Electronic mail is a method of exchanging messages between people using electronic devices. Invented by Ray Tomlinson, email first entered limited use in the 1960s and by the mid-1970s had taken the form now recognized as email. Email operates across computer networks, which today is the Internet; some early email systems required the author and the recipient to both be online at the same time, in common with instant messaging. Today's email systems are based on a store-and-forward model. Email servers accept, forward and store messages. Neither the users nor their computers are required to be online simultaneously. An ASCII text-only communications medium, Internet email was extended by Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions to carry text in other character sets and multimedia content attachments. International email, with internationalized email addresses using UTF-8, has been standardized, but as of 2017 it has not been adopted; the history of modern Internet email services reaches back to the early ARPANET, with standards for encoding email messages published as early as 1973.
An email message sent in the early 1970s looks similar to a basic email sent today. The term electronic mail was used generically for any electronic document transmission. For example, several writers in the early 1970s used the term to refer to fax document transmission; as a result, it is difficult to find the first citation for the use of the term with the more specific meaning it has today. Electronic mail has been most called email or e-mail since around 1993, but several variations of the spelling have been used: email is now the most common form used, recommended by style guides, it is the form required by IETF Requests for working groups. This spelling appears in most dictionaries. E-mail is the form, favored in edited, published American English and British English writing as reflected in the Corpus of Contemporary American English data, but is falling out of favor in some style guides. Mail was the form used in the original protocol standard, RFC 524; the service is referred to as mail, a single piece of electronic mail is called a message.
EMail is a traditional form, used in RFCs for the "Author's Address" and is expressly required "for historical reasons". E-mail is sometimes used, capitalizing the initial E as in similar abbreviations like E-piano, E-guitar, A-bomb, H-bomb. An Internet e-mail consists of an content. Computer-based mail and messaging became possible with the advent of time-sharing computers in the early 1960s, informal methods of using shared files to pass messages were soon expanded into the first mail systems. Most developers of early mainframes and minicomputers developed similar, but incompatible, mail applications. Over time, a complex web of gateways and routing systems linked many of them. Many US universities were part of the ARPANET, which aimed at software portability between its systems. In 1971 the first ARPANET network email was sent, introducing the now-familiar address syntax with the'@' symbol designating the user's system address; the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol protocol was introduced in 1981.
For a time in the late 1980s and early 1990s, it seemed that either a proprietary commercial system or the X.400 email system, part of the Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile, would predominate. However, once the final restrictions on carrying commercial traffic over the Internet ended in 1995, a combination of factors made the current Internet suite of SMTP, POP3 and IMAP email protocols the standard; the diagram to the right shows a typical sequence of events that takes place when sender Alice transmits a message using a mail user agent addressed to the email address of the recipient. The MUA formats the message in email format and uses the submission protocol, a profile of the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, to send the message content to the local mail submission agent, in this case smtp.a.org. The MSA determines the destination address provided in the SMTP protocol — in this case, email@example.com —, a qualified domain address. The part before the @ sign is the local part of the address the username of the recipient, the part after the @ sign is a domain name.
The MSA resolves a domain name to determine the qualified domain name of the mail server in the Domain Name System. The DNS server for the domain b.org responds with any MX records listing the mail exchange servers for that domain, in this case mx.b.org, a message transfer agent server run by the recipient's ISP. smtp.a.org sends the message to mx.b.org using SMTP. This server may need to forward the message to other MTAs before the message reaches the final message delivery agent; the MDA delivers it to the mailbox of user bob. Bob's MUA picks up the message using either the Post Office Protocol or the Internet Message Access Protocol. In addition to this example and complications exist in the email system: Alice or Bob may use a client connected to a corporate email system, such as IBM Lotus Notes or Microsoft Exchange; these systems have their own internal email format and their clients communicate with the email server using a vendor-specific, proprietary protocol. The server sends or receives email via the Internet through the product's Internet mail gateway which does any necessary reformatting
Francisco António de Araújo e Azevedo was a Portuguese military officer and colonial administrator. Reaching the rank of brigadier, he was part of the king's council, before holding the position as 7th Captain-General of the Captaincy-General of the Azores. Francisco was part of the House of Sá e Lage, of Ponte de Lima, was the brother of António de Araújo e Azevedo, first Count of Barca, an influential politician of the time. Francisco António was nominated as 7th Captain-general of the Captaincy of the Azores on 20 August 1816, disembarking in Terceira on 11 May 1817: he took-up his office on 14 May 1817, he began his mandate by promoting the development agriculture through the Junta de Melhoramentos Agrícolas of modern agricultural practices, such as rotating crops and fallow lands. Many of the local farmers did not appreciate these practices, assuming that there were ulterior motives, destroyed hedgerows and fences; the governor had troops impose his orders. He ordered the culling of goats that were in empty lots, in order to control herds and transform agriculture from a subsistence to commercial enterprise.
These measures were badly interpreted by the general population, who developed a hate for him, referring to Captain-General as the mata-cabras. Fearing that the diplomatic crisis between Portugal and Spain, resulting from the Portuguese conquest of the Banda Oriental by Portuguese troops in 1817, would result in possible reprisals against the Azores, he promoted not only a thorough reform of the military structures in the archipelago, but the restoration and construction of new forts, he obliged soldiers and workers to complete military roads, constructing bridges and munition depots, imposing daily military exercises. These intense efforts had a demoralizing effect on the populace, in São Jorge, recruits cut their index fingers in order to avoid service, it was during his tenure that the sumptuous Church of São João Baptista, whose riches had expanded during the stay of King Afonso VI, was destroyed by fire. The following year he visited São Miguel, because of the unpopularity of the Captains-General he was obliged to stay in the municipal hall during his stay.
Owing to this rancore, many of his orders from Terceira were never obeyed, he was forced to advance with construction plans for the islands defenses. At the same time, he promoted the expansion of the first roadway from Ribeira Quente to Furnas. Between 1820 and 1821 he resided in the Palácio Bettencourt, constructed in the late 17th and early 18th century becoming the seat of government. Having led the Constitutional Revolt in Angra that deposed his successor, Francisco de Borja Garção Stockler, he was killed in a counter-revolution that occurred on 3–4 April 1821, he was buried in the church of the Fortress of São João Baptista on Monte Brasil, but his remains were transferred to the cemetery of Livramento in Angra do Heroísmo. Faria, Manuel Augusto, "Plantas dos Fortes da Ilha Terceira", Atlântida, LXV, pp. 154–171 Bento, Carlos Melo, História dos Açores: Da descoberta a 1934, Ponta Delgada, Portugal: Câmara Municipal de Ponta Delgada
Lake Ouachita is a reservoir created by the damming of the Ouachita River by Blakely Mountain Dam. Blakely Mountain Dam was built by the United States Army Corps of Engineers from 1948 to 1953 for hydroelectric power, water supply and wildlife conservation; the dam is 231 feet tall, 1,100 feet long at the crest, is capable of 75 megawatts. The lake is located near Arkansas. Lake Ouachita is the largest lake in Arkansas, as the larger Bull Shoals Lake extends into Missouri. Lake Ouachita has over 66,324 acres of water, it is surrounded by the Ouachita National Forest. Lake Ouachita is located near Lake Hamilton and Lake Catherine; these three lakes, DeGray Lake to the near south, the thermal springs of Hot Springs National Park make Hot Springs a popular tourist getaway. Largemouth Bass, Small Mouth Bass, Spotted Bass, Crappie, Catfish and world class Trophy Striped Bass await the angler. Lake Ouachita has rare jellyfish and sponges found in few freshwater lakes. Scuba divers from all over the world enjoy the underwater experience as well as the special spear fishing season.
The original purpose of Lake Ouachita was flood hydroelectricity. One feature by the Corps of Engineers is the Geo-Float Trail, a marked trail which can be followed with a brochure which details prominent geological features along the route. Lake Ouachita features one of the largest crystal veins in the world. Vegetation covers 10% of the lake. Lake Ouachita's vegetation is being addressed by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission, the Lake Ouachita Association to control the hydrilla and Eurasian watermilfoil; the goal of the project is to contain and reduce — not to eradicate — the vegetation, since the presence of aquatic vegetation in moderate amounts is beneficial to the lake's fishery. Treatment will be concentrated on high recreational use areas, such as swimming beaches, around marinas and popular boating areas. Areas of the lake with good fish habitat will not be treated. List of Arkansas dams and reservoirs Corps of Engineers – Lake Ouachita http://www.lakeouachita.org http://www.arkansasstripers.com http://lakeouachitavistatrail.org
Bruno Lawrence was a British and New Zealand musician and actor. Notable as a musician and founder of 1970s ensemble Blerta, he went on to well-regarded roles in several major films, his television work included starring in 1990s era Australian satirical series Frontline. Born David Charles Lawrence in Worthing, West Sussex, England, he migrated with his family to New Zealand in 1946, settling in New Plymouth before moving to Wellington in 1948. Lawrence spent most of his life in New Zealand, but worked extensively in Australia, he was a jazz and rock drummer in many bands, including two years with Max Merritt & The Meteors in Sydney, Quincy Conserve and The Crocodiles. His last recording was with Bernie McGann, Larry Gales and Jonathan Crayford on "Jazz at the St. James" in 1989. A remarkable show, it was repeated in 1990, this time with Vince Jones on vocals, Dave Addis on saxophone, Jonathan Crayford on piano, Rolf Stube on bass and added the New Zealand String Quartet. In the early 1970s, Lawrence founded Blerta.
The multi and theatrical co-operative in parts of Australia. Blerta saw him performing alongside many people he would work with as an actor, including director Geoff Murphy, actors Martyn Sanderson and Ian Watkin. Lawrence began acting in short films in the late 1960s, he won his first acting award, for television play Time Out, in 1971, although at this point music took up the majority of his time. By the late 1980s he had become one of New Zealand's most recognised actors on his own soil. Between 1981 and 1986 he was a much loved feature of many local films. Lawrence's breakthrough movie role was relationship drama Smash Palace. Playing the former race car driver who leaves with his daughter after the breakdown of his marriage, Bruno won an award at the Manila Film Festival, acclaim from American critic Pauline Kael. Further acclaim came with his leading role as the lone scientist in Geoff Murphy's end of the world tale, The Quiet Earth, for which Bruno helped write the script, he had earlier acted in Murphy's Utu, about the New Zealand Wars of the 1860s, cameoed in his breakthrough film Goodbye Pork Pie.
The Los Angeles Times compared his work in 1984 drama Heart of the Stag to that of "a young Brando". Bruno's Australian roles included Anthony Hopkins movie Spotswood, Colleen McCullough adaptation An Indecent Obsession, 1986 miniseries The Great Bookie Robbery. In 1990, he portrayed John Peterson in The Rogue Stallion, his last and, at least in Australia, best-known screen role was as devious, golf-loving TV producer Brian Thompson in 1990s satirical TV series Frontline. In 1994 while enjoying the success of the Australian television series Frontline, Lawrence was diagnosed with inoperable lung cancer, he died in Wellington, New Zealand on the 10th of June 1995 at the age of 54. A biography, Bruno: The Bruno Lawrence Story by Roger Booth, television documentary Numero Bruno, cover his life and work. Lawrence is featured in compilation documentary Blerta Revisited. Blerta, "Bruno Lawrence's Electric Revelation and Travelling Apparition" This is a selection of notable appearances. Wild Man - Wild Man Goodbye Pork Pie - Mulvaney A Woman of Good Character - Younger Son Smash Palace - Al Shaw Beyond Reasonable Doubt - Pat Vesey Race for the Yankee Zephyr - Barker Warlords of the 21st Century - Willie Carry Me Back - Motorway Traffic Cop Utu - Williamson Prisoners - Peeky Wild Horses - Tyson Heart of the Stag - Peter Death Warmed Up - Tex Pallet on the Floor - Ronald Hugh Morrieson An Indecent Obsession - Matt Sawyer The Quiet Earth - Zac Hobson Bridge to Nowhere - Mac Initiation - Nat Molloy Rikky and Pete - Sonny As Time Goes By - Ryder Grievous Bodily Harm - Det.
Sgt. Ray Birch The Delinquents - Bosun Spotswood - Robert, Carey's Father Jack Be Nimble - Teddy Gino - Mr. Palizetti Time Out Pukemanu - Biker Special Squad - Arthur Poole Pokerface - Ray'Creepy' Crawley The Great Bookie Robbery - Cracka Park The Rainbow Warrior Conspiracy - Alan Galbraith The Feds - Larry'Icehouse' Porter Frontline - Brian Thompson Bruno Lawrence on IMDb Bruno Lawrence on NZ On Screen Bruno Lawrence on australianscreen online AudioCulture profile
Marienthal Abbey (German: Kloster Marienthal was a Franziscan monastery in the Westerwald in the present-day county of Altenkirchen in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Today Marienthal is a village in the municipality of Seelbach bei Hamm. On 30 June 2011 it had a population of 55. Andachtsbüchlein für Pilger zum Gnadenort Marienthal nebst einer gedrängten Geschichte der Kirche des Klosters u. des Gnadenbildes: Maria, du schmerzhafte Mutter... bitt für uns!. Stahlstich. - Linz a. Rh.: Krumscheid, nicht vor 1853. Digitalised publication of the University and State Library Düsseldorf Jakob Wirtz: Fünfhundert Jahre Marienthal bei Hamm an der Sieg. 2nd edition, Werl, 1928. Gabriel Busch: Hilgenroth/Marienthal. Zwei Wallfahrtsorte, Siegburg, 1982. Daniel Schneider: Die Entwicklung der Konfessionen in der Grafschaft Sayn im Grundriss, in: Heimat-Jahrbuch des Kreises Altenkirchen 58, pp. 74–80. Daniel Schneider: Die Geschichte der Ortsgemeinde Obererbach. Die Ortschaften Hacksen, Obererbach und Koberstein vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart.
Obererbach, 2009, ISBN 978-3-00-027494-7. Klostergastronomie Marienthal
Steptoe and Son in Murder at Oil Drum Lane is a play written by Ray Galton and John Antrobus that brought the Steptoe and Son saga to an end. It was first performed in 2005; the title of the play was borrowed from the Swedish 1982 play Albert & Herbert: Mordet på Skolgatan 15 by Sten-Åke Cederhök, although in this play, the murder refers not to Albert but to their home in Haga, Gothenburg. Steptoe and Son had been a successful British sitcom in the 1970s. Ray Galton had been one of the two writers of the original series, he co-wrote this play, it brought an end to the Steptoe and Son saga, explaining the two protagonists' lives together and their deaths. The year is 2005. Steptoe's old house is now the property of the National Trust. Harold Steptoe, now in his 70s, gets shut in after closing time. Through his monologue, the audience discovers that he killed his father by throwing a spear at him when he was sitting on the toilet. Since he has been living in secret in Rio de Janeiro. While pondering his old home, the ghost of his father, Albert, re-appears.
Albert explains that he has been trapped in this house with the "poncy" National Trust man, that the only thing that Albert needs to get into heaven is an apology from Harold. But Harold refuses to give it. Most of the story is told in flashback. Albert refused forcing him into a life of no education. Albert forced Harold to take the blame for looting in the Blitz. Albert stopped him going to the D-Day landings. Albert had locked him in a secret compartment throughout the war; when the war ends, Harold is sent to fight in the Malayas. When he returns, Albert continues to ruin his life. In an attempt to be rid of Albert forever, Harold plans to emigrate to New Zealand with his fiancée, Joyce. Albert ruins it by telling them. Harold sets off for New Albert gets him arrested by framing him as a thief; when Harold gets out of jail, Albert thwarts all his attempts to get a girlfriend. Harold is mad at Albert until he discovers that in all the junk he has a copy of the Gutenberg Bible, worth £3 million. Harold runs off to celebrate.
Albert is not so happy. In the next scene, Harold returns home to find the Bible missing, presumes his father has destroyed it. In a fit of rage he throws a spear at the toilet door. At that moment, Albert is stabbed by the spear; the flashbacks end. Harold finds it in his heart to forgive Albert, it is that he has a heart attack and becomes a ghost along with Albert. The next morning, his body is discovered, Joyce, who has become a nun, asks for him to be buried next to his father, much to Harold's annoyance. Albert accidentally tells Harold that Joyce and he aren't related. Harold is furious and in the argument they fly into the sky on their old wagon, pulled by their old horse Hercules, arguing over which one will go to Heaven. Harold - Jake Nightingale Albert - Harry Dickman National Trust Man, Policeman No. 1, Military Policeman - Daniel Beales Joyce, Pamela - Alyson Coote Fiona - Louise Metcalfe Policeman No. 2 - Andy Clarkson Director - Roger Smith Designer - Nigel Hook Lighting designer - Tony Simpson Composer - Christopher Madin Sound designer - Clement Rawling General manager - Armand Gerrard Production manager - Dominic Fraser Comedy Theatre Guide Guardian Review VisitLondon Guide