Emanuel Leutze

Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze was a German American history painter best known for his 1851 painting Washington Crossing the Delaware. He is associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting. Leutze was born in Schwäbisch Gmünd, Württemberg and was brought to the United States as a child, his parents settled first in Fredericksburg, at Philadelphia. The first development of his artistic talent occurred while he was attending the sickbed of his father, when he attempted drawing to occupy the long hours of waiting, his father died in 1831. At 14, he was painting portraits for $5 apiece. Through such work, he supported himself after the death of his father. In 1834, he received his first instruction in art in classes of John Rubens Smith, a portrait painter in Philadelphia, he soon became skilled, promoted a plan for publishing, in Washington, portraits of eminent American statesmen. In 1840, one of his paintings attracted attention and procured him several orders, which enabled him to go to the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf.

Due to his anti-academic attitude, he studied only one year at the academy. Leutze was affected by the painter Lessing. In 1842 he went to Munich, studying the works of Cornelius and Kaulbach, while there, finished his Columbus before the Queen; the following year he visited Rome, making studies from Titian and Michelangelo. His first work, Columbus before the Council of Salamanca was purchased by the Düsseldorf Art Union. A companion picture, Columbus in Chains, procured him the gold medal of the Brussels Art Exhibition, was subsequently purchased by the Art Union in New York. In 1845, after a tour in Italy, he returned to Düsseldorf, marrying Juliane Lottner and making his home there for 14 years. During his years in Düsseldorf, he was a resource for visiting Americans: he found them places to live and work, provided introductions, emotional and financial support. For many years, he was the president of the Düsseldorf Artists' Association. A strong supporter of Europe's Revolutions of 1848, Leutze decided to paint an image that would encourage Europe's liberal reformers with the example of the American Revolution.

Using American tourists and art students as models and assistants, Leutze finished a first version of Washington Crossing the Delaware in 1850. Just after it was completed, the first version was damaged by fire in his studio, subsequently restored, acquired by the Kunsthalle Bremen. On September 5, 1942, during World War II, it was destroyed in a bombing raid by the Allied forces; the second painting, a replica of the first, only larger, was ordered 1850 by the Parisian art trader Adolphe Goupil for his New York branch and placed on exhibition on Broadway in October 1851. It is owned by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. In 1854, Leutze finished his depiction of the Battle of Monmouth, "Washington rallying the troops at Monmouth," commissioned by an important Leutze patron, banker David Leavitt of New York City and Great Barrington, Massachusetts. In 1859, Leutze opened a studio in New York City, he divided his time between New York City and Washington, D. C. In 1859, he painted a portrait of Chief Justice Roger Brooke Taney which hangs in the Harvard Law School.

In a 1992 opinion, Justice Antonin Scalia described the portrait of Taney, made two years after Taney's infamous decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford, as showing Taney "in black, sitting in a shadowed red armchair, left hand resting upon a pad of paper in his lap, right hand hanging limply lifelessly, beside the inner arm of the chair, he sits staring straight out. There seems to be on his face, in his deep-set eyes, an expression of profound sadness and disillusionment." Leutze executed other portraits, including one of fellow painter William Morris Hunt. That portrait was owned by Hunt's brother Leavitt Hunt, a New York attorney and sometime Vermont resident, was shown at an exhibition devoted to William Morris Hunt's work at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston in 1878. In 1860 Leutze was commissioned by the U. S. Congress to decorate a stairway in the Capitol Building in Washington, DC, for which he painted a large composition, Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way, commonly known as Westward Ho!.

Late in life, he became a member of the National Academy of Design. He was a member of the Union League Club of New York, which has a number of his paintings. At age 52, he died in Washington, D. C. of heat stroke. He was interred at Glenwood Cemetery. At the time of his death, a painting, The Emancipation of the Slaves, was in preparation. Leutze's portraits are known for their patriotic romanticism. Washington Crossing the Delaware ranks among the American national iconography. Additional References: Wierich, Jochen. Grand Themes: Emanuel Leutze, "Washington Crossing the Delaware," and American History Painting 240 pages. Hutton, Anne Hawkes. Portrait of Patriotism: Washington Crossing the Delaware. Radnor, Pennsylvania: Chilton Book Company. ISBN 0-8019-6418-0. Irre, Heidrun. Emanuel Gottlob Leutze: Von der Rems zum Delaware, einhorn-Verlag+Druck GmbH, Schwäbisch Gmünd 2016, ISBN 978-3-95747-033-1 New International En

A Princess of Mars

A Princess of Mars is a science fantasy novel by American writer Edgar Rice Burroughs, the first of his Barsoom series. It was first serialized in the pulp magazine All-Story Magazine from February–July, 1912. Full of swordplay and daring feats, the novel is considered a classic example of 20th-century pulp fiction, it is a seminal instance of the planetary romance, a subgenre of science fantasy that became popular in the decades following its publication. Its early chapters contain elements of the Western; the story is set on Mars, imagined as a dying planet with a harsh desert environment. This vision of Mars was based on the work of the astronomer Percival Lowell, whose ideas were popularized in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; the Barsoom series inspired a number of well-known 20th-century science fiction writers, including Jack Vance, Ray Bradbury, Arthur C. Clarke, Robert A. Heinlein, John Norman; the series was inspirational for many scientists in the fields of space exploration and the search for extraterrestrial life, including Carl Sagan, who read A Princess of Mars when he was a child.

John Carter, a Confederate veteran of the American Civil War, goes prospecting in Arizona after the war's end. Having struck a rich vein of gold, he runs afoul of the Apaches. While attempting to evade pursuit by hiding in a sacred cave, he is mysteriously transported to Mars, called "Barsoom" by its inhabitants. Carter finds that he has great strength and superhuman agility in this new environment as a result of its lesser gravity and lower atmospheric pressure, he soon falls in with a nomadic tribe of Green Martians, or Tharks, as the planet's warlike, six-limbed, green-skinned inhabitants are known. Thanks to his strength and martial prowess, Carter rises to a high position in the tribe and earns the respect and the friendship of Tars Tarkas, one of the Thark chiefs; the Tharks subsequently capture Dejah Thoris, Princess of Helium, a member of the humanoid red Martian race. The red Martians inhabit a loose network of city-states and control the desert planet's canals, along which its agriculture is concentrated.

Carter rescues Dejah Thoris from the green men in a bid to return her to her people. Subsequently, Carter becomes embroiled in the political affairs of both the red and green Martians in his efforts to safeguard Dejah Thoris leading a horde of Tharks against the city-state of Zodanga, the historic enemy of Helium. Winning Dejah Thoris' heart, he becomes Prince of Helium, the two live together for nine years. However, the sudden breakdown of the Atmosphere Plant that sustains the planet's waning air supply endangers all life on Barsoom. In a desperate attempt to save the planet's inhabitants, Carter uses a secret telepathic code to enter the factory, bringing an engineer along who can restore its functionality. Carter succumbs to asphyxiation, only to awaken back on Earth, left to wonder what has become of Barsoom and his beloved. John Carter: An Earthman from Virginia with a mysterious background, Captain John Carter fought in the American Civil War on the Confederate side. At the end of the war he goes prospecting for gold in Arizona.

After various adventures, including an attack by Apaches, he is miraculously transported to Mars. During his nine years on that planet he disappears from Earth and is believed dead, but he re-emerges in New York in 1876, settling in a house overlooking the Hudson River, he dies again in 1886, leaving instructions for a fictionalized Burroughs, who refers to Carter as his Uncle Jack, to entomb him in a crypt. He leaves Burroughs with the manuscript of A Princess of Mars, with instructions not to publish it for another 21 years. John Carter states that he has no memory before the age of 30 and has always appeared the same, without aging, he is adept at strategy and all weapons, including firearms and swords. He is clean-shaven, with close-cropped black hair and steel gray eyes, he is honorable and eternally optimistic in the face of certain death. From the Green Martians he received the name "Dotar Sojat," after the first two green warriors whom he slew after his advent on Barsoom, he sometimes uses this name as an alias in books of the Martian series.

Dejah Thoris: A red Martian princess of Helium, she is courageous, in mortal danger or under threat of dishonor by the evil designs of a succession of villains. She is the daughter of Mors Kajak, Jed of Lesser Helium, the granddaughter of Tardos Mors, Jeddak of Helium; as such she is aristocratic and fiercely proud of her heritage. Introduced early in the novel, she becomes the love interest of John Carter; as a central character in the first three Barsoom novels, her frequent capture by various enemies, subsequent pursuit by John Carter, is a constant motivating element in their plots. Tars Tarkas: A fierce Green Martian warrior from the tribe of Thark, he is unusual among his race for his ability to experience tender emotions such as friendship and love, his emotional development stems from a forbidden love affair in his youth, when he secretly began a partnership with a Green Martian woman named Gozava. He befriends John Carter and fights at his side. Carter helps him become Jeddak of Thark and negotiates an alliance between the Green Martians and the city-state of Helium, which results in the destruction of Helium's enemy, Zodanga.

Tars Tarkas more than once displays an ironic sense of humor. Tal Hajus: Jeddak of the Tharks, who years previ

Chinatown, Montreal

Chinatown in Montreal is located in the area of De la Gauchetière Street in Montreal. The neighbourhood contains many Asian restaurants, food markets, convenience stores as well being home to many of Montreal's East Asian community centres, such as the Montreal Chinese Hospital and the Montreal Chinese Community and Cultural Center. CHUM Hospital is located in Chinatown; the area was once home to Montreal's Jewish community, with thousands of Yiddish speaking immigrants settling in the area from 1890 to 1920, as part of a Jewish quarter centred on Saint Laurent Boulevard. The first Chinese immigrants to Montreal arrived in March 1877; the first Chinese that created Montreal's Chinatown belonged to the Chan, Hom and Wong clan groups. Many Taishan Chinese settled in the area because they worked for the railways and it was convenient for these occupations. Among the first Chinese residents was Jos Song Long who opened a laundromat on Craig Street. Most Chinese residents were Cantonese-speaking and had moved from British Columbia and southern China to what had been a residential area.

Many Chinese Montrealers ran laundromats, as owning their own businesses allowed them to avoid the pay discrimination that they had faced in British Columbia. Businesses such as laundromats required geographic proximity to its customers, as a result, this type of business became quite common in Montreal, with Chinatown being commercially oriented. In 1902, the area became known as "Chinatown", referred to several blocks centered on De La Gauchetière Street between Chenneville and Clark Streets. On these streets, many Chinese-owned businesses opened, notably specialty grocers; the neighbourhood was strategically located with modest-sized lots, affordable rents and close proximity to Saint-Laurent Boulevard, which attracted non-Chinese clients. Over the years, Hong Kong Chinese and ethnic Chinese refugees from Vietnam set up shops and restaurants in the area. From the 1970s onwards Montreal's Chinatown was subject to many of the cities' redevelopment plans, reducing the size of Chinatown and its expansion.

This saw to the expropriation and demolition of over 6 acres of private properties in the construction of the Complexe Guy-Favreau and a city block of Chinatown for the construction of Palais des congrès de Montréal as community consultation and negotiations were still on-going. Rezoning of areas east of Saint Laurent from Chinatown in the 1980s has further prevented the growth expansion of Chinatown businesses. Much of Montreal Chinatown is located on La Gauchetière Street and around Saint Urbain Street and Saint Lawrence Boulevard, between René Lévesque Boulevard and Viger Avenue, occupying the area of a city block; the part of La Gauchetière that crosses through Chinatown is a pedestrian walkway, making it more inviting for a stroll. On several weekends during the summer, the street becomes a lively outdoor fair. Prior to 1970, a significant part of Chinatown extended west to Jeannes-Mance Street. Montreal has the most paifang of any Chinatown in Canada, with 4 gates in the: North: 45.508695°N 73.561272°W / 45.508695.

Cantonese seafood and dim sum restaurants and Vietnamese Phở eateries are featured in Chinatown. Many local Asian-Canadians frequent the area since the shops offer products directly imported from Mainland China or Vietnam that are difficult to find elsewhere in town. Aside from its economic importance in the sector, Montreal's Chinatown participate in numerous community activities; the offices of many Chinese newspapers and associations are located in the surrounding buildings. Moreover, the Chinatown houses the biggest Chinese school of Montreal as well as the Montreal Chinese Catholic Mission. Over the years, the Canadian government has continually sought to invest in the area by funding the construction of the Montreal Chinese Hospital and the Montreal Chinese Cultural and Community Center. Like many other Chinatowns, Montreal has the annual Miss Chinese Montreal Pageant, where the winner goes on to compete at the Miss Chinese International Pageant, held in Hong Kong or in mainland China.

Chinatown was the filming location of the 2008 film release Punisher: War Zone. Some parts of Chinatown were redressed with English-language signage to recreate the atmosphere of Chinatown, Manhattan. There are Four Chinese language weekly newspapers operating in Montreal: La Grande Époque Montréal, Les Presses Chinoises, Sept Days, the Luby. A new Chinatown has begun to develop in the area west of Concordia University in the last fifteen years along Sainte Catherine Street between Guy Street and Atwater Avenue, it caters to the growing mainland Chinese and East Asian student and immigrant population in the area. As of 2006, 22.9% of the area's population were of Chinese origin. The area is known as the "Concordia Ghetto", similar to the "McGill Ghetto" found in Milton Parc, a student neighborhood located directly east of McGill. Various Asian-themed malls have arisen along Taschereau Boulevard in the south shore