A wedding invitation is a letter asking the recipient to attend a wedding. It is written in the formal, third-person language and mailed five to eight weeks before the wedding date. Like any other invitation, it is the privilege and duty of the host—historically, for younger brides in Western culture, the mother of the bride, on behalf of the bride's family—to issue invitations, either by sending them herself or causing them to be sent, either by enlisting the help of relatives, friends, or her social secretary to select the guest list and address envelopes, or by hiring a service. With computer technology, some are able to print directly on envelopes from a guest list using a mail merge with word processing and spreadsheet software. Prior to the invention of the moveable-type printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1447, weddings in England were announced by means of a Town crier: a man who would walk through the streets announcing in a loud voice the news of the day. Traditionally, anyone within earshot became part of the celebration.
In the Middle Ages, illiteracy was widespread, so the practice of sending written wedding invitations emerged among the nobility. Families of means would commission monks, skilled in the art of Calligraphy, to hand-craft their notices; such documents carried the Coat of arms, or personal crest, of the individual and were sealed with wax. Despite the emergence of the printing press, the ordinary printing techniques of the time, in which ink was stamped onto the paper using lead type, produced too poor a result for stylish invitations. However, the tradition of announcing weddings in the newspaper did become established at this time. In 1642, the invention of metal-plate engraving by Ludwig von Siegen brought higher-quality wedding invitations within the reach of the emerging middle class. Engraving, as the name implies, requires an artisan to "hand write" the text in reverse onto a metal plate using a carving tool, the plate was used to print the invitation; the resulting engraved invitations were protected from smudging by a sheet of tissue paper placed on top, a tradition that remains to this day.
At the time, the wording of wedding invitations was more elaborate than today. Following the invention of Lithography by Alois Senefelder in 1798, it became possible to produce sharp and distinctive inking without the need for engraving; this paved the way for the emergence of a genuine mass-market in wedding invitations. Wedding invitations were still delivered by hand and on horseback, due to the unreliability of the nascent postal system. A ‘double envelope’ was used to protect the invitation from damage en route to its recipient; this tradition remains today, despite advances in postal reliability. The origins of commercially printed'fine wedding stationery' can be traced to the period following World War II, where a combination of democracy and rapid industrial growth gave the common man the ability to mimic the lifestyles and materialism of society's elite. About this time, prominent society figures, such as Amy Vanderbilt and Emily Post, emerged to advise the ordinary man and woman on appropriate etiquette.
Growth in the use of wedding stationery was underpinned by the development of thermography. Although it lacks the fineness and distinctiveness of engraving, thermography is a less expensive method of achieving raised type; this technique called poor man's engraving, produces shiny, raised lettering without impressing the surface of the paper. As such, wedding invitations - either printed or engraved - became affordable for all. More Letterpress printing has made a strong resurgence in popularity for wedding invitations, it has a certain craft appeal due to the deep impression or bite that can be achieved. It was not the original intent of letterpress to bite into the paper in this way, but rather to kiss it creating a flat print; the bite or deep impression is a recent aesthetic that adds the sensory experience of touch to letterpress printed wedding invitations. Many letterpress printers that specialize in wedding invitations are small start-ups or artisan printers, rather than large printing companies.
Laser engraving has been making headway in the wedding invitation market over the last few years. Used for engraving wood veneer invitations, it is used to engrave acrylic or to mark certain types of metal invitations; the latest trend in wedding invitations is to order them online. Using the internet has made viewing and ordering wedding invitations an easy task. There are hundreds of websites that offer wedding invitations and stationery and being online allows the customer to order from anywhere in the world. Etiquette regarding the text on a formal wedding invitation varies according to country and language. In Western countries, a formal invitation is written in the formal, third-person language, saying that the hosts wish for the recipient to attend the wedding and giving its date and place. In countries like India, where the concept of wedding invitations was acquired through the British, the language continues to follow western traditions; as the bride's parents are traditionally the hosts of the wedding, the text begins with the names of the bride's parents as they use them in formal social contexts, e.g.
"Mr. and Mrs. John A Smith" or "Dr. Mary Jones and Mr. John Smith"; the exact wording varies, but a typical phrasing runs as follows: Mr. and Mrs. John A Smith request the honor of your presence at the wedding of their daughter Jessica Marie to Mr. Michael Francis Miller on the first of November at twelve noon Christch
A white wedding is a traditional formal or semi-formal wedding originating in Great Britain. The term originates from the white colour of the wedding dress, which first became popular with Victorian era elites after Queen Victoria wore a white lace dress at her wedding; the term now encapsulates the entire Western wedding routine in the Christian religious tradition, which includes a ceremony during which the marriage begins, followed by a reception. Though Mary, Queen of Scots, wore a white wedding gown in 1559 when she married her first husband, Francis Dauphin of France, the tradition of a white wedding dress is credited to Queen Victoria's choice to wear a white court dress at her wedding to Prince Albert in 1840. Debutantes had long been required to wear white court dresses for their first presentation at court, at a "Drawing Room" where they were introduced to the queen for the first time. Royal brides before Victoria did not wear white, instead choosing "heavy brocaded gowns embroidered with white and silver thread," with red being a popular colour in Western Europe more generally.
European and American brides had been wearing a plethora of colours, including blue and practical colours like black, brown, or gray. As accounts of Victoria's wedding spread across the Atlantic and throughout Europe, elites followed her lead. After Queen Victoria's and Prince Albert's wedding, the color white resembled wealth and social status; because of the limitations of laundering techniques before the part of the 20th century, white dresses provided an opportunity for conspicuous consumption. They were favored as a way to show the world that the bride's family was so wealthy and so part of the leisure class that the bride would choose an elaborate dress that could be ruined by any sort of work or spill. Although women were required to wear veils in many churches through at least the 19th century, the resurgence of the wedding veil as a symbol of the bride, its use when not required by the bride's religion, coincided with societal emphasis on women being modest and well-behaved. Etiquette books began to turn the practice into a tradition and the white gown soon became a popular symbol of status that carried "a connotation of innocence and virginal purity."
The story put out about the wedding veil was that decorous brides were too timid to show their faces in public until they were married. By the end of the 19th century the white dress was the garment of choice for elite brides on both sides of the Atlantic. However, middle-class British and American brides did not adopt the trend until after World War II. With increased prosperity in the 20th century, the tradition grew to include the practice of wearing the dress only once; as historian Vicky Howard writes, "f a bride wore white in the nineteenth century, it was acceptable and that she wore her gown again". Queen Victoria had her famous lace wedding dress re-styled for use; the portrayal of weddings in Hollywood movies immediately after World War II, helped crystallize and homogenize the white wedding into a normative form. The white wedding style was given another significant boost in 1981, when three-quarter billion people—one out of six people around the globe—watched Charles, Prince of Wales marry Diana Spencer in her elaborate white taffeta dress with a 25-foot-long train.
This wedding is considered the most influential white wedding of the 20th century. The traditional white wedding wasn't defined by the color of the dress only; the wedding of Queen Victoria's daughter Victoria, to Prince Fredrick William of Prussia in 1858 introduced choral music to the processional when standard practice had been to have music of any kind only during a party after the wedding ceremony. After World War I, as full-scale formal weddings began to be desired by the mothers of brides who did not have a permanent social secretary, the position of the wedding planner, who could coordinate the printer, florist and seamstress, began to assume importance; the first edition of Bride's Magazine was published in 1934 as a newspaper advertising insert called "So You're Going to Get Married!" in a column titled "To the Bride", its rival Modern Bride began publishing in 1949. Today a whole industry surrounds the provision of such weddings; the full white wedding experience today requires the family to arrange for or purchase printed or engraved wedding invitations, decorations such as flowers or candles and flowers for bridesmaids, groomsmen, a flower girl, a ring bearer.
They may add optional features, such as a guest book or commemorative wedding leaflets. It is common to have a celebration after the wedding ceremony featuring a large white wedding cake. A subtle shift in the requirements for a wedding can be detected in the modern blurb for Emily Post's Weddings "creating a wedding experience that demonstrates the bride and groom's commitment and uniqueness." "Uniqueness" is a modern addition to a wedding's requirements. Traditional weddings require, in addition to the bride and groom, a marriage officiant, a minister, rabbi, imam, or civil officer, authorized to perform marriages. Typical white weddings include a wedding party, which consists of some or all of the following: Groomsmen or ushers: One or more friends or family members who assist the groom men; the chief groomsman is called the best man, is given a place of honor. A woman is called an honor attendant. Bridesmaids: One or more friends or family members who support the bride; the chief bridesmaid may be called a maid of matron of honor.
A girl too young to be marriageable, bu
Assyrian people, or Syriacs, are an ethnic group indigenous to Western Asia. Some of them self-identify as Chaldeans. Speakers of modern Aramaic and as well as the primary languages in their countries of residence, modern Assyrians are Syriac Christians who claim descent from Assyria, one of the oldest civilizations in the world, dating back to 2500 BC in ancient Mesopotamia; the tribal areas that form the Assyrian homeland are parts of present-day northern Iraq, southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran and, more northeastern Syria. The majority have migrated to other regions of the world, including North America, the Levant, Europe and the Caucasus during the past century. Emigration was triggered by events such as the Massacres of Diyarbakır, the Assyrian Genocide during World War I by the Ottoman Empire and allied Kurdish tribes, the Simele Massacre in Iraq in 1933, the Iranian Revolution of 1979, Arab Nationalist Ba'athist policies in Iraq and Syria, the rise of Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and its takeover of most of the Nineveh plains.
Assyrians are predominantly Christian adhering to the East and West Syrian liturgical rites of Christianity. The churches that constitute the East Syrian rite include the Assyrian Church of the East, Ancient Church of the East, Chaldean Catholic Church, whereas the churches of the West Syrian rite are the Syriac Orthodox Church and Syriac Catholic Church. Both rites use Classical Syriac as their liturgical language. Most the post-2003 Iraq War and the Syrian Civil War, which began in 2011, have displaced much of the remaining Assyrian community from their homeland as a result of ethnic and religious persecution at the hands of Islamic extremists. Of the one million or more Iraqis reported by the United Nations to have fled Iraq since the occupation, nearly 40% were Assyrians though Assyrians accounted for only around 3% of the pre-war Iraqi demography. According to a 2013 report by a Chaldean Syriac Assyrian Popular Council official, it is estimated that only 300,000 Assyrians remain in Iraq.
Because of the emergence of ISIL and the taking over of much of the Assyrian homeland by the terror group, another major wave of Assyrian displacement has taken place. ISIL was driven out from the Assyrian villages in the Khabour River Valley and the areas surrounding the city of Al-Hasakah in Syria by 2015, from the Nineveh plains in Iraq by 2017. Since the expulsion of ISIL, the Nineveh plains have been divided into Iraqi and Kurdish-controlled zones, with Assyrian militias on both sides. In northern Syria, Assyrian groups have been taking part both politically and militarily in the Kurdish-dominated but multiethnic Syrian Democratic Forces and Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria. Assyria is the homeland of the Assyrian people. In prehistoric times, the region, to become known as Assyria was home to Neanderthals such as the remains of those which have been found at the Shanidar Cave; the earliest Neolithic sites in Assyria belonged to the Jarmo culture c. 7100 BC and Tell Hassuna, the centre of the Hassuna culture, c. 6000 BC.
The history of Assyria begins with the formation of the city of Assur as early as the 25th century BC. The Assyrian king list records kings dating from the 25th century BC onwards, the earliest being Tudiya, a contemporary of Ibrium of Ebla. However, many of these early kings would have been local rulers, from the late 24th century BC to the early 22nd century BC, they were subjects of the Akkadian Empire. During the early Bronze Age period, Sargon of Akkad united all the native Semitic-speaking peoples and the Sumerians of Mesopotamia under the Akkadian Empire; the cities of Assur and Nineveh, the oldest and largest city of the ancient Assyrian empire, together with a number of other towns and cities, existed as early as the 25th century BC, although they appear to have been Sumerian-ruled administrative centres at this time, rather than independent states. The Sumerians were absorbed into the Akkadian population. In the traditions of the Assyrian Church of the East, they are descended from Abraham's grandson, progenitor of the ancient Assyrians.
However, there is no historical basis for the biblical assertion whatsoever. Ashur-uballit I overthrew the Mitanni c. 1365 BC, the Assyrians benefited from this development by taking control of the eastern portion of Mitanni territory, also annexing Hittite, Babylonian and Hurrian territories. The Assyrian people, after the fall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in 609 BC were under the control of the Neo-Babylonian and the Persian Empire, which consumed the entire Neo-Babylonian or "Chaldean" Empire in 539 BC. Assyrians became front line soldiers for the Persian Empire under Xerxes I, playing a major role in the Battle of Marathon under Darius I in 490 BC. Herodotus, whose Histories are the main source of information about that battle, makes no mention of Assyrians in connection with it. Despite the influx of foreign elements, the presence of Assyrians is confirmed by the worship of the god Ashur; the Greeks and Romans had a rather low-level of integration with the local population in Mesopotamia, which allowed their cultures to survive.
The kingdoms of Osrhoene, Adiabene and Assur, which were under Parthian overlordship, had an Assyrian identity. Emerging in Sumer c. 3500 BC, cuneiform writing began a
Marriage law refers to the legal requirements that determine the validity of a marriage, which vary among countries. A marriage, by definition, bestows rights and obligations on the married parties, sometimes on relatives as well, being the sole mechanism for the creation of affinal ties. Over 2.3 million weddings take place in the U. S each year; this means they take a vow to be faithful and committed to one another. Many societies have given sets of rights and obligations to husbands that have been different from the sets of rights and obligations given to wives. In particular, the control of marital property, inheritance rights, the right to dictate the activities of children of the marriage, have been given to male marital partners. However, these practices were curtailed to a great deal in many countries Western countries, in the twentieth century, more modern statutes tend to define the rights and duties of a spouse without reference to gender. In various marriage laws around the world, the husband continues to have authority.
These rights and obligations vary among legal systems and groups within a society, may include: Giving a husband/wife or his/her family control over some portion of a spouse's labor or property. Giving a husband/wife responsibility for some portion of a spouse's debts. Giving a husband/wife visitation rights when his/her spouse is incarcerated or hospitalized. Giving a husband/wife control over his/her spouse's affairs when the spouse is incapacitated. Establishing the second legal guardian of a parent's child. Establishing a joint fund of property for the benefit of children. Establishing a relationship between the families of the spouses. In medieval Europe, marriage came under the jurisdiction of canon law, which recognized as a valid marriage one where the parties stated that they took one another as wife and husband in absence of any witnesses; the Council of Trent ruled that in the future a marriage was only valid in Roman Catholic countries if it was witnessed by a priest of the Roman Catholic Church or, if obtaining a priest were impractical, by other witnesses.
This ruling was not accepted in the newly Protestant nations of Europe, nor by Protestants who lived in Roman Catholic countries or their colonies, nor by Eastern Orthodox Christians. Common-law marriages were abolished in England and Wales by the Marriage Act 1753; the act required marriages to be performed by a priest of the Church of England, unless the participants in the marriage were Jews or Quakers. The Act applied to Ireland after the Act of Union 1800, but the requirement for a valid marriage to be performed by a Church of England priest created special problems in predominantly Roman Catholic Ireland; the law did not provide an exception. The Act did not apply to Scotland because by the Acts of Union 1707, Scotland retained its own legal system. To get around the requirements of the Marriage Act, such as minimum-age requirements, couples would go to Gretna Green in southern Scotland, to get married under Scottish law; the Marriage Act of 1753 did not apply to Britain's overseas colonies of the time, so common-law marriages continued to be recognized in the future United States and Canada.
In the United States, common-law marriages are still recognized in Alabama, Iowa, Montana, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Texas and the District of Columbia, in several Canadian provinces. All countries in Europe have now abolished "marriage by habit and repute", with Scotland being the last to do so in 2006. Australia has recognised de facto relationships since the Family Law Act of 2009. Marriage is an institution, filled with restrictions. From age, to gender, to social status, various restrictions are placed on marriage by communities, religious institutions, legal traditions and states; the minimum age at which a person is able to lawfully marry, whether parental or other consents are required, vary from country to country. In the U. S the minimum age is 18 except for Mississippi. In England and Wales the general age at which a person may marry is 18, but 16- or 17-year-olds may get married with their parents' or guardians' consent. If they are unable to obtain this, they can gain consent from the courts, which may be granted by the Magistrates' Courts, or the County or High Court family divisions.
Legal and religious restrictions apply in all countries on the genders of the couple. In response to changing social and political attitudes, some jurisdictions and religious denominations now recognize marriages between people of the same sex. Other jurisdictions have instead "civil unions" or "domestic partnerships", while additional others explicitly prohibit same-sex marriages. In 1989, Denmark became the first country in the modern era to give same-sex couples the right to formalize their relation as a registered partnership; as of 2015, twenty four countries have come to recognize same-sex marriages for civil purposes, namely the Netherlands, Spain, South Africa, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark, France, New Zealand, United Kingdom, Finland and the United States. Denmark gave same-sex couples the right to marry in 2013, this right extends to a right to get married in the Church of Denmark, although individual priests have the right to refuse to perform such marriages. On June 26, 2015, Supreme Cour
Black lounge suit
The black lounge suit, stroller, or Stresemann, is a men's day attire semi-formal intermediate of a formal morning dress and an informal lounge suit. This makes it identical to the formal morning dress from which it is derived, only having exchanged the morning coat with a suit jacket, yet with equivalent options otherwise, such as necktie or bowtie for neckwear, a waistcoat, French cuffs dress shirt of optional collar type, black dress shoes or dress boots; the correct hat would be bowler, or boater hat. Just as morning dress is considered the formal daytime equivalent of formal evening attire dress coat i e. white tie, so the stroller is considered the semi-formal daytime equivalent of the semi-formal evening attire dinner jacket i.e. black tie. Unlike other dress codes, there is no clear equivalent for women, though typical morning dress and cocktail dress have both been identified as alternatives. For a semi-formal wedding day attire, the groom may dress in a dark-grey suit jacket with a dove-grey or buff waistcoat and optionally a wedding tie.
For a semi-formal funeral day attire, the mourner may wear a matching black jacket and waistcoat with black necktie. In British English it is called black lounge suit. Since black was reserved for formal wear, it was unknown as a colour for lounge suits, so the term was unambiguous, it has been referred to as Marlborough suit in the U. K. In American English, the style is sometimes called a stroller. Around continental Europe, the style is called a Stresemann after the German chancellor Gustav Stresemann of the Weimar Republic, who wore the style as an alternative to morning coat. In Germany it is known as Bonner Anzug after the capital of post World War II Western Germany. However, it is known as director's suit from the term inside director, or citydress. In early 20th century, Gustav Stresemann, like other German politicians of his age, wore morning coat or a frock coat in the Reichstag or when making public appearances. However, Stresemann found the long knee-length coats impractical for daily work in the Chancellery.
To avoid having to change he began to wear the prototype of this jacket at his office, thus giving reason to the style's synonym, while switching to a morning coat when engaged on more formal business. This his style was introduced during the negotiations of the Locarno Treaties in 1925, caught on as a more practical variation of morning dress Winston Churchill is depicted in many photographs and paintings wearing a black lounge suit and striped formal trousers while serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom this mode of dress is now unusual, though the dress code sometimes does occur in fraternal orders such as Freemasonry for semi-formal daytime meetings, it is still worn within the legal profession by barristers. Indeed, the striped formal trouser are in some circles referred to as "barrister trousers"; the stroller's apparent decline in use, as opposed to the staying power of its evening counterpart the dinner jacket, could be attributed to several factors: daytime formality in general, the standard of changing clothes for various occasions, fell out of general use in post-World War II Western culture.
By the late 20th century, fictional characters in media depicted wearing strollers were portrayed as self-important or inflexible snobs in opposition to more sympathetic characters dressed casually. Traditionally, in Continental Europe and the British Commonwealth of Nations, morning dress is worn to formal day events, white tie for formal evening events. However, when both dress codes declined in use in the United States, this affected the use of the stroller. Yet, notably, at his first inauguration in 1981, former U. S. President Ronald Reagan wore a black stroller. In the 1964 Walt Disney film Mary Poppins, the character of Mr. Banks wears a stroller to work every day at the bank. In the long-running BBC sitcom Are You Being Served?, the character Captain Peacock always wore a stroller as the store's floorwalker. Gentlemen's valets of the early 20th century are depicted in television and film wearing strollers as their standard apparel; the character of John Bates of Masterpiece's Downton Abbey appears in a stroller while serving as his lord's valet.
Media related to Stresemann at Wikimedia Commons "Morning Dress," The Black Tie Guide, accessed 14 June 2012. "The Morning Dress Guide," Andrews & Pygott, accessed 21 October 2018
A ball gown, ballgown or gown is a type of evening gown worn to a ball or a formal event. Most versions are cut off the shoulder with a low décolletage, exposed arms, long bouffant styled skirts; such gowns are worn with a stole, cape or cloak in lieu of a coat, couture or vintage jewelry and opera-length gloves. Where "state decorations" are to be worn, they are on a bow pinned to the chest, married women wear a tiara if they have one. Although artificial fabrics are now sometimes used, the most common fabrics are satin, silk and velvet with trimmings of lace, sequins, ruffles, ribbons and ruching. In previous years, the same type of dress might have been called an evening dress, having similar features; the ball gown at this time had similar features, a full skirt supported by a petticoat, a tight waist achieved by a corset or bodice with a stay to keep the subject upright and with perfect posture, off the shoulder style and with bare arms. In the coming years, the introduction of the sewing machine changed the dress market.
Middle-class people could now produce their own dresses and with more quality and efficiency than before when they were made by hand. Upper class members of society might still have had their dresses made by a designer but with the turn around time decreased. Around this time was the introduction of chemical dyes; this changed the range of colors that dresses could be produced in. This time was encompassed within the Romantic period. During this time the crinoline was introduced as well as demure sleeves, which puffed up around the arm. Skirts had developed an overall bell shape but with extra fullness at the back. Skirts lost their front shape and were altered to lay more flat against the body while the sides and back gained fullness with pleating techniques. Oftentimes a long train was attached to the back of the skirt. For the next 10 years the fullness in the back of the skirts increased further with the use of the bustle; the bustle went out of style because it was not needed anymore for the fullness in the back of the dress.
The material instead fell down the back which ended with a long train. The hourglass shape emerged, known for a narrow waist, it was achieved by having a cone-shaped skirt, narrow at the waist and gained fullness near the bottom. After the end of World War II, in 1947, Christian Dior introduced his "New Look" of nipped-in waistlines and full skirts. Ball gowns were worn for private events and parties, but in the mid-20th century, private events turned into public ones; as the century progressed, traditional events become less important while ones like charity events took its place. In 21st century culture and red carpet events are showcases for extravagant gowns to be in the public eye. In Britain, when Elizabeth II terminated formal court events in 1957, the more public events, like a charity ball, arose in popularity because it was open to anyone who could afford to buy a ticket. Designer dresses were part of a designer's collection, having it altered for the wearer. Designers need to know, but if the original wearer decides to wear the dress to another event afterwards, the possibility of matching is increased.
In modern times, designers must understand that their pieces of work will be criticized and praised as a result of the internet and paparazzi. The first forms of the 21st century term “Debutante ball” or “Cotillion” emerged in the mid 19th century with what was called a “coming out ball”; these events were meant to show off the women. Traditionally the debutantes will wear all white, but with varying styles of dress. While the style of dress can vary and sleeveless variations are popular and are worn with long white gloves and can be accessorized with bouquets, sometimes a fan. For most of the 19th century, a headdress with veiling was a popular style as well as a full train attached at the waist and in years it would attach to the shoulders; the traditional ideals of the debutante ball vary based on location in the USA. The debutantes in New Orleans could be seen wearing jeweled crowns and dresses with Medici collars with elongated trains. Texas has variations within its various regions. In Laredo, middle class debutantes wear beaded suede garments.
In San Antonio, the dresses are of elaborate colors and covered in beads of different designs. The beads add extensive weight having some dresses weigh in at about 75 lbs. Another coming of age event is the Quinceanera, an event in Latin American cultures when a girl turns 15, their gowns are very brightly colored and resemble traditional ball gowns with full ruffled or ruched skirts. In 1912, Hellen Taft along with collection founders Cassie Mason Myers Julian-James, Rose Gouverneur Hoes, the Smithsonian Institution started the “First Ladies Collection.” It is customary for the first lady of a new president to donate the dress she wears to the inauguration ball but it is not required. Every first lady is represented in the collection. Mrs. Taft started this tradition when she donated her dress that she wore during President Taft's inauguration; the dresses were added to the collection after the first lady had left office but in 1955 the publics uproar to see Mamie Eisenhower's inaugural dress was so strong that the Smithsonian changed their policy and added her dress not waiting until she left office.
Ball Ballerina skirt Crinoline Clothing terminology Dress codes Wallace, Carol
Glossary of French expressions in English
Around 45% of English vocabulary is of French origin, most coming from the Anglo-Norman spoken by the upper classes in England for several hundred years after the Norman Conquest, before the language settled into what became Modern English. English words of French origin, such as art, force, money, publicity, role and table, are pronounced according to English rules of phonology, rather than French, are used by English speakers without any consciousness of their French origin; this article, on the other hand, covers French words and phrases that have entered the English lexicon without losing their character as Gallicisms: they remain unmistakably "French" to an English speaker. They are most common in written English, where they retain French diacritics and are printed in italics. In spoken English, at least some attempt is made to pronounce them as they would sound in French; some of them were never "good French", in the sense of being idiomatic French usage. Some others were once normal French but have become old-fashioned, or have acquired different meanings and connotations in the original language, to the extent that they would not be understood by a native French speaker.
À gogo in abundance. In French this is colloquial. À la short for à la manière de. À propos regarding/concerning accouchement confinement during childbirth. Aide-de-camp lit. "camp helper". "memory aid". "Let's go!" The letter "y" is the place. Amour propre "Self-love", Self-respect. Amuse-bouche or amuse-gueule lit. "mouth-amuser". In France, the exact expression used is amuse-gueule, gueule being slang for mouth, although the expression in itself is not vulgar; the expression refers to a small mouthful of food, served at the discretion of the chef before a meal as an hors d'oeuvre or between main courses. Ancien régime a sociopolitical or other system that no longer exists, an allusion to pre-revolutionary France aperçu preview. Apéritif or aperitif lit. " opening the appetite", a before-meal drink. In colloquial French, un apéritif is shortened to un apéro. Appellation contrôlée supervised use of a name. For the conventional use of the term, see Appellation d'origine contrôlée appetence 1. A natural craving or desire 2.
An attraction or affinity. Après moi, le déluge lit. "After me, the deluge", a remark attributed to Louis XV of France in reference to the impending end of a functioning French monarchy and predicting the French Revolution. It is derived from Madame de Pompadour's après nous, le déluge, "after us, the deluge"; the Royal Air Force No. 617 Squadron, famously known as the "Dambusters", uses this as its motto. Arête a narrow ridge. In French fishbone. Armoire a type of cabinet. Arrière-pensée ulterior motive. Art nouveau a style of architecture of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it takes a capital in French. Attaché a person attached to an embassy. Au contraire on the contrary. Au courant up-to-date. Au fait being conversant in or with, or instructed in or with. Au gratin "with gratings", anything, grated onto a food dish. In English, specifically'with cheese'. Au jus lit. "with juice", referring to a food course served with sauce. Redundantly formulated, as in'Open-faced steak sandwich, served with au jus.'
No longer used in French, except for the colloquial, être au jus. au naturel 1. A. Nude. b. In a natural state: an au naturel hairstyle. 2. Cooked simply. Au pair a young foreigner who does domestic chores in exchange for board. In France, those chores are child care/education. Au revoir! "See you later!" In French, a contraction of Au plaisir de vous revoir. Avant-garde applied to cutting-edge or radically innovative movements in art and literature. Avant la lettre used to describe something or someone seen as a forerunner of something before that something was recognized and named, e.g. "a post-modernist avant la lettre", "a feminist avant la lettre". The expression means "before the letter", i.e. "before it had a name". The French modern form of this expression is avant l'heure. Avoirdupois used in Mid