England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
South Norwood Country Park
South Norwood Country Park is a park in South Norwood, close to Elmers End station, mainly in the London Borough of Croydon. It is a 47 hectare green space which opened in 1989, the park is a mix of countryside and parkland, and land formerly used for sewage farms serving the growing London population. Croydon Sports Arena, the home of Croydon F. C. is on the edge of the park. There is a car park and visitor centre, and a pond similar to the one at South Norwood Lake. On an earlier map of Peter Burrell, the land is indicated as adjoining Sturts Land and is given the name Lame Oates which is obviously a phonetic corruption of La Motes. Deeds of 1467 relate to a transaction at Leweland between Richard at Cherte and Stephan and John Fabian of London. He was one of the Kings itinerant judges, known to be active as such between the years 1295-1318, from about 1862 the land was acquired by Croydon Corporation for use as a sewage farm. This was largely unsuccessful because of the heavy London Clay subsoil that makes up the majority of the site, a series of concrete channels were constructed to direct the sewage over the numerous lagoons but these were a failure as the lagoons would remain flooded for months without draining away.
In the 1920s a new method for the treatment of sewage had to be found so the farm was largely abandoned and this was shut down in 1962 and the area was left mostly undisturbed until the creation of the Country Park in 1988–99. It is still referred to as the Sewage Farm by the older local residents, however. The manager of the farm was Albert David Prior, the years leading up to World War II brought about even more dramatic changes, with the armed forces using the area for training. During the war, the became an A. R. P. Centre and the defence unit was based here until the 1950s. During the blitz, when hundreds of buildings were destroyed in Croydon and surrounding areas and this rubble eventually mounted up to form what is now the large hill behind the sports arena today. It is the viewpoint in the park and from the top of it you can see the London Docklands, Shirley Hills, Crystal Palace, Croydon. It is the terminus of a cycling route from Greenwich. The playground at South Norwood Country Park has been rebuilt since it was shut down in 2006 due to health, during 2008 Croydon Council constructed a lottery-funded playground in a large space which was formerly part of the pitch and putt course.
The equipment is intended for children aged 4 to 14, with a wide range of different habitats, the country park is a haven for wildlife and an important site for nature conservation
London Borough of Bromley
The London Borough of Bromley /ˈbrɒmli/ is one of the 32 London boroughs which make up Greater London. The London Borough of Bromley is south of the River Thames which flows through London, the borough is named after Bromley, its principal town. The local authority is Bromley London Borough Council, the borough is the largest in Greater London by area and occupies 59 square miles, of which the majority is Metropolitan Green Belt land. It is perhaps the most rural, most of the population lives in the north and west of the borough, with an outlier at Biggin Hill in the far south. The borough shares borders with the London Boroughs of Lewisham and Greenwich to the North, Bexley to the North East and Lambeth to the North West, as well as Croydon to the West. It borders the Sevenoaks District of Kent to the East and South, westerham Heights, the highest point in London at an altitude of 804 feet, is located on the southern boundary. The Prime Meridian passes through Bromley, about 30% of the land in Bromley is farmland, the highest figure of a London Borough.
The borough was formed, as were all other London boroughs, in 1969, after a local campaign, the village of Knockholt was transferred back to Kent to become part of the Sevenoaks Rural District and Sevenoaks District. Before 1965 it had part of the Orpington Urban District. The borough is partly urban and partly rural, the former to the north, other smaller suburban areas include Anerley and nearby Crystal Palace, and Penge. In addition, parts of Mottingham, Sydenham and Ruxley lie within the borough boundaries, there are two main built-up areas in the southern part of the borough and West Wickham. Biggin Hill and Keston with Leaves Green and Nash are separate, local attractions include Down House, Chislehurst Caves, Holwood House, Crofton Roman Villa, and the site of The Crystal Palace. Bromley is divided into 22 wards with a total of 60 council seats, after a number of by-elections and a defection, the Conservatives regained control on 5 July 2001. The 22 wards are shown on the accompanying map, ward names often straddle the named settlements and suburban areas above, their boundaries are fixed, whereas the latter are not.
In 1801, the parishes that form the modern borough had a total population of 8,944. This rose slowly throughout the 19th century, as the district built up. When the railways arrived the rate of growth increased. The population peaked in the 1970s, when began to relocate from London
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty fire and rescue services, many FRS were previously known as brigades or county fire services, but almost all now use the standard terminology. They are distinct from and governed by an authority, which is the legislative and administrative body. Fire authorities in England and Wales, and therefore fire and rescue services and Northern Ireland have centralised fire and rescue services, and so their authorities are effectively committees of the devolved parliaments. The total budget for services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. The devolved government in Scotland has an agency, HMFSI Scotland. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain,1947, Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed entirely in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire,1959, Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act, it dealt with pensions, staffing arrangements and provision of services by other authorities.
It was repealed in England and Wales along with the 1947 Act,1999, Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of fire strikes. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the action still ongoing. Bains report ultimately led to a change in the relating to firefighting. 2002, Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004, Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004, generally only applying to England and it came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises,2006, The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on Fire, promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation. But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries, There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association.
The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee, in June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report. For example, where FRSs were historically inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office, Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Government Select Committee heard evidence on the Fire Control project. Called to give evidence were Cllr Brian Coleman and Cllr James Pearson from the Local Government Association, giving evidence Matt Wrack from the Fire Brigades Union and John Bonney Chief Fire Officers Association
Metropolitan Police Service
As of March 2016, the Met employed 48,661 full-time personnel. This included 32,125 sworn police officers,9,521 police staff and this number excludes the 3,271 Special Constables, who work part-time and who have the same powers and uniform as their regular colleagues. This makes the Metropolitan Police the largest police force in the United Kingdom by a significant margin, the post of Commissioner was first held jointly by Sir Charles Rowan and Sir Richard Mayne. The post is occupied by the now-outgoing Sir Bernard Hogan-Howe. The Commissioners deputy, the Deputy Commissioner, is currently Craig Mackey, a number of informal names and abbreviations exists for the Metropolitan Police Service, the most common being the Met. In colloquial London, it is referred to as the Old Bill. The Met is referred to by the metonym Scotland Yard after the location of its headquarters in a road called Great Scotland Yard in Whitehall. The Mets current headquarters is New Scotland Yard, in Victoria, the Metropolitan Police Service, whose officers became affectionately known as bobbies, was founded in 1829 by Robert Peel under the Metropolitan Police Act 1829.
In 1839, the Marine Police Force, which had formed in 1798, was amalgamated into the Metropolitan Police. In 1837, it incorporated with the Bow Street Horse Patrol that had organised in 1805. Since January 2012, the Mayor of London is responsible for the governance of the Metropolitan Police through the Mayors Office for Policing, the mayor is able to appoint someone to act on his behalf, the current office-holder is Deputy Mayor for Policing and Crime, Sophie Linden. The work of MOPAC is scrutinised by the Police and Crime Committee of the London Assembly, the area policed by the Metropolitan Police Service is known as the Metropolitan Police District. In terms of policing, the Met is divided into a number of Borough Operational Command Units. The City of London is a police area and is the responsibility of the separate City of London Police. The British Transport Police are responsible for policing of the network in the United Kingdom. Within London, they are responsible for the policing of the London Underground, The Emirates Air Line.
There is a park police force, the Kew Constabulary, responsible for the Royal Botanic Gardens. Officers have limited powers in Scotland and Northern Ireland, within the MPD, the Met will take over the investigation of any serious crime from the British Transport Police and Ministry of Defence Police, if it is deemed appropriate
Catford is a district of south east London, within the London Borough of Lewisham. It is located south west of Lewisham, the area is the civic administrative centre for the local authority, and comprises both the Town Hall & Civic Suite. The majority of Catford is located in the Rushey Green and Catford South wards within the Borough, the area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London. Catford was historically part of Kent until 1889, when it was absorbed into the new London County Council, Catford covers most of SE6 postcode district. The area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London, Broadway Theatre is an art deco building adjoining the town hall. It is a stone structure decorated with shields and heraldic emblems. It was opened in 1932 as the Concert Hall and is now a Grade II listed building, the interior is in art deco style. The last cinema in the borough stood diagonally opposite the theatre until its closure in 2002, Catford boasts a large Gothic police station.
In 2006, a large blue pipe sculpture was unveiled outside Eros House, which was another former cinema, the 1960s and 70s had a considerable impact on the architecture of Catford. The old Town Hall of 1875, was replaced by the current Civic Suite in 1968, soon after the merger of the boroughs of Lewisham. Laurence House, where many of the Lewisham Council offices are housed, is on the site of old St Laurences Church, the original Gothic C of E St. In Rushey Green the old village water hand-pump from the 1850s survives, at the end of World War II, the 188-bungalow Excalibur Estate was laid out in Catford, and by 2011 this was the largest surviving prefab estate in Britain. However, it is now planned that all but six of the prefabs will be demolished and replaced by new housing, a few examples of Brutalist architecture survive including the Catford shopping centre and Milford Towers, designed by the architect Owen Luder in 1974. The design was to make it the Barbican of the south, architecture critic Ian Nairn praised Eros House, which is now Grade II listed as, A monster sat down in Catford and just what the place needed.
No offence meant, this extension of Lewisham High Street badly wanted stiffening. Now there is a punchy concrete focus both close to and at a distance, from the heights of the Downham Estate. Rough concrete is put through all its paces, front convex eaves on Sainsburys to a tower which is either afflicted with an astounding set of visual distortions or is actually leaning. Unlike many other buildings, particularly in the universities, this one is done from real conviction
Hayes railway station
Hayes railway station is a railway station located in Hayes in the London Borough of Bromley, south east London, England. The station is served by Southeastern services from Charing Cross and Cannon Street and it forms the suburban terminus for trains on the Hayes line. For historical reasons, and to confusion with Hayes & Harlington. The Mid-Kent line was built by the Mid Kent and North Kent Junction and was operated on opening as far as Beckenham Junction on 1 January 1857 by the South Eastern Railway, the line was extended to Addiscombe in 1864 and Elmers End was opened that year. The Hayes branch line from Elmers End was built by the West Wickham & Hayes Railway, initially the 13 weekday and four Sunday services operated as far as Elmers End where they connected with Addiscombe to London trains. The initial layout at Hayes consisted of a platform with a locomotive turntable at the far end. A goods yard was provided on the side of the station. By 1912 services had increased to 15 each way but only two of these operated through to London the rest terminating at Elmers End.
In 1909 however the 8,37 a. m. Hayes - Charing Cross service was formed of Continental boat train stock where on arrival it was used to work the 10,00 a. m. Following the Railways Act 1921, Hayes became a Southern Railway station on 1 January 1923, the early single-storey, clapboard building was enough for the initial demand in an area of London that saw urbanisation relatively late. Usage remained low until electrification was completed in 1925 with electric services commencing on 21 September 1925, as suburban development gained pace, the station was modernised in 1933 with shops being incorporated into the entrance and the goods yard extended in anticipation of more coal traffic. On the night of 15/16 September 1940, the building was badly damaged by a bomb. On 1 January 1948 following nationalisation of the railways Hayes became part of British Railways Southern Region, the goods yard closed on 19 April 1965 although the station continued to handle greyhound dogs travelling between Catford and training kennels in Ireland.
During the 1960s passenger numbers fell as many commuters were driving to Bromley South, upon sectorisation in 1982, three passenger sectors were created, InterCity, operating principal express services, and London & South East who operated commuter services in the London area. Following privatisation of British Rail on 1 April 1994 the infrastructure at Hayes station became the responsibility of Railtrack whilst a business unit operated the train services. On 13 October 1996 operation of the services passed to Connex South Eastern who were originally due to run the franchise until 2011. Following a number of accidents and financial issues Railtrack plc was sold to Network Rail on 3 October 2002 who became responsible for the infrastructure, on 27 June 2003 the Strategic Rail Authority decided to strip Connex of the franchise citing poor financial management and run the franchise itself. Connex South Eastern continued to operate the franchise until 8 November 2003 with the transferring to the Strategic Rail Authoritys South Eastern Trains subsidiary the following day
London Ambulance Service
It is one of the busiest ambulance services in the world, and the busiest in the United Kingdom, providing care to more than 8.6 million people, who live and work in London. The service is currently under the leadership of chief executive Dr Fionna Moore MBE, the service employ around 4,500 staff. In exceptional cases, or where the service deems in necessary, specialist teams can be deployed from within the service, such as the Hazardous Area Response Team and these teams are specially trained and equipped to deal with incidents such as working at height or in confined spaces. It is one of 10 ambulance trusts in England providing emergency medical services, there is no charge to patients for use of the service, as every person in England has the right to the attendance of an ambulance in an emergency. The LAS responded to over 1.8 million calls for assistance, incidents rose by 20,000 in 2015/16, putting more pressure on the service. All 999 calls from the public are answered at the Emergency Operations Centre in Waterloo, to assist, the services command and control system is linked electronically with the equivalent system for Londons Metropolitan Police.
This means that police updates regarding specific jobs will be updated directly on the computer-aided dispatch log, to be viewed by the EOC, the first became operational at The South Eastern Fever Hospital, Deptford, in October 1883. In all, six hospitals operated horse-drawn land ambulances, putting almost the whole of London within three miles of one of them, each ambulance station included accommodation for a married superintendent and around 20 drivers, horse keepers and attendants, laundry staff and domestic cleaners. At Deptford, in order to transfer patients between the hospitals at Joyce Green and Long Reach near Gravesend, a horse-drawn ambulance tramway was constructed in 1897, in 1902, the MAB introduced a steam driven ambulance and in 1904, their first motor ambulance. The last horse-drawn ambulances were used on 14 September 1912, although the MAB was legally supposed to be transporting only infectious patients, it increasingly carried accident victims and emergency medical cases.
Also in 1915, the MAB Ambulance Section were the first public body to women drivers. By July 1916 the London County Council Ambulance Corps was staffed entirely by women, the LCC took control of the River Ambulance Service, but it was disbanded in 1932. During World War II, the London Auxiliary Ambulance Service was operated by over 10,000 auxiliaries, mainly women and they ran services from 139 Auxiliary Stations across London. A plaque at one of the last to close, Station 39 in Weymouth Mews, near Portland Place, in 1948 the National Health Service Act made it a requirement for ambulances to be available for anyone who needed them. On 1 April 1996, the LAS left the control of the South West Thames Regional Health Authority, as an NHS Trust, the LAS has a Trust Board consisting of 12 members. The board includes, a chairman, five of the Service’s executive directors. Special events in London are co-ordinated from the Services event control room, located in east London, during mass casualty incidents, the command structure works on three levels, gold and bronze.
Silver control, tactical command, from a point in the vicinity of the incident, Bronze control
Beckenham Crematorium and Cemetery
Beckenham Crematorium and Cemetery is a cemetery in the London Borough of Bromley Beckenham Crematorium and Cemetery is located between South Norwood Country Park and Birkbeck. The cemetery was opened in 1876 although it is erroneously reported as 1880 and was initially known as the Crystal Palace District Cemetery. It is often referred to today as the Elmers End Cemetery due to its location within Beckenham, Beckenham Crematorium opened on the site in 1956. It is served by Birkbeck station, as well as Elmers End station for National Rail and London Tramlink,130 World War I graves, including a number of casualties from the Royal Naval Depot at Crystal Palace Park and the Army Services Corp Motor Transport Depot at Grove Park. 127 World War II graves,12 of which are in a purpose made War Grave plot which contains memorials to 3 personnel of the same war whose graves could not be satisfactorily maintained. There is a memorial to 21 members of the Beckenham Auxiliary Fire Service who were killed in the course of a night during a German raid on the East End of London in World War II.
Many of the firemen were buried in the cemetery, some others in nearby West Wickham, W. G. Grace Frank Bourne Thomas Crapper George Evans Josiah Stamp, 1st Baron Stamp, his wife, and son the 2nd Baron
Southeastern (train operating company)
London & South Eastern Railway Limited, trading as Southeastern, is a British train operating company in South East England. Southeastern provides services along High Speed 1 from London St. Pancras, on 1 April 2006 it became the franchisee for the new Integrated Kent franchise, replacing the publicly owned South Eastern Trains on the former South Eastern franchise. Southeastern serves the main London stations of Charing Cross, Blackfriars, Cannon Street, London Bridge, Waterloo East, the Southeastern network has a route mileage of 540, with 179 stations. About 70% of its services run to and from London and it is owned by Govia, a joint venture between Go-Ahead Group and Keolis, which operates the neighbouring Southern franchise, which overlaps with Southeastern in some areas. The companys formal name, under which it mounted its bid for the franchise, is London, the managing director is David Statham, formerly MD of First Capital Connect. Since the privatisation of British Rail, the franchise to run trains in this area has been held by three different companies, the first company to win the South Eastern franchise, on 14 October 1996, was Connex, which operated it under the name Connex South Eastern.
Connex gained a reputation for unreliable services, but it was for financial management that its franchise was cut short by the Strategic Rail Authority on 9 November 2003. Train services were taken over by South Eastern Trains, a wholly owned subsidiary of the SRA/Department for Transport created for the purpose. This would see the existing South Eastern franchise combined with the new high-speed services to be operated on High Speed 1 to form a new Integrated Kent Franchise. In December 2008, as part of the agreement, responsibility for the Redhill to Tonbridge Line was handed over to Southern. Southeastern high-speed services began operations on 14 December 2009. In March 2009 the bay platforms at London Blackfriars closed for reconstruction as part of the Thameslink Programme, Southeastern services previously terminating at Blackfriars, mostly from Sevenoaks via the Catford loop, were extended to Kentish Town, St Albans, Luton or Bedford. As a result of change, Southeastern now operates these services jointly with Thameslink using 20 dual-voltage Class 319 sets as well as newly built Class 377 Electrostars.
Following the Department for Transports review after the cancellation of the InterCity West Coast franchise process, in 2013, the coalition government extended Southeasterns franchise, without competitive tender, from 31 March 2014 to June 2018. The Southeastern franchise is now set to be extended until December 2018, the Olympic Javelin or Javelin was a high-speed train shuttle service operated by Southeastern over High Speed 1 during the 2012 Summer Olympics and Paralympics. The service ran for the duration of games, between St Pancras International station and Ebbsfleet International station, via Stratford International station, which is close to the Olympic Park. During the Summer Olympics a service of eight trains an hour ran between St Pancras and Ebbsfleet, calling at Stratford, replacing the usual East Kent highspeed service, two of these were extended to Ashford and one to Faversham. Between 11pm and 1am the service between St Pancras and Ebbsfleet was increased to twelve per hour, the British Olympic Association applied to register Javelin as a UK trademark on 19 July 2005 and this was granted on 2 June 2006
Transport for London
Transport for London is a local government body responsible for the transport system in Greater London, England. Its head office is in Windsor House in the City of Westminster, the underlying services are provided by a mixture of wholly owned subsidiary companies, by private sector franchisees and by licensees. In 2015-16, TfL had a budget of £11.5 billion, the rest comes from government funding, other income and Crossrail funding. On 21 January 2016, it was announced that the responsibility for franchising all of Londons inner suburban services would be transferred from the DfT to TfL. This transfer will take place as current franchises fall due for renewal, TfL was created in 2000 as part of the Greater London Authority by the Greater London Authority Act 1999. It gained most of its functions from its predecessor London Regional Transport in 2000, the first Commissioner of TfL was Bob Kiley. The first Chair was then-Mayor of London Ken Livingstone, and the first Deputy Chair was Dave Wetzel and Wetzel remained in office until the election of Boris Johnson as Mayor in 2008.
Johnson took over as Chairman, and in February 2009 fellow-Conservative Daniel Moylan was appointed as his Deputy, TfL did not take over responsibility for the London Underground until 2003, after the controversial Public-private partnership contract for maintenance had been agreed. Management of the Public Carriage Office had previously been a function of the Metropolitan Police, Transport for London Group Archives holds business records for TfL and its predecessor bodies and transport companies. Some early records are held on behalf of TfL Group Archives at the London Metropolitan Archives. After the bombings on the underground and bus systems on 7 July 2005 and they helped survivors out, removed bodies, and got the transport system up and running, to get the millions of commuters back out of London at the end of the work day. Those mentioned include Peter Hendy, who was at the time Head of Surface Transport division, and Tim OToole, head of the Underground division, carrying open containers of alcohol was banned on public transport operated by TfL.
The Mayor of London and TfL announced the ban with the intention of providing a safer, there were Last Round on the Underground parties on the night before the ban came into force. Passengers refusing to observe the ban may be refused travel and asked to leave the premises, the Greater London Authority reported in 2011 that assaults on London Underground staff had fallen by 15% since the introduction of the ban. In an effort to reduce sexual offences and increase reporting, TfL—in conjunction with the British Transport Police, Metropolitan Police Service, TfL is controlled by a board whose members are appointed by the Mayor of London, a position held by Sadiq Khan since May 2016. The Commissioner of Transport for London reports to the Board and leads a management team with individual functional responsibilities, the body is organised in three main directorates and corporate services, each with responsibility for different aspects and modes of transport. This network is sub-divided into three service units, BCV, Central and Waterloo & City lines.
JNP, Jubilee and Piccadilly lines, SSL, District and Hammersmith & City lines
Sewage is a water-carried waste, in solution or suspension, that is intended to be removed from a community. Also known as domestic or municipal wastewater, it is characterized by volume or rate of flow, physical condition and toxic constituents and it consists mostly of greywater, blackwater and detergents, and toilet paper. Whether it contains surface runoff depends on the design of sewer system, all sewage ends up back in the environment, by any of several routes. A basic distinction in its route is whether it undergoes sewage treatment to mitigate its effect on the environment before arriving there, Sewage usually travels from a buildings plumbing either into a sewer, which will carry it elsewhere, or into an onsite sewage facility. Whether it is combined with surface runoff in the sewer depends on the sewer design, before the 20th century, sewers usually discharged into a body of water such as a stream, lake, bay, or ocean. There was no treatment, so the breakdown of the waste was left to the ecosystem.
Today, the goal is that sewers route their contents to a treatment plant rather than directly to a body of water. In many countries, this is the norm, in developing countries. Thus other goals of modern sewage routing include handling surface runoff separately from sewage, handling greywater separately from toilet waste, proper collection and safe, nuisance-free disposal of the liquid wastes of a community are legally recognized as a necessity in an urbanized, industrialized society. In many developing countries the bulk of domestic and industrial wastewater is discharged without any treatment or after primary treatment only, the term sewage is nowadays regarded as an older term and is being more and more replaced by wastewater. In general American English usage, the sewage and sewerage mean the same thing. Both words are descended from Old French assewer, derived from the Latin exaquare, in American technical and professional English usage, sewerage refers to the infrastructure that conveys sewage.
Wastes that result from an industrial processes such as the production or manufacture of goods are classed as industrial wastewater, surface runoff, known as storm flow or overland flow, is that portion of precipitation that runs rapidly over the ground surface to a defined channel. Sewage is a mixture of chemicals, with many distinctive chemical characteristics. These include high concentrations of ammonium, phosphorus, high conductivity, high alkalinity, the organic matter of sewage is measured by determining its biological oxygen demand or the chemical oxygen demand. Sewage contains the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus, Sewage can be monitored for both disease-causing and benign organisms with a variety of techniques. Traditional techniques involve filtering and examining samples under a microscope, sequencing DNA from an environmental sample is known as metagenomics. Sewage has analyzed to determine relative rates of use of prescription