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Elmet was an independent Brittonic kingdom between about the 5th century and early 7th century and refers to a smaller area of what became the West Riding of Yorkshire. The precise borders of Elmet are unclear; the term was used in medieval times as an affix to place names in the West of the old Barkston Ash and East of the old Skyrack wapentakes including Burton Salmon, Micklefield, Sherburn in Elmet, Kirkby Wharfe, Saxton and Barwick in Elmet. In the Tribal Hidage the extent of Elmet is described as 600 hides of land, an area more than the total of the wapentakes of Barkston Ash and Skyrack; some have concluded that those two wapentakes represented the area of Elmet, although a hide is not a true measure of land area. Some have argued that the kingdom of Elmet, until it was conquered in 616 or 626, was bounded by the River Sheaf in the south and the River Wharfe in the east, it adjoined Deira to the north and Mercia to the south, its western boundary appears to have been near Craven, a minor British kingdom.

As such it was well to the east of other territories of the Britons in Wales and the West Country, to the south of others in the Hen Ogledd. As one of the southeasternmost Brittonic regions for which there is reasonably substantial evidence, it is notable for having survived late in the period of Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain. Elmet is chiefly attested in toponymic and archaeological evidence, references in early Welsh poetry, historical sources such as the Historia Brittonum and Bede; the Historia Brittonum provides the only direct evidence. It says that King Edwin of Northumbria "occupied Elmet and expelled Certic, king of that country". Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People says that Hereric, the father of Hilda of Whitby, an important figure in the Christianisation of the Anglo-Saxons, was killed at the court of Ceretic, it is presumed that Ceretic/Certic was the same person known in Welsh sources as Ceredig ap Gwallog, king of Elmet. However, Bede does not speak of Elmet as the name of a kingdom but rather of the silva Elmete "forest of Elmet".

He mentions that "subsequent kings made a house for themselves in the district, called Loidis", the battle of the Winwaed was in the region of Loidis – the area covered by the present day City of Leeds. From this evidence it appears that Elmet was one of a number of Sub-Roman Brittonic realms in the Hen Ogledd – what is now northern England and southern Scotland – during the Early Middle Ages. Other kingdoms included Rheged, the Kingdom of Strathclyde, Gododdin, it is unclear how Elmet came to be established, though it has been suggested that it may have been created from a larger kingdom ruled by the semi-legendary Coel Hen. The historian Alex Woolf suggests that the region of Elmet had a distinct tribal identity in pre-Roman times and that this re-emerged after Roman rule collapsed; the name of Elmet is Brythonic, but its origin is obscure. It is the same as the Welsh Elfed, the name of a cantref in Dyfed. Elmet appears to have had ties with Wales. A number of ancestors of Ceretic are recorded in Welsh sources: one of Taliesin's poems is for his father, Gwallog ap Lleenog, who may have ruled Elmet near the end of the 6th century.

Towards the end of the 6th century, Elmet came under increasing pressure from the expanding Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Deira and Mercia. Forces from Elmet joined the ill-fated alliance in 590 against the Angles of Bernicia, making massive inroads further to the north. During this war it is thought; the northern alliance collapsed after Urien of Rheged was murdered and a feud broke out between two of its key members. After the unification of the Anglian Kingdom of Northumbria, the Northumbrians invaded and overran Elmet in 616 or 617, it is not known what prompted the invasion, but it has been suggested that the casus belli was the death by poisoning of the Northumbrian nobleman Hereric, an exiled member of the Northumbrian royal house residing in Elmet. It may have been that Hereric had been poisoned by his hosts and Edwin of Northumbria invaded in retaliation. After the conquest of Elmet, the realm was incorporated into Northumbria on Easter in 627 and its people were known as the Elmetsæte, they are recorded in the late 7th century Tribal Hidage as the inhabitants of a minor territory of 600 hides.

They were the most northerly group recorded in the Tribal Hidage. The Elmetsæte continued to reside in West Yorkshire as a distinct group throughout the Anglo-Saxon period and may have colluded with Cadwallon ap Cadfan of Gwynedd when he invaded Northumbria and held the area in 633; the Life of Cathróe of Metz mentions Loidam Civitatem as the boundary between the Norsemen of Scandinavian York and the Celtic Britons of the Kingdom of Strathclyde: if this refers to Leeds, it suggests that some or all of Elmet may have been returned to Brittonic rule for a brief period in the first half of the 10th century before Anglo-Saxon reconquest, but not as an independent state. According to a genetic study published in Nature, the local population of West Yorkshire is genetically distinct from the rest of the population of Yorkshire; the article compared the genetic distribution to the historical kingdoms, but the results for West Yorkshire found a higher proportion of Germanic descent than in other areas.


Twywell Gullet

Twywell Gullet is a 17.1 hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest east of Kettering in Northamptonshire. It is part of the 54.6 hectare Twywell Hills and Dales nature reserve, managed by a partnership of the Woodland Trust and the Rockingham Forest Trust. The site is in turn a small part of the former royal hunting Rockingham Forest. Twywell Gullet is a former ironstone quarry, it has species-rich limestone grassland on scrub in the bottoms. There are a number of uncommon ground nesting bees and wasps, beetles include the nationally rare ruddy darter. There is a large pond which has many great crested newts. Footpaths go through the site but there is no access to some steeply sloping areas

Lucy Winkett

Lucy Clare Winkett is a British Anglican priest, who since 2010 has been the Rector of St James's Church, Piccadilly. Her early ordained ministry was spent at St Paul's Cathedral, where she was a minor canon and chaplain from 1997 to 2003, the canon precentor from 2003 to 2010, she was the first female priest to join the clergy of St Paul's Cathedral. Winkett was born on 8 January 1968 in Portsmouth, England, to Bryan and Cecilia Winkett, she was educated at Dr Challoner's High School, an all-girls grammar school in Little Chalfont, Buckinghamshire. She won a choral scholarship to Cambridge where she studied modern history, her contemporaries at Cambridge included the comedian Alexander Armstrong with whom she starred in a production of Guys and Dolls. She graduated from the University of Cambridge with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1990, she entered the Royal College of Music to train as a singer and completed the ARCM qualification in 1992. Having trained as a singer, she changed career path and began training for ordained ministry at Queen's College, Edgbaston.

During her training, she studied theology at the University of Birmingham and graduated with a Bachelor of Divinity degree in 1994. While she was an ordinand, she was part of the BBC documentary The Calling. Winkett was ordained in the Church of England as a deacon in 1995 and as a priest in 1996, she served her curacy at St Michael and All Angels, Little Ilford, London in the Diocese of Chelmsford. In 1997, she was appointed a chaplain of St Paul's Cathedral; when her appointment was announced in February 1997, it was criticised by the cathedral's chancellor, John Halliburton, against the ordination of women as priests. She was reportedly spat at by members of the clergy at St Paul's. In 2003, she was appointed a canon residentiary of St Paul's, she returned to parish ministry when she was appointed Rector of St James's Church, Piccadilly in October 2010. Winkett writes and debates on a wide range of issues reflecting on culture and religion, she was a contributor to the best-selling Why I Am Still an Anglican and to Seven Words for Three Hours.

She is author of Our Sound Is Our Wound, the Archbishop of Canterbury's Lent Book, a regular contributor to BBC Radio 4's Thought for the Day. She is a founding advisor to Theos, a think tank launched in 2006, she serves as Chair of Governors of St Mary Magdalene Academy, of an non-governmental organisation, the Amos Trust. In her second year of university, Winkett's boyfriend Andrew Stillwell had an accident whilst climbing and was left in a coma, she was with him when he died. This contributed to her pursuing ordination. Winkett, Lucy. Newell, Edmund. Seven words for three hours: a Good Friday meditation. London: Darton Longman & Todd. ISBN 978-0232526455. Winkett, Lucy. "Signposts in society: cathedral ministry and being a woman priest in the Church of England". In Chartres, Caroline. Why I am still an Anglican: conversations. London: Continuum. Pp. 145–156. ISBN 978-0826483126. Winkett, Lucy. Our sound is our wound: contemplative listening to a noisy world. London: Continuum. ISBN 978-0826439215. Guite, Malcolm.

Reflections for Lent 2015. Church House Publishing. ISBN 978-0715144602. BBC Radio 4: Profile


Nupapillomavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Papillomaviridae. Humans serve as natural hosts. There is only one species in this genus: the type species Nupapillomavirus 1. Diseases associated with this genus include: facial warts, it has been detected in some skin carcinomas and premalignant keratoses. Group: dsDNA Viruses in Nupapillomavirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral geometries, T=7 symmetry; the diameter is around 52-55 nm. Genomes are circular, around 8kb in length. Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host receptors, which mediates endocytosis. Replication follows the dsDNA bidirectional replication model. DNA-templated transcription, with some alternative splicing mechanism is the method of transcription; the virus exits the host cell by nuclear envelope breakdown. Human serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are contact. ICTV Report Papillomaviridae Viralzone: Nupapillomavirus

Wolf Creek (film)

Wolf Creek is a 2005 Australian horror thriller film written, co-produced, directed by Greg McLean and starring John Jarratt, Nathan Phillips, Cassandra Magrath, Kestie Morassi. Its plot concerns three backpackers who find themselves taken captive and subsequently hunted by Mick Taylor, a deranged psychopathic xenophobic killer, in the Australian outback; the film was ambiguously marketed as being "based on true events," while its plot bore elements reminiscent of the real-life murders of backpackers by Ivan Milat in the 1990s and Bradley Murdoch in 2001, both of which McLean used as inspiration for the screenplay. Produced on a $1.1 million budget, filming of Wolf Creek took place in South Australia. It had its world premiere at the Sundance Film Festival in January 2005, it was given a theatrical release in Ireland and the United Kingdom in September 2005, followed by a general Australian release in November, apart from the Northern Territory, out of respect for the pending trial surrounding the murder of Peter Falconio.

In the United States and Canada, it was released on Christmas Day 2005, distributed by Dimension Films. Wolf Creek received varied reviews from film critics, with several, such as Roger Ebert and Manohla Dargis, criticizing it for its realistic and unrelenting depictions of violence. Other publications, such as Variety and Time Out, praised the film's grindhouse aesthetics, with the latter calling its straightforward depiction of crime and violence "taboo-breaking." The film was nominated for seven Australian Film Institute awards, including Best Director. In 2010, it was included in Slant Magazine's list of the 100 best films of the decade. In Broome, Western Australia, 1999, two British tourists, Liz Hunter and Kristy Earl, are backpacking across the country with Ben Mitchell, an Australian friend from Sydney. Ben buys a dilapidated Ford XD Falcon for their road journey from Broome to Cairns, Queensland via the Great Northern Highway. After stopping at Halls Creek for the night, the trio makes another stop at Wolf Creek National Park.

Hours the group discovers that their watches have stopped and the car will not start. After dark, a rural man named Mick Taylor comes across them and offers to tow them to his camp to repair the car; the group goes with him to an abandoned mining site several hours south of Wolf Creek. Mick regales them with tall stories of his past while making a show of fixing their car, he gives the tourists water which causes them to fall unconscious. Liz awakens to find herself tied in a shed, she breaks free and hears Mick torturing Kristy in a garage, witnesses him sexually assaulting her. Liz sets the now-dismantled Falcon on fire to distract him, goes to help Kristy; when Mick returns, she shoots him with the bullet hitting him in the neck. The women attempt to flee in Mick's truck. However, Mick stumbles out of the garage, he proceeds to shoot at them before giving chase. The women evade him by pushing his truck off a cliff before returning to the site to get another car. Liz leaves the hysterical Kristy outside, telling her to escape on foot if Liz does not return in five minutes.

Liz enters another garage and discovers Mick's large stock of cars as well as an organised array of travellers' possessions, including video cameras. She watches the playback on one of them and is horrified to see Mick "helping" other travellers stranded at Wolf Creek in identical circumstances to her own, she picks up another camera which turns out to be Ben's, notices Mick's truck in the background of the footage, indicating he'd been following them long before they got to Wolf Creek. She gets into a car but Mick appears in the backseat and stabs her with a bowie knife. Liz crawls out and he hacks her fingers off severs her spinal cord, paralyzing her, he interrogates her as to Kristy's whereabouts. By dawn, a barefoot Kristy is discovered by a passing motorist, he is shot dead by Mick with a sniper rifle. Mick gives chase in a Holden HQ Statesman. Mick shoots out her back tire and she attempts to crawl away, but is shot dead. Mick torches the wrecked car. Ben awakens to find himself nailed to a mock crucifix in a mine shaft with two aggressive, caged Rottweilers in front of him.

He enters the camp in early daylight. He escapes into the outback, but passes out beside a dirt road, he is discovered by a Swedish couple. A series of title cards states that despite several police searches, no trace of Liz or Kristy has been found. Early investigations into the case were disorganised, hampered by confusion over the location of the crimes, a lack of physical evidence and the alleged unreliability of the only witness. After four months in police custody, Ben was cleared of suspicion; the film ends with Mick walking into the sunset with his rifle. Writer-director Greg McLean wrote the screenplay for Wolf Creek in 1997; the original screenplay resembled a straightforward slasher film, McLean was displeased with the final product. After seeing media on serial killer Ivan Milat, McLean was inspired to rewrite the screenplay, he said in subsequent interviews that he crafted the character of Mick Taylor based on archetypal "famous Australian exports" such as Steve Irwin, combined with darker national figures, such as Milat, a sadistic killer who murdered seven people in New South Wales between 1989 and 1993.

McLean's revised script was anchored in the character of Mick Taylor: "The movie was re


PIDA is an open source IDE written in the Python language, designed to coalesce different software development tools to provide a seamless workflow for programmers. The authors describe this as "a framework for integrated development". PIDA focuses on reusing Gold Standard development tools, aiming to never reinvent wheels. PIDA was written in 2005 by Ali Afshar as a graphical environment and shell around the Vim text editor; this was subsequently extended to other embeddable editors as well, including Mooedit. The application provides facilities such as project management, parsing of files to access member lists, launching of debuggers and other external programs, such as source control or profilers, depending on the language and platform being used. PIDA was succeeded by the Abominade IDE in 2012. Bug tracker at Launchpad Mailing list at Google Groups #pida connect IRC channel