The Tagus is the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula. It is 1,007 km long, 716 km in Spain, 47 km along the border between Portugal and Spain and 275 km in Portugal, where it empties into the Atlantic Ocean near Lisbon, it drains an area of 80,100 square kilometers. The Tagus is utilized for most of its course. Several dams and diversions supply drinking water to places of central Spain and Portugal, while dozens of hydroelectric stations create power. Between dams it follows a constricted course, but after Almourol it enters a wide alluvial valley, prone to flooding, its mouth is a large estuary near the port city of Lisbon. The source of the Tagus is the Fuente de García, in the Frías de Albarracín municipal term, Montes Universales, Sistema Ibérico, Sierra de Albarracín Comarca. All its major tributaries enter the Tagus from the right bank; the main cities it passes through are Aranjuez, Talavera de la Reina and Alcántara in Spain, Abrantes, Santarém, Almada and Lisbon in Portugal. The first notable city on the Tagus is Sacedón.
Below Aranjuez it receives the combined flow of the Jarama, Henares and Tajuña. Below Toledo it receives the Guadarrama River. Above Talavera de la Reina it receives the Alberche. At Valdeverdeja is the upper end of the long upper reservoir, the Embalse de Valdecañas, beyond which are the Embalse de Torrejon, into which flow the Tiétar, the lower reservoir, the Alcántara Dam into which flows the Alagón at the lower end. There is the Segura, the Tagus-Segura Water Transfer. After forming the border it enters Portugal, passing Vila Velha de Ródão, Constância, Santarém and Vila Franca de Xira at the head of the long narrow estuary, which has Lisbon at its mouth; the estuary is protected by the Tagus Estuary Natural Reserve. There is a large bridge across the river, the Vasco da Gama Bridge, which with a total length of 17.2 km is the second longest bridge in Europe. The Port of Lisbon, located at its mouth, is one of Europe's busiest; the Portuguese Alentejo region and former Ribatejo Province take their names from the river.
In Spanish Riba shore along of a river. Ribatejo should mean "The land beside the Tejo" or "The shore of the Tejo" you can see too many samples of towns in Spain with this prefix; the lower Tagus is on a fault line. Slippage along it has caused numerous earthquakes, the major ones being those of 1309, 1531 and 1755; the Pepper Wreck, properly the wreck of the Nossa Senhora dos Mártires, is a shipwreck located and excavated at the mouth of the Tagus between 1996 and 2001. The river had strategic value to the Spanish and Portuguese empires, as it guarded the approach to Lisbon. For example, in 1587, Francis Drake approached the river after his successful raid at Cadiz. A major river, the Tagus is brought to mind in the stories of the Portuguese. A popular fado song in Lisbon notes; the author, Fernando Pessoa, wrote a poem that begins: "The Tagus is more beautiful than the river that flows through my village. But the Tagus is not more beautiful than the river that flows through my village..."Richard Crashaw's poem "Saint Mary Magdalene, or the Weeper" refers to the "Golden" Tagus as wanting Mary Magdalene's silver tears.
In classical poetry the Tagus was famous for its gold-bearing sands. List of rivers of Spain List of rivers of Portugal
Lisbon is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 505,526 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Its urban area extends beyond the city's administrative limits with a population of around 2.8 million people, being the 11th-most populous urban area in the European Union. About 3 million people live including the Portuguese Riviera, it is the only one along the Atlantic coast. Lisbon lies in the western Iberian Peninsula on the River Tagus; the westernmost areas of its metro area form the westernmost point of Continental Europe, known as Cabo da Roca, located in the Sintra Mountains. Lisbon is recognised as an alpha-level global city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group because of its importance in finance, media, arts, international trade and tourism. Lisbon is the only Portuguese city besides Porto to be recognised as a global city, it is one of the major economic centres on the continent, with a growing financial sector and one of the largest container ports on Europe's Atlantic coast.
Additionally, Humberto Delgado Airport served 26.7 million passengers in 2017, being the busiest airport in Portugal, the 3rd busiest in the Iberian Peninsula and the 20th busiest in Europe, the motorway network and the high-speed rail system of Alfa Pendular links the main cities of Portugal to Lisbon. The city is the 9th-most-visited city in Southern Europe, after Rome, Barcelona, Venice, Madrid and Athens, with 3,320,300 tourists in 2017; the Lisbon region contributes with a higher GDP PPP per capita than any other region in Portugal. Its GDP amounts to thus $32,434 per capita; the city occupies the 40th place of highest gross earnings in the world. Most of the headquarters of multinational corporations in Portugal are located in the Lisbon area, it is the political centre of the country, as its seat of Government and residence of the Head of State. Lisbon is one of the oldest cities in the world, one of the oldest in Western Europe, predating other modern European capitals such as London and Rome by centuries.
Julius Caesar made it. Ruled by a series of Germanic tribes from the 5th century, it was captured by the Moors in the 8th century. In 1147, the Crusaders under Afonso Henriques reconquered the city and since it has been a major political and cultural centre of Portugal. Unlike most capital cities, Lisbon's status as the capital of Portugal has never been granted or confirmed – by statute or in written form, its position as the capital has formed through constitutional convention, making its position as de facto capital a part of the Constitution of Portugal. One claim repeated in non-academic literature is that the name of Lisbon can be traced back to Phoenician times, referring to a Phoenician term Alis-Ubo, meaning "safe harbour". Roman authors of the first century AD referred to popular legends that the city of Lisbon was founded by the mythical hero Odysseus on his journey home from Troy. Although modern archaeological excavations show a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, neither of these folk etymologies has any historical credibility.
Lisbon's origin may in fact derive from Proto-Celtic or Celtic Olisippo, Lissoppo, or a similar name which other visiting peoples like the Ancient Phoenicians and Romans adapted accordingly. The name of the settlement may be derived from the pre-Roman appellation for the Tagus River, Lisso or Lucio. Lisbon's name was written Ulyssippo in Latin by a native of Hispania, it was referred to as "Olisippo" by Pliny the Elder and by the Greeks as Olissipo or Olissipona. Lisbon's name is abbreviated to'LX' or'Lx', originating in an antiquated spelling of Lisbon as ‘’Lixbõa’’. While the old spelling has since been dropped from usage and goes against modern language standards, the abbreviation is still used. During the Neolithic period, the region was inhabited by Pre-Celtic tribes, who built religious and funerary monuments, megaliths and menhirs, which still survive in areas on the periphery of Lisbon; the Indo-European Celts invaded in the 1st millennium BC, mixing with the Pre-Indo-European population, thus giving rise to Celtic-speaking local tribes such as the Cempsi.
Although the first fortifications on Lisbon's Castelo hill are known to be no older than the 2nd century BC, recent archaeological finds have shown that Iron Age people occupied the site from the 8th to 6th centuries BC. This indigenous settlement maintained commercial relations with the Phoenicians, which would account for the recent findings of Phoenician pottery and other material objects. Archaeological excavations made near the Castle of São Jorge and Lisbon Cathedral indicate a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, it can be stated with confidence that a Phoenician trading post stood on a site now the centre of the present city, on the southern slope of the Castle hill; the sheltered harbour in the Tagus River estuary was an ideal spot for an Iberian settlement and would have provided a secure harbour for unloading and provisioning Phoenician ships. The Tagus settlement was an important centre of commercial trade with the inland tribes, providing an outlet for the valuable metals and salted-fish they collected, for the sale of the Lusitanian horses renowned in antiquity.
Garrison Border Town of Elvas and its Fortifications
The Garrison Border Town of Elvas and its Fortifications is a Unesco World Heritage Site, inscribed in the World Heritage list in 2012. Elvas is a Portuguese city in Alentejo, near the Portuguese-Spanish border; the site, extensively fortified from the 17th to 19th centuries, represents the largest bulwarked dry ditch system in the world. Within its walls, the town contains barracks and other military buildings as well as churches and monasteries. While Elvas contains remains dating back to the 10th century, its fortification began during the Portuguese Restoration War; the fortifications played a major role in the Battle of the Lines of Elvas in 1659. The fortifications were designed by Flemish Jesuit Padre João Piscásio Cosmander and represent the best surviving example of the Dutch school of fortifications anywhere; the site consists the following: Amoreira Aqueduct, built to withstand long sieges. Historic Centre Fort of Santa Luzia and the covered way Nossa Senhora da Graça Fort Fortlet of São Mamede Fortlet of São Pedro Fortlet of São Domingos UNESCO, Garrison Border Town of Elvas and its Fortifications
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Socialist Party (Portugal)
The Socialist Party is a social-democratic political party in Portugal. It was founded on 19 April 1973 in the German city of Bad Münstereifel, by militants from the Portuguese Socialist Action; the PS is one of the two major parties in Portuguese politics, its rival being the centre-right Social Democratic Party. The current leader of the PS is the Prime Minister of Portugal; the party has 86 of 230 seats in the Portuguese Parliament following the October 2015 election, forming a minority government. PS is a member of the Socialist International, Progressive Alliance and Party of European Socialists, has eight members in the European Parliament within the Socialists & Democrats Group during the eighth parliament; the Socialist Party was created at a conference of Portuguese Socialist Action, at that time in exile, on 19 April 1973, in Bad Münstereifel in West Germany. The twenty-seven delegates decided to found a party of socialism and freedom, making an explicit reference to a classless society and without Marxism, redesigned as a source of principal inspiration.
On 25 April 1974, the Carnation Revolution brought down the authoritarian regime of the Estado Novo, established in 1933, democracy was restored. The general secretary of the PS, Mário Soares, returned to Portugal after being in exile in France, became Minister of Foreign Affairs, António de Almeida Santos was appointed Minister of Interjurisdictional Coordination in one of the first provisional governments. After the Revolution, elections were called for 25 April 1975 and the Socialist Party won the 1975 election for the Constituent Assembly and the 1976 elections for the National Assembly losing to the Democratic Alliance in the 1979 legislative election. In 1980, the PS made an electoral alliance called the Republican and Socialist Front, between the Independent Social Democrats, led by Sousa Franco, the Leftwing Union for the Socialist Democracy, led by Lopes Cardoso; the alliance failed to defeat the AD. They won the 1983 general election, but without an absolute majority, the Socialists formed a grand coalition with the centre-right Social Democratic Party, creating a "Central Block".
The new government began negotiations for Portugal to enter the European Economic Community. In 1985 the Central Block broke down and the PS at the time led by Almeida Santos, lost the 1985 legislative election. Cavaco Silva's PSD won the 1985 elections and again in 1991 with absolute majority; the PS was in opposition for more than ten years. In 1995, the Socialist Party led by António Guterres, won a general election for the first time in twelve years, in 1999, they failed to obtain what would have been an historic absolute majority for the party by only one MP. In 2001, after a massive defeat in the 2001 local elections, António Guterres resigned as Prime Minister and called for new elections in 2002; the Socialist Party lost the 2002 general election by a small margin to the PSD, who formed a coalition government with the People's Party. In June 2004, the PS won the 2004 European elections by a landslide, a few weeks Durão Barroso, leader of the PSD and Prime Minister, resigned to become President of the European Commission.
In December 2004, Jorge Sampaio, President of the Republic, called fresh elections for February 2005. These elections resulted in a landslide victory for the PS, winning for the first time since its foundation an absolute majority. José Sócrates, leader of the PS, became Prime Minister. In 2009, after four-and-a-half years in power, the PS lost the European Parliament elections to the PSD. However, they won the general election held on 27 September but failed to renew the absolute majority they won in the 2005 election; the PS introduced and legislated same-sex marriage. The financial crisis of 2011 hit Portugal hard, prompting Sócrates' government to impose harsh austerity measures. On 23 March 2011, the entire opposition in Parliament said no to new measures proposed by the government; as a result of this, José Sócrates resigned as Prime Minister and a snap election took place on 5 June 2011. In the elections, the PS suffered a huge setback, with 28.1% of the vote, ten points behind the PSD, who formed another coalition government with the CDS-PP.
Sócrates resigned as General Secretary on election night after the PS's worst result since 1987. On 23 July 2011, António José Seguro was elected as Sócrates' successor; the PS, under the leadership of Seguro, won the 2013 local elections making significant gains over the PSD and the Socialists again won the European elections on May 2014 but this time only just. They won 31.5% of the vote against the 28% of the alliance between the PSD and CDS-PP. The result was considered quite a disappointment to many Socialist party members and supporters and on May 27 António Costa, the mayor of Lisbon, announced that he would stand for the leadership of the Socialist Party. António José Seguro refused to call a new congress and leadership election and instead called for a primary election, to be held on 28 September, to elect the party's candidate for Prime Minister in the 2015 general elections. António Costa defeated António José Seguro in the primaries by a 67% to 31% margin. In the 2015 legislative elections, the PS polled a disappointing second place, capturing just 32% of the votes against the 38.6% of the PSD/CDS-PP coalition called Portugal Ahead.
Despite the victory of the PSD/CDS-PP coalition, the centre-left and left-wing parties achieved a clear majority in Parliament. After the second Passos Coelho cabinet fell in Parliament, with the approval of a no-confidence motion, the P
Olivenza or Olivença is a town situated on a disputed section of the Portugal–Spain border. Its territory is administered by Spain as a municipality belonging to the province of Badajoz, to the wider autonomous community of Extremadura. Portugal does not recognise the Spanish sovereignty over the territory, based on its interpretation of the rulings of the 1815 Congress of Vienna, holds a claim over it; as Olivença, the town was under Portuguese sovereignty between 1297 and 1801 when it was invaded by the Spanish during the War of the Oranges and ceded to Spain that year under the Treaty of Badajoz. Spain has since administered the territory, whilst Portugal invokes the self-revocation of the Treaty of Badajoz, plus the Treaty of Vienna of 1815, to claim the return of the territory. In spite of the territorial dispute between Portugal and Spain, the issue has not been a sensitive matter in the relations between these two countries. Olivenza and other neighbouring Spanish and Portuguese towns reached an agreement in 2008 to create a euroregion.
Olivenza is located on the left bank of the Guadiana river, at an equal distance of 24 kilometres south of Elvas in Portugal and Badajoz in Spain. The territory is triangular, with a smaller side resting on the Guadiana and the opposite vertex entering south-east and surrounded by Spanish territory. By an agreement between Spain and Portugal, the left bank of the river was recognized as being Portuguese territory, sets de facto border in that area. Besides the town, the municipality of Olivenza includes six villages: San Francisco, San Rafael, Santo Domingo de Guzman, San Benito de la Contienda, San Jorge de Alor. Another village, Táliga, was detached to become the seat of a separate municipality in 1850. Total population is 10,762; the total area is 750 square kilometres. Like the surrounding regions, population density is low, at 11 inhabitants per km²; some monuments include the Saint Mary of the Castle Church, Holy Ghost Chapel, Saint Mary Magdalene Church, Saint John of God Monastery, the keep, the ruins of the Our Lady of Help Bridge.
There are still traces of Portuguese culture and language in the people, although the younger generations speak Spanish only. At the beginning of the 1940s the city was mainly Portuguese-speaking, but after the 1940s a language shift towards Spanish took place. 1170 – Olivenza region falls for the first time into Portuguese hands during the conquests of Afonso Henriques, the first king of Portugal. 1189 – Muslims retake the region. 1230 – The Olivenza area is taken from the Muslims by King Alfonso IX of León. 1259 – The Knights Templar established in the nearby town of Alconchel, create the first settlement that can be identified as the origin of the town of Olivenza. The Templars built the first church of the town. 1278 – Olivenza and the surrounding area is granted by King Alfonso X of Castile and León to the Bishopric and Council of Badajoz, taking it back from the Knights Templar. 1297 – After the critical situation created in Castile with the death of King Sancho IV, King Dinis of Portugal forces King Ferdinand IV to sign the Treaty of Alcañices and cede, amongst other possessions, Olivenza to Portugal.
1298 – King Denis of Portugal grants Olivenza a foral, new city walls are built. 1510 – King Manuel I of Portugal renews the town charter and orders the building of fortifications and the Olivença Bridge over the Guadiana River, on the road to Elvas. Construction of Santa Maria Madalena Church begins; this church would be the residence of the Bishop of Ceuta for many years. 1668 – Treaty of Lisbon between Spain and Portugal reaffirms the borders defined in the Treaty of Alcanizes of 1297. 1709 – During the War of the Spanish Succession, the Ponte da Ajuda Bridge is destroyed by Spanish forces. Its ruins remain until today. 1801 29 January 1801 – France, allied to Spain, demands Portugal, British ally since the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1373, to enter into an alliance with France in the war against Britain. Portugal refuses. 27 February 1801 – The brief War of the Oranges begins, with the French troops marching on Portugal followed by Spanish troops. 20 May 1801 – Spanish troops occupy, among other towns, Olivenza.
6 June 1801 – The war is over with the simultaneous signing of two treaties in Badajoz, the first between France and Portugal, the second between Spain and Portugal. As both treaties mention each other and share common clauses, they are referred to as just the Treaty of Badajoz. Under one of the terms of the Treaty, Spain gives back all the occupied towns except those on the left bank of the Guadiana river, which are ceded by Portugal to Spain, including its inhabitants, on a'perpetua