Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia

Elizabeth Stuart was Electress of the Palatinate and Queen of Bohemia as the wife of Frederick V of the Palatinate. Because her husband's reign in Bohemia lasted for just one winter, Elizabeth is referred to as the "Winter Queen". Elizabeth was the second child and eldest daughter of James VI and I, King of Scotland and Ireland, his wife, Anne of Denmark. With the demise of the last Stuart monarch in 1714, Elizabeth's grandson succeeded to the British throne as George I, initiating the Hanoverian dynasty. Elizabeth was born at Fife, on 19 August 1596 at 2 o'clock in the morning. King James rode to the bedside from Callendar, where he was attending the wedding of the Earl of Orkney. At the time of her birth, her father was King of Scots only. Named in honour of Queen Elizabeth I of England, the young Elizabeth was christened on 28 November 1596 in the Chapel Royal at Holyroodhouse. During her early life in Scotland, Elizabeth was brought up at Linlithgow Palace, "one of the grandest of Scotland's royal residences", where she was placed in the care of Lord Livingstone and his wife, Eleanor Hay.

A couple of years the king's second daughter, was placed in their care as well. Elizabeth "did not pay particular attention to this younger sister", as at this young age her affections were with her brother, Henry; when Queen Elizabeth I of England died in 1603, Elizabeth Stuart's father, succeeded as King of England and Ireland. The Countess of Kildare was appointed the princess's governess. Along with her elder brother, Elizabeth made the journey south toward England with her mother "in a triumphal progress of perpetual entertainment". On her father's birthday, 19 June, Elizabeth danced at Worksop Manor with Robert Cecil's son. Elizabeth remained at court for a few weeks, but "there is no evidence that she was present at her parents' coronation" on 25 July 1603, it seems that by this time the royal children had been removed to Oatlands, an old Tudor hunting lodge near Weybridge. On 19 October 1603 "an order was issued under the privy seal announcing that the King had thought fit to commit the keeping and education of the Lady Elizabeth to the Lord Harrington and his wife".

Under the care of Lord Harington at Coombe Abbey, Elizabeth met Anne Dudley, with whom she was to strike up a lifelong friendship. Part of the intent of the Gunpowder Plot of 1605 was to assassinate Elizabeth's father and the Protestant aristocracy, kidnap the nine-year-old Elizabeth from Coombe Abbey, place her on the throne of England – and the thrones of Ireland and Scotland – as a Catholic monarch; the conspirators chose Elizabeth after considering the other available options. Prince Henry, would perish alongside his father. Charles was seen as Mary too young. Elizabeth, on the other hand, had attended formal functions, the conspirators knew that "she could fulfil a ceremonial role despite her comparative youth"; the conspirators aimed to cause an uprising in the Midlands to coincide with the explosion in London and at this point secure Elizabeth's accession as a puppet queen. She would be brought up as a Catholic and married to a Catholic bridegroom; the plot failed when the conspirators were betrayed and Guy Fawkes was caught by the King's soldiers before he was able to ignite the powder.

Elizabeth was given a comprehensive education for a princess at that time. This education included instruction in natural history, theology, writing, history and dancing, she was denied instruction in the classics as her father believed that "Latin had the unfortunate effect of making women more cunning". By the age of 12, Elizabeth was fluent in several languages, including French, "which she spoke with ease and grace" and would use to converse with her husband, she was an excellent rider, had a thorough understanding of the Protestant religion, had an aptitude for writing letters that "sounded sincere and never stilted". She was literary and "several mementoes of her early love of books exist"; as the daughter of a reigning monarch, the hand of the young Elizabeth was seen as a desirable prize. Suitors were many and varied, they included: Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, son of the King of Sweden Frederic Ulric, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel Prince Maurice of Nassau Theophilus Howard, Lord Howard of Walden second Earl of Suffolk Otto, Hereditary Prince of Hesse, son of Maurice, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel Victor Amadeus, Prince of Piedmont, the King of Spain's nephew and heir to the Duke of SavoyEach suitor brought to the proposed marriage the prospect of power and greatness for the young Elizabeth.

Marriage would cost Elizabeth her father's kingdom. When James had succeeded to the English throne in 1603, England had acquired a new role in European affairs. Unlike the childless Elizabeth I, James, by "having children, could play an important role in dynastic politics"; the selection of Elizabeth's spouse, had little to do with her personal preference and a great deal to do with the benefits the match could bring. Most of her suitors were rejected for a variety of reasons; some were not of high enough birth, had no real prospects to offer, or in the case of Gustavus Adolphus, who on all other grounds seemed like a perfect match, because "his country was at war with Queen Anne's native Denmark". Furthermore, England could not face another religious revolution, therefore the religious pre-requisite was paramount; the man chosen was Count Palatine of the Rhine. Frederick was of undeniably high lineage. His

Stanford International Bank

Stanford International Bank was a bank based in the Caribbean, which operated from 1986 to 2009 when it went into receivership. It was an affiliate of the Stanford Financial Group and failed when its parent was seized by United States authorities in early 2009 as part of the investigation into Allen Stanford. Prior to its demise, Stanford International Bank Limited offered certificate of deposit at rates higher than those available from banks in the United States; the bank was started by Allen Stanford in 1986 in Montserrat where it was called Guardian International Bank. Allen Stanford's move into banking utilised funds he had made in real estate in Houston, Texas, in the early 1980s. There was no direct connection between Stanford's insurance business in Texas and the banking business. Stanford relocated its operations to Antigua; the bank's portfolio was overseen by an investment committee consisting of Allen Stanford. In February 2009, the US Securities and Exchange Commission investigated the US operations of the Stanford Financial Group, including the bank.

On 13 February Stanford was quoted saying "the bank remains a strong institution". On 17 February 2009, the SEC charged Allen Stanford, Pendergest-Holt and Davis with fraud in connection with the bank's US$8 billion certificate of deposit investment scheme that offered "improbable and unsubstantiated high interest rates"; this led the federal government to freeze the assets of other Stanford entities. In addition, the bank placed a 60-day moratorium on early redemptions of its CDs. On 27 February 2009, Pendergest-Holt was arrested by federal agents in connection with the alleged fraud. On that day the SEC said that Stanford and his accomplices operated a "massive Ponzi scheme", misappropriated billions of investors' money and falsified the Stanford International Bank's records to hide their fraud. "Stanford International Bank's financial statements, including its investment income, are fictional," the SEC said. In 2007 the bank formed a subsidiary in Venezuela, which developed a network of branches throughout the country.

There was a run on the bank in February 2009 following the SEC's investigation into Stanford's affairs in the US, this forced the Venezuelan authorities to seize the bank. It was sold to Banco Nacional de Crédito in May 2009. Mexico's financial regulator announced on 19 February 2009 that it was investigating the local affiliate of Stanford bank for possible violation of banking laws. In the United States District Judge David Godbey froze all of the Stanford personal and corporate assets in the US and appointed Ralph Janvey of Dallas as receiver. Janvey retained control. On 19 February 2009, Nigel Hamilton-Smith and Peter Wastell of the British accounting firm Vantis were appointed joint receivers of the bank, were made liquidators on 15 April 2009. In February 2010, Vantis' auditors Ernst & Young expressed concern about whether Vantis would receive payment for its work on Stanford. Properties in Antigua emerged as an important part of the company's assets, to be sold to enable payment of creditors and Vantis' own fees.

In June 2010, it was announced that the liquidators and the US receiver had entered into a co-operation agreement, under which the liquidators were to deal with the realisation of the bank's assets in Antigua and the United Kingdom, the US receiver was to deal with the realisation of the bank's assets in the US and Canada. In June 2010, the High Court of Antigua resolved that Vantis should be removed from its responsibilities; the firm, which had received government approval to sell the property assets, appealed the decision. Vantis itself was placed in administration on 29 June 2010 and promptly broken up, with the various offices and businesses being sold as going concerns. Hamilton-Smith and Wastell transferred to the buyout firm FRP Advisory, continued their legal fight to be reinstated as liquidators of Stanford. In May 2011 following a claim made to the Eastern Caribbean Court of Appeal, Hamilton-Smith and Wastell were removed as liquidators. On 12 May 2011, Marcus Wide and Hugh Dickson of the international accounting firm Grant Thornton were appointed the new liquidators by the High Court of Antigua.

In September 2011, it was reported that the U. S. Justice Department was investigating whether a Swiss subsidiary of Société Générale was used to channel funds to Stanford's personal accounts and failed to follow due diligence procedures or to ask questions about irregular banking activity. On Friday, January 20, 2012, an email was sent by the Joint Liquidators to creditors, depositors, the "Fraud Victims" urging them to resubmit their claims, they were given some hope of an "interim distribution" but no imminent final sale of some major assets. The information is repeated and the forms are at On 11 October 2011, the liquidators convened an online creditors’ meeting; the liquidators emphasized that there was a huge shortfall between the available assets and the claims. The claims are around US$7 billion; the assets available are estimated to range from US$73 million to US$1.5 billion. Some of the assets are harder to liquidate, such as property.

Therefore, patience will be required to obtain the highest values in the long-term. Another goal of the liquidators is to avoid litigation that could be costl

Hanif (given name)

Hanif is an Arabic masculine given name, which means a righteous person or a true believer. The origin of the word is uncertain, although it is agreed that it is derived from the Syriac word hanpe, which means'heathen', it is agreed that the word Ḥanīf is derived from the Syriac word hanpe, which means'heathen'. However, there is no credible theory which can explain the transformation of the term's meaning – from heathen to monotheist. Nabataeans used Hanif's cognate to designate a follower of Hellenized religion, and Nabataean is considered as the region where the transformation of the term's meaning took place. Alfred Felix Landon Beeston argues that the ambiguity associated with the shift of the term's meaning can be removed if one assumes that the term was introduced via Najran, instead of its direct introduction from Syria, he argues that the Najranites had adopted the term hanpe from the Syrian missionaries, who used it for all non-Christians, irrespective of them being polytheist or monotheist.

The 5th century inhabitants of Mecca had strong trading ties with the Yemen, where the wealthier classes were overwhelmingly monotheist. And, as the Najranites used the term Ḥanīf to designate the Yemenis, it would have been easier for the Meccans to adopt it in the sense of monotheism. Notable people with the given name Hanif include: Hanif Abbasi, Pakistani politician and businessman Hanif Awan, Pakistani politician Hanif Baktash, Pashto poet and writer Hanif Bali, Swedish politician Hanif Dolor, Saint Lucian footballer Hanif Dzahir (, Malaysian footballer Hanif Hamir, Bruneian footballer Hanif Kara, British structural engineer Hanif Khan, Pakistani field hockey player Hanif Khan Pitafi, Pakistani politician Hanif Kureishi, British author and filmmaker Hanif Lalani, British business executive Hanif Mohammad, Pakistani cricketer Hanif Omranzadeh, Iranian footballer Hanif Pehalwan, Indian wrestler Hanif Ramay, Pakistani politician Hanif Sanket, Bangladeshi television host Hanif Shah al-Hussaini, Afghan politician Hanif-ur-Rehman, Pakistani cricketer Hanif Willis-Abdurraqib, American poet and music critic Hanif Hanifa