Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees comprising the flowering plant genus Ulmus in the plant family Ulmaceae. The genus first appeared in the Miocene geological period about 20 million years ago, originating in what is now central Asia; these trees flourished and spread over most of the Northern Hemisphere, inhabiting the temperate and tropical-montane regions of North America and Eurasia, presently ranging southward across the Equator into Indonesia. Elms are components of many kinds of natural forests. Moreover, during the 19th and early 20th centuries many species and cultivars were planted as ornamental street and park trees in Europe, North America, parts of the Southern Hemisphere, notably Australasia; some individual elms reached great age. However, in recent decades, most mature elms of European or North American origin have died from Dutch elm disease, caused by a microfungus dispersed by bark beetles. In response, disease-resistant cultivars have been developed, capable of restoring the elm to forestry and landscaping.
There are about 30 to 40 species of Ulmus. Oliver Rackham describes Ulmus as the most critical genus in the entire British flora, adding that'species and varieties are a distinction in the human mind rather than a measured degree of genetic variation'. Eight species are endemic to North America, a smaller number to Europe; the classification adopted in the List of elm species, varieties and hybrids is based on that established by Brummitt. A large number of synonyms have accumulated over the last three centuries. Botanists who study elms and argue over elm identification and classification are called pteleologists, from the Greek πτελέα; as part of the sub-order urticalean rosids they are distant cousins of cannabis and nettles. The name Ulmus is the Latin name for these trees, while the English "elm" and many other European names are either cognate with or derived from it; the genus is hermaphroditic, having apetalous perfect flowers. Elm leaves are alternate, with simple, single- or, most doubly serrate margins asymmetric at the base and acuminate at the apex.
The fruit is a round wind-dispersed samara flushed with chlorophyll, facilitating photosynthesis before the leaves emerge. The samarae are light, those of British elms numbering around 50,000 to the pound. All species are tolerant of a wide range of soils and pH levels but, with few exceptions, demand good drainage; the elm tree can grow to great height with a forked trunk creating a vase profile. Dutch elm disease devastated elms throughout Europe and much of North America in the second half of the 20th century, it derives its name'Dutch' from the first description of the disease and its cause in the 1920s by the Dutch botanists Bea Schwarz and Christina Johanna Buisman. Owing to its geographical isolation and effective quarantine enforcement, has so far remained unaffected by Dutch Elm Disease, as have the provinces of Alberta and British Columbia in western Canada. DED is caused by a micro-fungus transmitted by two species of Scolytus elm-bark beetle which act as vectors; the disease affects all species of elm native to North America and Europe, but many Asiatic species have evolved anti-fungal genes and are resistant.
Fungal spores, introduced into wounds in the tree caused by the beetles, invade the xylem or vascular system. The tree responds by producing tyloses blocking the flow from roots to leaves. Woodland trees in North America are not quite as susceptible to the disease because they lack the root-grafting of the urban elms and are somewhat more isolated from each other. In France, inoculation with the fungus of over three hundred clones of the European species failed to find a single variety possessed of any significant resistance; the first, less aggressive strain of the disease fungus, Ophiostoma ulmi, arrived in Europe from Asia in 1910, was accidentally introduced to North America in 1928. It was weakened by viruses in Europe and had all but disappeared by the 1940s. However, the disease had a much greater and long-lasting impact in North America, owing to the greater susceptibility of the American elm, Ulmus americana, which masked the emergence of the second, far more virulent strain of the disease Ophiostoma novo-ulmi.
It appeared in the United States sometime in the 1940s, was believed to be a mutation of O. ulmi. Limited gene flow from O. ulmi to O. novo-ulmi was responsible for the creation of the North American subspecies O. novo-ulmi subsp. Americana, it was first recognized in Britain in the early 1970s, believed to have been introduced via a cargo of Canadian rock elm destined for the boatbuilding industry, eradicated most of the mature elms from western Europe. A second subspecies, O. novo-ulmi subsp. Novo-ulmi, caused similar devastation in Central Asia, it is now believed that it was this subspecies, introduced to North America and, like O. ulmi originated in Asia. The two subspecies have now hybridized in Europe; the hypothesis that O. novo-ulmi arose from a hybrid of the original O. ulmi and another strain endemic to the Himalaya, Ophiostoma himal-ulmi is now discredited. There is no sign of the current pandemic waning, no evidence of a susceptibility of the fungus to a disease of its
There have been two baronetcies created for persons with the surname Gibbons, one in the Baronetage of Great Britain and one in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom. One creation is extant as of 2012; the Gibbons Baronetcy, of Stanwell Place in the County of Middlesex, was created in the Baronetage of Great Britain on 21 April 1752 for Sir William Gibbons, Speaker of the House of Assembly, Barbados. The second Baronet sat as Member of Parliament for Wallingford; the fifth Baronet was High Sheriff of Middlesex in 1891. Two other members of the family may be mentioned. Frederick Kenrick Colquhoun Gibbons, son of Captain Frederick Gibbons, brother of the fifth Baronet, was a Captain in the Royal Navy. Sir William Kenrick Gibbons, son of Sir William Gibbons, grandson of Robert Gibbons, fourth son of the second Baronet, was Clerk of the House of Commons; the Gibbons Baronetcy, of Sittingbourne in the County of Kent, was created in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom on 22 March 1872 for Sills Gibbons, Lord Mayor of London from 1871 to 1872.
The title became extinct on his death in 1876. Sir William Gibbons, 1st Baronet Sir John Gibbons, 2nd Baronet Sir William Gibbons, 3rd Baronet Sir John Gibbons, 4th Baronet Sir John Gibbons, 5th Baronet Sir Charles Gibbons, 6th Baronet Sir Alexander Doran Gibbons, 7th Baronet Sir John Edward Gibbons, 8th Baronet Sir William Edward Doran Gibbons, 9th Baronet Sir Sills John Gibbons, 1st Baronet www.burkespeerage.com Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990. Leigh Rayment's list of baronets
Piotr Jarecki is a Polish prelate of the Catholic Church, Doctor of Social Sciences, Auxillary Bishop of Warsaw since 1994. Piotr Jarecki was born on June 29th 1955 in Poland where he completed High School. Straight after graduating high school he entered the Seminary in Płock, however after two years he moved to the Higher Archdiocesan Seminary in Warsaw, he was ordained a priest on June 1 1980 by the Primate of Poland Stefan Cardinal Wyszyński. After completing his priestly formation he received a Doctorate in Social Sciences from the Pontifical Gregorian University. On April 16th 1994, he was appointed as the Auxillary Bishop of Warsaw and Titular Bishop of Avissa by Pope John Paul II, he was consecrated on the 23rd of April 1994 by the Primate of Poland and Archbishop of Warsaw Cardinal Józef Glemp. As a Bishop he serves as: the Archdeacon of the Warsaw Metropolitan Chapter, Chairman of the Social Council and a member of the Council for Social Communications in the Episcopal Conference of Poland.
Bishop Jarecki is a member of the Episcopal Council, the Priestly Council and the College of Consultors of the Archdiocese of Warsaw. In the past he was was the vice-president of the Commission of the Bishops' Conferences of the European Community and the chair of the Apostolic Visit of Benedict XVI in 2006. In October 2012, Bishop Jarecki was detained by the Polish police for driving under the influence of alcohol and causing a minor accident and crashing into a lamp in the centre of Warsaw; the bishop was sentenced to six months' imprisonment with conditional suspension of his performance for a two-year trial period, a fine of PLN 2,400, a four-year driving ban and a cash benefit of PLN 4,000 for the Victims Assistance Fund and Post-Penitentiary Assistance. After the road accident, he ceased to perform the duties of the bishop, as after the verdict of the court, the Holy See suspended him in episcopal functions. In March 2015, he temporarily resumed the duties of auxiliary bishop, in November 2015 he was permanently restored to work in the archdiocese and again took office as vicar general.
Biographical note of Piotr Jarecki on the website of the Archdiocese of Warsaw Piotr Jarecki on the website of the Episcopal Conference of Poland Piotr Jarecki in the catholic-hierarchy.org database Piotr Jarecki in the „Ludzie nauki” portal database Nauka Polska
Colonel William Cornell Greene was an American businessman, famous for discovering rich copper reserves in Cananea and for founding the Greene Consolidated Copper Company in 1899. By 1905, Greene was one of the wealthiest businessmen in the world. Greene was born in Duck Creek, Wisconsin, on August 26, 1852, to Eleanor Cornell and Townsend Greene, he was educated at the Chappaqua Mountain Institute in Chappaqua, New York. Greene started off as a clerk for O. H. Angevin & Company where he worked for three years before heading out to the western United States as a surveying party member of the Northern Pacific Railroad, he left the Railroad and in 1870 staked out the site of Fargo, North Dakota, before becoming involved with various businesses. He worked in both mining and cattle-raising industries across the west, which included Montana, Colorado and northern Mexico, he was reported to have had numerous encounters with local native tribes and outlaws that roamed the areas where he prospected. In 1897, Greene and his family were living on a ranch along the San Pedro River, near what is today the town of Sierra Vista, Arizona.
That year Greene built a small dam along the river to water his alfalfa fields, which infuriated his neighbor, James C. Burnett. Burnett, looking to expand his own ranch, retaliated by hiring a crew of Chinese workers to build a new dam on his property and, according to tradition, blow up Greene's dam with dynamite. That's. On the day after the dam was destroyed, on June 25, Greene's daughter Ella and a friend named Katie Corcoran went down to swim at their favorite spot along the San Pedro, but were swept away and drowned in the current; the blast from the dynamite had altered the river's channel, creating a deep hole with a strong current, where there was just a shallow swimming pool. Ella's younger sister Eva survived because she remained on the riverbank while the two older girls went in. Greene blamed Burnett for the death of his daughter and sought revenge. In Tombstone on July 1, he found Burnett on Allen Street near the O. K. Corral and shot him to death with his revolver. Afterwards he calmly surrendered himself to Sheriff Scott White.
Although Burnett was dead and Greene was acquitted of murder by claiming self-defense, the shooting tore his marriage apart. His wife never recovered from the loss of her daughter and died in Los Angeles in 1899 from ovarian-surgery complications. Greene married Mary Benedict a few years later. On September 15, 1899, William founded the Greene Consolidated Copper Company to develop copper rich resources he discovered near Cananea. Greene Consolidated became in a short time one of the richest sources of copper ore in the world, with an average output over 70 million pounds per year. Accordingly, Greene himself soon became one of the wealthiest businessmen in the United States and based on his success soon created a number of other ventures. None of his other ventures produced the wealth found in the copper mines of Cananea, though. In 1903, Greene purchased the San Rafael Ranch near Lochiel and made it the headquarters for his cattle ranching empire. Greene was quite successful with his ranch and attracted the attention of the Mexican raider Pancho Villa, who stole horses from him on more than one occasion.
The San Rafael Ranch remained in the Greene family all the way up until 1998, when The Nature Conservancy and Arizona State Parks purchased it for use as a wildlife preserve. In 2008, the ranch headquarters was added to the National Register of Historic Places as the "San Rafael Ranch Historic District"; the Lawson Panic of 1904 and mining strikes two years were the beginning of the end for Greene Consolidated. The panic, started by Thomas Lawson, a popular investor and writer of his day, created a selling frenzy on Wall Street that sent the price of shares spiraling down. There was some recovery to the share price but the situation worsened in May 1906 when the company was under siege by hostile miners unhappy about unequal pay. There was a call for help and Greene Consolidated was supported by the local Sonoran Rurales and the Arizona Rangers, who entered Sonora against orders. In addition to the trouble with the miners, many of Greene's backers in New York began to turn on him, they began to sell their shares.
Still, it was not until his own overspending in related businesses, combined with the aggressive business tactics of rival business men and competitors, forced Greene to succumb. In 1906, with dwindling finances and nowhere else to turn, he sold Greene Consolidated to Thomas F. Cole, John D. Ryan, Amalgamated Copper. After selling Greene Consolidated, Greene was forced out of daily operations of the mine, he disappeared from society for the most part and lived a quiet life in Cananea until his death on August 5, 1911, as a result of pneumonia, induced by an accident which overtook him several days before. At his funeral, after the religious service in his home, the coffin was loaded onto his private train and was brought to Los Angeles, California. In 1918, Charlie Wiswall, Greene's general business manager and regarded as a man of "great heart," married the widowed Mary; the marriage was performed with a prenuptial agreement that Wiswall not have access to the assets of the estate and that he would be considered a permanent employee of Greene Emporium.
Wiswall died in 1953 and Mary in 1955.
Shannon Vallor is a philosopher of technology at Santa Clara University in Santa Clara, California. She is presently the Regis and Dianne McKenna Professor of Philosophy at SCU. Vallor earned her PhD in philosophy from Boston College in 2001. While obtaining her PhD at Boston College, Vallor was a teaching fellow from 1997–1999 in the department of philosophy, she was a lecturer at the University of San Francisco from 2001–2003. Vallor has been a professor in the philosophy department of Santa Clara University since 2003. In addition to her academic career, Vallor serves as a consulting AI Ethicist for Google's Cloud AI program, she has served as president of the Society for Philosophy and Technology, is a member of the advisory board for Capita Social, co-director and Secretary of the Board of the Foundation for Responsible Robotics, a not for profit non-government organization that advocates for the ethical design and production of robots. Vallor is a scholar at the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics, where she and Princeton computer scientist Arvind Narayanan created a free, online module called "An Introduction to Software Engineering Ethics."
She received the World Technology Award in Ethics in 2015, in 2017 received both the Public Intellectual Award and President's Special Recognition Award from Santa Clara University. Vallor has authored numerous articles on ethical issues in emerging technology, as well as a book, "Technology and the Virtues: A Philosophical Guide to a Future Worth Wanting". In October 2019, it was announced that Vallor would be joining the faculty of the University of Edinburgh as the first Baillie Gifford Chair in the Ethics of Data and Artificial Intelligence at the Edinburgh Futures Institute. Vallor, Shannon. Technology and the Virtues: A Philosophical Guide to a Future Worth Wanting. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190498511 Vallor, Shannon. "Social Networking Technology and the Virtues," Ethics and Information Technology 12:2, 157-170. Vallor, Shannon. "Knowing What to Wish For: Human Enhancement Technology and Virtue," Techne 15:2, 82-100. Vallor, Shannon. "Carebots and Caregivers: Sustaining the Ethical Ideal of Care in the 21st Century," Philosophy and Technology 24:3, 251-268.
Vallor, Shannon. "Flourishing on Facebook: Virtue Friendship and New Social Media," Ethics and Information Technology 14:3, 185-199. Vallor, Shannon. "Armed Robots and Military Virtue," in The Ethics of Information Warfare, eds. Floridi and Taddeo ISBN 978-3-319-04135-3 Vallor, Shannon. "Moral Deskilling and Upskilling in a New Machine Age: Reflections on the Ambiguous Future of Character," Philosophy and Technology. 28:, 107-124. Vallor, Shannon. "Social Networking and Ethics," Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. ISSN 1095-5054
Love Tara is the first full-length album by Canadian indie band Eric's Trip. It was their first release on Seattle's Sub Pop record label, their second not independently released, it was the first time a Canadian band was signed to Sub Pop; the album was self-recorded in three months and reflects Sub Pop's shift toward lighter, more melodic music from the grunge rock on which it built its reputation. Though the lo-fi quality of the record threw many listeners and critics off, it was still well received in both Canada and the United States. Mike Bell of the Calgary Herald praised the album as "Simplistic, front-porch folk-pop with melodies that stick like a gradeschool tongue to a flag pole or rock riffs that sound like a dysfunctional Partridge Family jamming in the garage."In Chart's Top 50 Canadian Albums of All Time polls, Love Tara ranked 35th in 1996, 37th in 2000. It was ranked 39th in Bob Mersereau's 2007 book The Top 100 Canadian Albums. At the 2017 Polaris Music Prize, the album won the jury vote for the Heritage Prize in the 1986–1995 category.
Sloan covered the song "Stove" in the 1993 compilation album DGC Rarities Volume 1, which combined "Stove" into a medley with "Smother", a non-album track that Eric's Trip recorded for the Never Mind the Molluscs compilation. The title of the album was referenced in The Tragically Hip's song "Put It Off", from their 1996 album Trouble at the Henhouse: "I played Love Tara/by Eric's Trip/on the day that you were born"