcasting began experimentally in the first decade of the 20th century. By the early 1920s radio broadcasting became a household medium, at first on the AM band and on FM. Television broadcasting started experimentally in the 1920s and became widespread after World War II, using VHF and UHF spectrum.
Satellite broadcasting was initiated in the 1960s and moved into general industry usage in the 1970s, with DBS emerging in the 1980s. All broadcasting was composed of analog signals using analog transmission techniques but in the 2000s, broadcasters have switched to digital signals using digital transmission. In general usage, broadcasting most refers to the transmission of information and entertainment programming from various sources to the general public. Analog audio vs. HD Radio Analog television vs. Digital television WirelessThe world's technological capacity to receive information through one-way broadcast networks more than quadrupled during the two decades from 1986 to 2007, from 432 exabytes of information, to 1.9 zettabytes. This is the information equivalent of 55 newspapers per person per day in 1986, 175 newspapers per person per day by 2007. There have been several methods used for broadcasting electronic media audio and video to the general public: Telephone broadcasting: the earliest form of electronic broadcasting.
Telephone broadcasting began with the advent of Théâtrophone systems, which were telephone-based distribution systems allowing subscribers to listen to live opera and theatre performances over telephone lines, created by French inventor Clément Ader in 1881. Telephone broadcasting grew to include telephone newspaper services for news and entertainment programming which were introduced in the 1890s located in large European cities; these telephone-based subscription services were the first examples of electrical/electronic broadcasting and offered a wide variety of programming. Radio broadcasting. Radio stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast common radio programs, either in broadcast syndication, simulcast or subchannels. Television broadcasting, experimentally from 1925, commercially from t