Wilson (1944 film)
Wilson is a 1944 American biographical film in Technicolor about the 28th American President Woodrow Wilson. It stars Charles Coburn, Alexander Knox, Geraldine Fitzgerald, Thomas Mitchell and Sir Cedric Hardwicke; the story begins in 1909, a time when Wilson is best known as the head of Princeton University and the author of several books on the democratic process. Urged into running for Governor of New Jersey by the local political machine, Wilson soon proves that he is his own man—beholden to no one—and that he is dedicated to the truth at any cost; as the U. S. is going through a progressive change in national politics and a split is developing in the opposing Republican Party, Woodrow Wilson is nominated in Baltimore and wins the Presidency in 1912. He pushes through a series of programs, called'The New Freedom'; as World War I is breaking out in Europe in 1914, President Wilson tries to keep the U. S. neutral. At this same time, his wife Ellen dies of bright's disease. Overcome with grief and loneliness, the President, carries on.
Early in 1915, at around the same time of the British trans-Atlantic passenger steamer Lusitania sinking, he meets Edith Bolling Galt, a Washington D. C. widow. A courtship develops and they find themselves in love and are married in December 1915; the next year of 1916 brings The President to reelection to a second term. Many feel that he is going to be defeated, the result is so close that the balance hangs of the returns from California, which goes for President Wilson. As, he starts his second term, the war comes to America; the Zimmerman note is enough to put the U. S. in the war. The Yanks are coming, in 1918 victory is on the side of the Allies. President Wilson travels to France to have a hand in the Peace treaty, but many Republican senators, including Henry Cabot Lodge, feel the President is leaving them out of the process, make a decision to kill whatever treaty he brings back, or saddle it with reservations. President Wilson takes the issue to the people in a multi state tour, but his health is broken on the trip and days after returning to Washington, has a stroke.
Edith shields the President and screens visitors, takes on a role, controversial. But President Wilson recovers enough to make an orderly transition to President Warren G. Harding in 1921. Alexander Knox as Woodrow Wilson Charles Coburn as Professor Henry Holmes Geraldine Fitzgerald as Edith Wilson Thomas Mitchell as Joseph Tumulty Ruth Nelson as Ellen Wilson Sir Cedric Hardwicke as Senator Henry Cabot Lodge Vincent Price as William G. McAdoo William Eythe as George Felton Mary Anderson as Eleanor Wilson Ruth Ford as Margaret Wilson Sidney Blackmer as Josephus Daniels Madeleine Forbes as Jessie Wilson Stanley Ridges as Admiral Grayson Eddie Foy Jr. as Eddie Foy Charles Halton as Colonel House Thurston Hall as Senator E. H. Jones J. M. Kerrigan as Edward Sullivan James Rennie as Jim Beeker Katherine Locke as Helen Bones Stanley Logan as Secretary Lansing Marcel Dalio as Clemenceau Edwin Maxwell as William Jennings Bryan Clifford Brooke as Lloyd George Tonio Selwart as Von Bernstorff John Ince as Senator Watson Charles Miller as Senator Bromfield The movie was written by Lamar Trotti and directed by Henry King.
Wilson's daughter, Eleanor Wilson McAdoo, served as an informal counselor. Journalist Ray Stannard Baker, an authority on Wilson served as an adviser; the film lost a reported $2 million for Fox. Though the film was critically acclaimed and won five Oscars, it is remembered for being a big financial failure at the box office. Film critic Manny Farber was unenthusiastic, calling the production "costly and impotent" while writing: "The effect of the movie is similar to the one produced by the sterile post-card albums you buy in railroad stations, which unfold like accordions and show you the points of interest in the city... The producers must have known far more about the World War, the peace-making at Versailles, Wilson himself, but, kept out of the movie in the same way that slum sections are kept out of post-card albums... About three-quarters of the way through, a large amount of actual newsreel from the first World War is run off and the strength of it makes the film that comes before and after seem comical."
Despite the negative press and lackluster box office, it was still nominated for 10 Academy Awards, winning five: Best Art Direction-Interior Decoration, Color Best Cinematography, Color Best Film Editing Best Sound, Recording Best Writing, Original Screenplay Its remaining nominations: Best Picture Best Director Best Actor in a Leading Role Best Music, Scoring of a Dramatic or Comedy Picture Best Effects, Special Effects The film was notable for giving character actor Alexander Knox one of his few chances to play the lead in a film. American president Franklin D. Roosevelt showed the film at the September 1944 Second Quebec Conference with British Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill. Churchill was unimpressed, leaving during the film to go to bed. Despite being a pet project overseen by 20th Century Fox Studios' president Darryl F. Zanuck, its failure at the box office upset him to the point that for years he forbade his employees from mentioning the film in his presence; the film is sometimes shown on cable television, was first broadcast on Turner Classic Movies on February 8, 2013.
The Academy Film Archive preserved Wilson in 2006. Wilson at the American Film Institute Catalog Wilson on IMDb Wilson at AllMovie Wilson at the TCM Movie Database
Helen Herron Taft
Helen Louise Herron "Nellie" Taft was the wife of William Howard Taft and the First Lady of the United States from 1909 to 1913. Born in Cincinnati, Nellie was the fourth of eleven children of Judge John Williamson Herron, a college classmate of Benjamin Harrison and a law partner of Rutherford B. Hayes, her mother, Harriet Collins Herron, was the daughter and the sister of U. S. congressmen. During her childhood she was called Nelli rather than Helen. Nellie Herron was enrolled in private Miss Nourse School, known in Cincinnati as The Nursery, in 1866-1879, took classes from the University of Cincinnati. Starting from 1882, she taught in different schools until her marriage. In 1877, she attended with her parents the twenty-fifth wedding anniversary celebration of President and Mrs. Rutherford B. Hayes and stayed for a week at the White House. In 1879, she met William Howard Taft at a bobsledding party in Cincinnati, he asked her out for the first time in February 1880, but they did not go out until 1882.
He proposed in April 1885, she accepted in May. Taft married Nellie on June 1886, at the home of the bride's parents in Cincinnati; the wedding was performed by the Reverend D. N. A. Hoge of Zanesville, Ohio. Taft's younger brother; the couple honeymooned one day in New York City and four days at Sea Bright, New Jersey, before setting off on a three-month tour of Europe. On their return, they settled in Cincinnati. Nellie Taft encouraged her husband's political career despite his often-stated preference for the judiciary. However, she welcomed each step in his judicial career: state judge, Solicitor General of the United States, federal circuit court judge. In 1900, Taft agreed to take charge of American civil government in the Philippines as Governor-General. Nellie Taft moved with their children to Manila where she tried to reconcile with the local population by showing respect to the culture of the Philippines by learning the language, wearing a native Filipino costume and inviting Filipinos to social events.
Further travel with her husband, who became Secretary of War in 1904, brought a widened interest in world politics and a cosmopolitan circle of friends. The Tafts had a daughter. Robert A. Taft was a politician and statesman, Helen Taft Manning was an educator, Charles Phelps Taft II was a civic leader. Nellie Taft was the first First Lady to ride in her husband’s inauguration parade, which she did despite adverse weather, she started to receive guests three afternoons a week in the Red Room. At times, she attended the cabinet meetings with the President without speaking on the issues, she introduced musical entertainment after state dinners. The Tafts attended symphony and theater performances in Washington D. C.. In May 1909, Nellie Taft suffered a stroke, impairing right arm and leg; the stroke happened at the beginning of her husband's presidential term. Assisted by her four sisters, she continued her functions as White House host until she recovered with the help of her husband; the social highlight of the Taft administration was the Tafts' silver wedding anniversary gala on June 19, 1911 for some 2,000 guests.
In her most lasting contribution as First Lady, Nellie Taft arranged for the planting of the 3,020 Japanese cherry trees around the Tidal Basin and on Capitol grounds. The First Lady notably enjoyed the company of his wife Carrie. In June 1912, she attended both the Republican National Convention that re-nominated her husband and the Democratic National Convention that nominated his opponent Woodrow Wilson, she took a front-row seat at the latter. After losing the election, the Tafts returned to Cincinnati. Nellie Taft wrote her memoir, Recollections of Full Years, published in 1914. During the Great War, she provided support for the American Red Cross. With Taft's appointment to the Supreme Court in 1921, Nellie Taft became the only woman to be both First Lady and wife of a chief justice, she resumed her social activities after returning to Washington D. C. Prohibition was a major political debate at the time. Nellie Taft was a Wet, so White House guests were entertained with alcohol during her time as First Lady.
William Howard Taft opposed Prohibition during his presidency and much of his time as Chief Justice, but was himself a teetotaler and during his last years wrote letters in support of Prohibition's objectives. Nellie Taft was the first First Lady to publish her memoirs, the first First Lady to own and drive a car, the first First Lady to support women's suffrage, the first First Lady to smoke cigarettes, the first First Lady to lobby for safety standards in federal workplaces; the first First Lady to follow her husband in the inauguration parade. Nellie Taft was widowed upon the death of her husband on March 8, 1930, stayed in the city of Washington, she continued to be involved serving as an honorary vice president of the Colonial Dames of America
Ruth Nelson (actress)
Ruth Nelson was an American stage and film actress. She is known for her roles in such films as Wilson, A Tree Grows in Brooklyn, Humoresque, 3 Women, The Late Show and Awakenings, she was the wife of John Cromwell. Born in Saginaw, Nelson was the daughter of vaudeville actress Eva Mudge, she attended Immaculate Heart Convent School in Los Angeles and went on to study at the American Laboratory Theatre in New York City during the early 1920s. Nelson made her New York City stage debut as a member of the theatre collective Group Theatre throughout its run from 1931 to 1941, receiving praise for the role of the chief striker's wife in Clifford Odets' play Waiting for Lefty. After Group Theatre ended in 1941, Nelson relocated to Hollywood. Throughout the 1940s, she made a number of movies for other Hollywood studios. One of these was A Tree Grows in Brooklyn, directed by fellow Group Theatre member Elia Kazan, she appeared in Kazan's film The Sea of Grass in 1947. As her career began to take off, she was compelled to put things on hold when her husband, the director John Cromwell, a leading Roosevelt Democrat in the film industry, was falsely accused of Communism by actor Adolphe Menjou in front of the House UnAmerican Activities Committee hearings on Hollywood in 1951 and his career went on to be blacklisted.
While offered a New York stage role as a wife in what turned out to be Death of a Salesman, Nelson turned down most acting offers at this time to stay in Los Angeles and support Cromwell. Nelson had not made a Hollywood film for nearly 30 years before appearing with her husband in 1977's 3 Women, directed by Robert Altman, The Late Show, a film Robert Benton wrote and directed that Altman produced, she and Cromwell played husband and wife as the aged patriarchal grandparents in the ensemble cast of Altman's black comedy the following year, A Wedding. Her final feature-film role was in 1990's Awakenings, as the mother of a hospital patient played by Robert DeNiro. Nelson was married twice, she wed actor William Challee in 1931. The marriage dissolved and Nelson married actor/director John Cromwell in 1946; the marriage lasted 33 years, until Cromwell's death in 1979 from a pulmonary embolism. She was the stepmother of actor James Cromwell. Nelson died on September 12, 1992, at her home in New York City from cancer complicated by a stroke and pneumonia.
Ruth Nelson at the Internet Broadway Database Ruth Nelson on IMDb
Martha Washington was the wife of George Washington, the first President of the United States. Although the title was not coined until after her death, Martha Washington served as the inaugural First Lady of the United States. During her lifetime she was referred to as "Lady Washington", she had first married Daniel Parke Custis, with whom she had four children, was widowed by the age of 25. Two of her children by Custis survived to young adulthood, she brought her vast wealth to her marriage to Washington, which enabled him to buy land to add to his personal estate. She brought nearly 100 dower slaves for her use during her lifetime, they and their descendants reverted to her first husband's estate at her death and were inherited by his heirs. She and Washington did not have children together but they did rear her two children by Daniel Parke Custis, including son John "Jacky" Parke Custis, they helped both of their extended families. Martha Dandridge was born on June 2, 1731 on her parents' plantation Chestnut Grove in the British colony, Province of Virginia.
She was the oldest daughter of John Dandridge, a Virginia planter and immigrant from England, by his wife Frances Jones, of American birth and English and French descent. Martha had three brothers and four sisters: John, Bartholomew, Anna Maria "Fanny" Bassett, Frances Dandridge, Elizabeth Aylett Henley and Mary Dandridge. Martha may have had an illegitimate half-sister, Ann Dandridge Costin, born into slavery. Costin's enslaved mother was of African and Cherokee descent, her father was believed to be John Dandridge. Martha's father may have fathered an out-of-wedlock half-brother to Martha named Ralph Dandridge, white. On May 15, 1750, at age 18, Martha married Daniel Parke Custis, a rich planter two decades her senior, moved to his residence, White House Plantation, located on the south shore of the Pamunkey River, a few miles upriver from Chestnut Grove, they had four children together: Daniel, Frances and Martha. Daniel and Frances died in childhood; the other two children, John Parke Custis and Martha Parke Custis, survived to young adulthood.
Her husband's death in 1757 left Martha a rich young widow at age 25, with independent control over a dower inheritance for her lifetime, trustee control over the inheritance of her minor children. In all, she was left in custody of some 17,500 acres of land and 300 slaves, apart from other investments and cash. According to her biographer, "she capably ran the five plantations left to her when her first husband died, bargaining with London merchants for the best tobacco prices." Martha Custis, age 27, George Washington, age 27, married on January 6, 1759, at the White House plantation. As a man who lived and owned property in the area, Washington knew both Martha and Daniel Parke Custis for some time before Daniel's death. During March 1758 he visited her twice at the White House. At the time, she was being courted by the planter Charles Carter, wealthier than Washington; the wedding was grand. Washington's suit was of silver cloth with red trimming and gold knee buckles; the bride wore purple silk shoes with spangled buckles.
The couple honeymooned at the White House for several weeks before setting up house at Washington's Mount Vernon estate. They appeared to have had a solid marriage. Martha and George Washington had no children together, but they raised Martha's two surviving children, her daughter, nicknamed Patsy, died as a teenager during an epileptic seizure. John Parke "Jacky" Custis returned from college to comfort his mother. Custis married and had children, he died of "camp fever". After his death, the Washingtons raised the youngest two of John's four children, Eleanor Parke Custis, George Washington Parke Custis; the two older girls remained with their mother. The Washingtons provided personal and financial support to nieces and other family members in both the Dandridge and Washington families. Content to live a private life at Mount Vernon and her homes from the Custis estate, Martha Washington followed Washington to his winter encampments for each of eight years, she helped keep up morale among the officers.
By tradition, Washington was described as spending her days at the Revolutionary War winter encampments visiting with the common soldiers in their huts. But Nancy Loane, author of Following the Drum: Women at the Valley Forge Encampment, says there is no evidence that Washington visited with the common soldiers, noting that Martha Washington was fashionably dressed, a woman of great wealth and independent means. Mrs. Washington joined her husband during the Revolution for all the Continental Army's winter encampments. Before the revolution began, she had kept close to home. General Lafayette observed that she loved "her husband madly"; the Continental Army settled in Valley Forge, the third of the eight winter encampments of the Revolution, on December 19, 1777. Martha W
Frederic Yates was an English painter. He painted landscapes and portraits including President Woodrow Wilson and Sanford Ballard Dole, the only president of Hawaii, he settled in the Lake District. Frederic Keeping was born in Southampton in 1854 and his family soon moved to Liverpool, before moving to America. For some reason the family changed their name from Keeping to Yates, he studied painting in the Paris ateliers of Léon Bonnat, Gustave Boulanger, Jules Joseph Lefebvre. In 1886, he moved to San Francisco, he married Emily, an American, in 1887. In San Francisco, he became a popular portraitist and taught at the newly formed Art Students League of San Francisco. In 1890 Frederic and Emily moved to Kent; the three of them went to America to see Mary's grandparents. Whilst he was in Hawaii Yates painted the Hawaiian President Dole, they visited both Japan over the next few years. Frederic made the acquaintance of the Dowager Marchioness of Downshire who became his patron and introduced him to London society.
Yates was active in San Francisco until 1900. Yates had a commission to paint the educationalist Charlotte Mason in the Lake District and he decided to bring his daughter up there, they lived at "Cote How" near Grasmere until 1906. During this period he painted the educator John Haden Badley, he was invited to America to attend the inauguration of United States President Woodrow Wilson and to paint his portrait. According to Armitt Library, Yates was given the flag that Woodrow Wilson rested his hand on whilst taking his oath of office, he died in 1919. The Honolulu Museum of Art and the National Portrait Gallery, London are among the public collections holding work by Frederic Yates. There are 21 paintings in public collections in the United Kingdom. Hjalmarson, Artful players, artistic life in early San Francisco, Los Angeles, Balcony Press, 1999. Hughes, Edan Milton, Artists in California, 1786-1940, San Francisco, CA, Hughes Pub. Co. 1986. Johnson, A. Greutzner, The Dictionary of British Artists 1880-1940, Woodbridge, UK, Antique Collectors' Club, 1980.
Waters, Grant M. Dictionary of British Artists, Working 1900-1950, Sussex, Eastbourne Fine Art, 1975
Harvard Law School
Harvard Law School is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1817, it is the oldest continuously operating law school in the United States and one of the most prestigious in the world, it is ranked first in the world by the ARWU Shanghai Ranking. Each class in the three-year J. D. program has 560 students, among the largest of the top 150 ranked law schools in the United States. The first-year class is broken into seven sections of 80 students, who take most first-year classes together. Harvard's uniquely large class size and prestige have led the law school to graduate a great many distinguished alumni in the judiciary and the business world. According to Harvard Law's 2015 ABA-required disclosures, 95% of the Class of 2014 passed the Bar exam. Harvard Law School graduates have accounted for 568 judicial clerkships in the past three years, including one-quarter of all Supreme Court clerkships, more than any other law school in the United States.
Harvard Law School's founding is traditionally linked to the funding of Harvard's first professorship in law, paid for from a bequest from the estate of Isaac Royall, Jr. a colonial American landowner and a slaveholder. Today, it is home to the largest academic law library in the world; the current dean of Harvard Law School is John F. Manning, who assumed the role on July 1, 2017; the law school has 328 faculty members. Harvard Law School's founding is traced to the establishment of a "law department" at Harvard in 1817. Dating the founding to the year of the creation of the law department makes Harvard Law the oldest continuously-operating law school in the nation. William & Mary Law School opened first in 1779, but closed due to the American Civil War, reopening in 1920; the University of Maryland School of Law was chartered in 1816, but did not begin classes until 1824, closed during the Civil War. The founding of the law department came two years after the establishment of Harvard's first endowed professorship in law, funded by a bequest from the estate of wealthy slaveowner Isaac Royall, Jr. in 1817.
Royall left 1,000 acres of land in Massachusetts to Harvard when he died in exile in Nova Scotia, where he fled as a British loyalist during the American Revolution, in 1781, "to be appropriated towards the endowing a Professor of Laws... or a Professor of Physick and Anatomy, whichever the said overseers and Corporation shall judge to be best." The value of the land, when liquidated in 1809, was $2,938. The Royalls were so involved in the slave trade, that "the labor of slaves underwrote the teaching of law in Cambridge." The dean of the law school traditionally held the Royall chair, deans Elena Kagan and Martha Minow declined the Royall chair due to its origins in the proceeds of slavery. Royall’s legacy at Harvard is lasting, Harvard Law School adopted the Royall family crest as apart of its school crest; that crest features with three bushels of wheat. Until the connection of the seal to the slave owning Royalls was unknown to many. According to The Harvard Crimson "Most Law School alumni and faculty were unaware of the story behind the seal."
In response to its ties to slavery, Harvard Law School decided to stop using the Royalls seal. It has yet to design a replacement seal. Royall's Medford estate, the Isaac Royall House, is now a museum which features the only remaining slave quarters in the northeast United States; the Royall family coat-of-arms, which shows three stacked wheat sheaves, was adopted as the school crest in 1936, topped with the university motto. In March 2016, following requests by students, the school decided to remove the emblem because of its association with slavery. By 1827, the school, with one faculty member, was struggling. Nathan Dane, a prominent alumnus of the college endowed the Dane Professorship of Law, insisting that it be given to Supreme Court Justice Joseph Story. For a while, the school was called "Dane Law School." In 1829, John H. Ashmun, son of Eli Porter Ashmun and brother of George Ashmun, accepted a professorship and closed his Northampton Law School, with many of his students following him to Harvard.
Story's belief in the need for an elite law school based on merit and dedicated to public service helped build the school's reputation at the time, although the contours of these beliefs have not been consistent throughout its history. Enrollment remained low through the 19th century as university legal education was considered to be of little added benefit to apprenticeships in legal practice. After first trying lowered admissions standards, in 1848 HLS eliminated admissions requirements entirely. In 1869, HLS eliminated examination requirements. In the 1870s, under Dean Christopher Columbus Langdell, HLS introduced what has become the standard first-year curriculum for American law schools – including classes in contracts, torts, criminal law, civil procedure. At Harvard, Langdell developed the case method of teaching law, now the dominant pedagogical model at U. S. law schools. Langdell's notion that law could be studied as a "science" gave university legal education a reason for being distinct from vocational preparation.
Critics at first defended the old lecture method because it was faster and cheaper and made fewer demands on faculty and students. Advocates said the case method had a sounder theoretical basis in scientific research and the inductive method. Langdell's graduates became leading professors at other law schools where they introduced the case method; the metho
Abigail Adams was the wife and closest advisor of John Adams, as well as the mother of John Quincy Adams. She is sometimes considered to have been a Founder of the United States, is now designated as the first Second Lady and second First Lady of the United States, although these titles were not used at the time. Adams's life is one of the most documented of the First Ladies: she is remembered for the many letters she wrote to her husband while he stayed in Philadelphia, during the Continental Congresses. John sought the advice of Abigail on many matters, their letters are filled with intellectual discussions on government and politics, her letters serve as eyewitness accounts of the American Revolutionary War home front. Abigail Adams was born at the North Parish Congregational Church in Weymouth, Massachusetts, to William Smith and Elizabeth Smith. On her mother's side, she was descended from the Quincy family, a well-known political family in the Massachusetts colony. Through her mother she was a cousin of wife of John Hancock.
Adams was the great-granddaughter of John Norton, founding pastor of Old Ship Church in Hingham, the only remaining 17th-century Puritan meetinghouse in Massachusetts. Smith married Elizabeth Quincy in 1742, together they had four children, including three daughters: one born in 1743, Abigail born in 1744 and another born in 1745, their only son, born in 1746, died of alcoholism in 1787. As with several of her ancestors, Adams's father was a liberal Congregational minister: a leader in a Yankee society that held its clergy in high esteem. Smith did not focus his preaching on original sin. In July 1775 his wife Elizabeth, with whom he had been married for 33 years, died of smallpox. In 1784, at age 77, Smith died. Abigail did not receive formal schooling. In life, Adams would consider that she was deprived an education because females were given such an opportunity. Although she did not receive a formal education, her mother taught her and her sisters Mary and Elizabeth to read and cipher, her grandmother, Elizabeth Quincy contributed to Adams' education.
As she grew up, Adams read with friends in an effort to further her learning. As an intellectually open-minded woman for her day, Adams' ideas on women's rights and government would play a major role, albeit indirectly, in the founding of the United States, she became one of the most erudite women to serve as First Lady. Abigail Smith first met John Adams when she was 15 years old in 1759. John accompanied his friend Richard Cranch to the Smith household. Cranch was engaged to Adams' older sister and they would be the parents of federal judge William Cranch. Adams reported finding the Smith sisters neither "fond, nor frank, nor candid."Although Adams' father approved of the match, her mother was appalled that her daughter would marry a country lawyer whose manner still reeked of the farm, but she gave in. The couple married on October 1764, in the Smiths' home in Weymouth. Smith, Abigail's father, presided over the marriage of his daughter. After the reception, the couple mounted a single horse and rode off to their new home, the small cottage and farm John had inherited from his father in Braintree, Massachusetts.
They moved to Boston, where his law practice expanded. The couple welcomed their first child nine months into their marriage. In 12 years, she gave birth to six children: Abigail John Quincy Adams Grace Susanna Charles Thomas Boylston Adams Elizabeth Her childrearing style included relentless and continual reminders of what the children owed to virtue and the Adams tradition. Adams was responsible for farm when her husband was on his long trips. "Alas!", she wrote in December 1773, "How many snow banks divide thee and me." Abigail and John's marriage is well documented through other writings. Letters exchanged throughout John's political obligations indicate his trust in Abigail's knowledge was sincere. Like her husband, Abigail quoted literature in her letters. Historian David McCullough claims, their correspondence illuminated their intellectual respect. John excused himself to Abigail for his "vanity", exposing his need for her approval, he moved the family to Boston in April 1768, renting a clapboard house on Brattle Street, known locally as the "White House."
He and Abigail and the children lived there for a year moved to Cold Lane. John's growing law practice required changes for the family. In 1771, he moved Abigail and the children to Braintree, but he kept his office in Boston, hoping the time away from his family would allow him to focus on his work. After some time in the capital, he became disenchanted with the rural and "vulgar" Braintree as a home for his family. In August 1772, Adams moved his family back to Boston, he purchased a large brick house on Queen Street, not far from his office. In 1774, Abigail and John returned the family to the farm due to the unstable situation in Boston, Braintree remained the