Ellis Island

Ellis Island is a federally owned island in New York Harbor that contains a museum and former immigration inspection station. As the United States' busiest immigrant inspection station from 1892 to 1954, it processed 12 million immigrants to the country through the Port of New York and New Jersey. Today, it is part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument, accessible to the public only by ferry; the north side of the island hosts the museum of immigration while the south side, including the Ellis Island Immigrant Hospital, is only open to the public through guided tours. In the 19th century, Ellis Island was the site of Fort Gibson, a component of the fortifications of New York Harbor, it became a naval magazine for storing artillery. The first inspection station opened in 1892 and was destroyed by fire in 1897; the second station opened in 1900 and housed facilities for medical quarantines as well as processing immigrants. After 1924, Ellis Island was used as a detention center. During both World War I and World War II its facilities were used by the United States military to detain prisoners of war.

Following the immigration station's closure, the buildings languished for several years until they reopened in 1976. The main building and adjacent structures were renovated in 1990; the 27.5-acre island was expanded by land reclamation between the late 1890s and the 1930s. Jurisdictional disputes between New Jersey and New York persisted until 1998, when the U. S. Supreme Court ruled in New Jersey v. New York that the 3.3 acres that comprise the original island and its environs are part of New York and that all of the reclaimed land is part of New Jersey. Ellis Island is in Upper New York Bay within New York Harbor, east of Liberty State Park and north of Liberty Island. While most of the island is in Jersey City, New Jersey, a small section is an exclave of New York City; the island has a land area of 27.5 acres, much of, from land reclamation. The 2.74-acre natural island and contiguous areas comprise 3.3 acres within New York, are located on the northern portion of the present-day island. The artificial land is part of New Jersey.

The island has been owned and administered by the federal government of the United States since 1808 and operated by the National Park Service since 1965. Much of the Upper New York Bay's western shore consisted of large tidal flats with vast oyster beds, which were a major source of food for the Lenape. Ellis Island was one of three "Oyster Islands," the other two being Liberty Island and the now-destroyed Black Tom Island. In the late 19th century, the federal government began expanding the island by land reclamation to accommodate its immigration station, the expansions continued until 1934; the fill was acquired from the ballast of ships, as well as material excavated from the first line of the New York City Subway. It came from the railyards of the Lehigh Valley Railroad and the Central Railroad of New Jersey, it obliterated the oyster beds, engulfed one of the Oyster Islands, brought the shoreline much closer to the others. The current island is shaped like a "C", with two landmasses of equal size on the northeastern and southwestern sides, separated by what was a ferry pier.

It was three separate islands. The current north side called island 1, contains the original island and the fill around it; the current south side was composed of island 2, created in 1899, island 3, created in 1906. Two eastward-facing ferry docks separated; the fill was retained with a system of wood piles and cribbing, encased with more than 7,700 linear feet of concrete and granite sea wall. It was placed atop cribbing, or submerged bags of concrete. In the 1920s, the second ferry basin between islands 2 and 3 was infilled to create the great lawn, forming the current south side of Ellis Island; as part of the project, a concrete and granite seawall was built to connect the tip of these landmasses. The circumstances which led to an exclave of New York being located within New Jersey began in the colonial era, after the British takeover of New Netherland in 1664. A clause in the colonial land grant outlined the territory that the proprietors of New Jersey would receive as being "westward of Long Island, Manhitas Island and bounded on the east part by the main sea, part by Hudson's river."As early as 1804, attempts were made to resolve the status of the state line.

The City of New York claimed the right to regulate trade on all waters. This was contested in Gibbons v. Ogden, which decided that the regulation of interstate commerce fell under the authority of the federal government, thus influencing competition in the newly developing steam ferry service in New York Harbor. In 1830, New Jersey planned to bring suit to clarify the border; the matter was resolved with a compact between the states, ratified by U. S. Congress in 1834; this set the boundary line at the middle of the Hudson New York Harbor. This solution was confirmed in other cases by the U. S. Supreme Court. New Jersey contended that the artificial portions of the island were part of New Jersey, since they were outside New York's border. In 1956, after the closure of the U. S. immigration station two years prior, the then-Mayor of Jersey City, Bernard J. Berry, commandeered a U. S. Coast Guard cutter and led a contingent of New Jersey officials


Punch-Out!! is a series of boxing video games created by Nintendo's general manager Genyo Takeda, his partner Makoto Wada. It started in the arcade as Punch-Out!!, followed by a sequel Super Punch-Out!!. It has since spanned home consoles, including the Famicom and NES Punch-Out!! / Mike Tyson's Punch-Out!!, a SNES and Super Famicom sequel Super Punch-Out!!, a Wii sequel Punch-Out!!. In November 2009, Platinum Club Nintendo members received a code to download Doc Louis's Punch-Out!!, which features a fight between series protagonist Little Mac and his mentor Doc Louis. The series had a spin-off called Arm Wrestling, released only in North American arcades, was Nintendo's last arcade game they independently developed and released. Playing as a diminutive boxer called Little Mac, the player must climb the ranks of the World Video Boxing Association. Gameplay differs between each game, but the player can attack with his left and right fists, at the head or the body, can dodge and block to avoid the opponent's attacks.

Many games in the series give the player a powerful uppercut ability. Little Mac can block, causing him to take minimal damage; the key to defeating each opponent is to learn their fighting patterns, avoid their attacks and respond with a counterattack. Opponents will give a visual or audible cue to signal their attacks. If the player dodges an attack, the opponent will be left vulnerable for a while, allowing the player to strike back; the player can defeat enemy boxers by knocking them down for a count of 10, downing them three times in one round for a TKO, or by a referee's decision. The series has made multiple appearances in other games as well; the SNES version of Super Punch-Out!! was included in the Nintendo GameCube version of Electronic Arts' Fight Night Round 2. The protagonist of the SNES version of Super Punch-Out!! Appears as a secret boxer in full 3D with the name "MAC" on his boxers and was referred to as "Little Mac" as part of the Nintendo-exclusives deal between Nintendo and EA in allowing several Nintendo characters to star in EA sports games.

Due to the third-party nature of his role in the game, it is considered by several fans of the series, to be uncanon. Little Mac further made a cameo appearance in skip Ltd.'s Wii video game Captain Rainbow, where the title character has to help train Little Mac to get in shape to regain his championship title. Little Mac appears as an assist trophy in Super Smash Bros. Brawl before becoming a playable character in Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS and Wii U and Super Smash Bros. Ultimate. A short story about the NES Punch-Out!! Titles was made for the Nintendo Comics System. Punch-Out!! Wii Game Website. Developer interviews about Punch-Out!! Franchise history

Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius

The Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius is an ancient Roman equestrian statue on the Capitoline Hill, Italy. It stands 4.24 m tall. Although the emperor is mounted, it exhibits many similarities to standing statues of Augustus; the original is on display in the Capitoline Museums, with the one now standing in the open air of the Piazza del Campidoglio being a replica made in 1981 when the original was taken down for restoration. The overall theme is one of power and divine grandeur—the emperor is over life-size and extends his hand in a gesture of adlocutio used by emperors when addressing their troops; some historians assert that a conquered enemy was part of the sculpture. Such an image was meant to portray the Emperor as all-conquering. However, shown without weapons or armour, Marcus Aurelius seems to be a bringer of peace rather than a military hero, for this is how he saw himself and his reign, he is riding without the use of stirrups. While the horse has been meticulously studied in order to be recreated for other artists' works, the saddle cloth was copied with the thought that it was part of the standard Roman uniform.

The saddle cloth is Sarmatian in origin, suggesting that the horse is a Sarmatian horse and that the statue was created to honour the victory over the Sarmatians by Marcus Aurelius, after which he adopted "Sarmaticus" to his name. The statue was erected ca. 175 AD. Its original location is debated: the Roman Forum and Piazza Colonna have been proposed. Although there were many equestrian imperial statues, they survived because it was the common practice to melt down bronze statues for reuse as material for coins or new sculptures in the late empire. Indeed, it is one of only two surviving bronze statues of a pre-Christian Roman emperor; the equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius in Rome, owes its preservation on the Campidoglio, to the popular mis-identification of Marcus Aurelius, the philosopher-emperor, with Constantine the Great, the Christian emperor. In the medieval era it was one of the few Roman statues to remain on public view. In the 8th century it stood in the Lateran Palace in Rome on a pedestal provided by Sixtus IV, from where it was relocated in 1538, by order of Pope Paul III to remove it from the main traffic of the square.

It was moved to the Piazza del Campidoglio during Michelangelo's redesign of the Hill. Though he disagreed with its central positioning, he designed a special pedestal for it; the original is on display in the Palazzo dei Conservatori of the Musei Capitolini, while a replica has replaced it in the square. On the night of November 29, 1849, at the inception of the revolutionary Roman Republic, a mass procession set up the Red-White-Green tricolore in the hands of the mounted Marcus Aurelius; the statue is depicted on the reverse of the Italian €0.50 euro coin, designed by Roberto Mauri. A replica of the statue has been located on the campus of Brown University in the United States since 1908; the statue was clad in gold. An old local myth says; the Equestrian Statue of King George III of England which stood in New York City's Bowling Green until 1776 when it was thrown down and the lead turned into musket balls for George Washington's army was based upon the Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius.

The Monument to Prince Józef Poniatowski in Warsaw by Bertel Thorvaldsen, from 1829, was based on this statue. Regisole Capitoline Museum